Gene Symbol: K10
Description: keratin 10
Alias: D130054E02Rik, K10, K1C1, Krt-1.10, Krt1-10, keratin, type I cytoskeletal 10, 56 kDa cytokeratin, CK-10, cytokeratin-10, epidermal keratin 10, intermediate filament protein, keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 10, keratin, type I cytoskeletal 59 kDa, suprabasal cytokeratin 10
Species: mouse
Products:     K10

Top Publications

  1. Reichelt J, Doering T, Schnetz E, Fartasch M, Sandhoff K, Magin A. Normal ultrastructure, but altered stratum corneum lipid and protein composition in a mouse model for epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:329-34 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that, although the formation of lipid layers in the stratum corneum appeared to be normal, its lipid composition is significantly altered in keratin 10-deficient mice. ..
  2. Vidal V, Chaboissier M, Lützkendorf S, Cotsarelis G, Mill P, Hui C, et al. Sox9 is essential for outer root sheath differentiation and the formation of the hair stem cell compartment. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1340-51 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analysis places Sox9 in a molecular cascade downstream of sonic hedgehog and suggests that this gene is involved in basal cell carcinoma. ..
  3. Nadeau J, Berger F, Cox D, Crosby J, Davisson M, Ferrara D, et al. A family of type I keratin genes and the homeobox-2 gene complex are closely linked to the rex locus on mouse chromosome 11. Genomics. 1989;5:454-62 pubmed
    ..and interspecific linkage crosses, several genes encoding type I keratins, including the epidermal keratin K10, were shown to be closely linked to the homeobox-2 complex and the rex locus on mouse chromosome 11...
  4. Mills A, Zheng B, Wang X, Vogel H, Roop D, Bradley A. p63 is a p53 homologue required for limb and epidermal morphogenesis. Nature. 1999;398:708-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to p53, p63 is essential for several aspects of ectodermal differentiation during embryogenesis...
  5. Ezratty E, Stokes N, Chai S, Shah A, Williams S, Fuchs E. A role for the primary cilium in Notch signaling and epidermal differentiation during skin development. Cell. 2011;145:1129-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings unveil temporally and spatially distinct functions for primary cilia at the nexus of signaling, proliferation, and differentiation. ..
  6. List K, Szabo R, Wertz P, Segre J, Haudenschild C, Kim S, et al. Loss of proteolytically processed filaggrin caused by epidermal deletion of Matriptase/MT-SP1. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:901-10 pubmed
    ..The data identify keratinocyte Matriptase/MT-SP1 as an essential component of the profilaggrin-processing pathway and a key regulator of terminal epidermal differentiation. ..
  7. Nijhof J, Braun K, Giangreco A, van Pelt C, Kawamoto H, Boyd R, et al. The cell-surface marker MTS24 identifies a novel population of follicular keratinocytes with characteristics of progenitor cells. Development. 2006;133:3027-37 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the cell-surface marker MTS24 identifies a new reservoir of hair follicle keratinocytes with a proliferative capacity and gene expression profile suggestive of progenitor or stem cells. ..
  8. Maytin E, Lin J, Krishnamurthy R, Batchvarova N, Ron D, Mitchell P, et al. Keratin 10 gene expression during differentiation of mouse epidermis requires transcription factors C/EBP and AP-2. Dev Biol. 1999;216:164-81 pubmed
    ..One of these products, keratin K10, is critical to epidermal integrity, because mutations in k10 lead to abnormal blistering...
  9. Estrach S, Cordes R, Hozumi K, Gossler A, Watt F. Role of the Notch ligand Delta1 in embryonic and adult mouse epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:825-32 pubmed
    ..As in the hypomorph, IFE proliferation was stimulated and expression of K10 and K17 was disturbed. Older mice developed tumors with elements of IFE differentiation...

More Information


  1. Huang J, Dattilo L, Rajagopal R, Liu Y, Kaartinen V, Mishina Y, et al. FGF-regulated BMP signaling is required for eyelid closure and to specify conjunctival epithelial cell fate. Development. 2009;136:1741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A second row of eyelashes is a feature of human lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome, which is associated with mutations in FOXC2...
  2. Jonker L, Kist R, Aw A, Wappler I, Peters H. Pax9 is required for filiform papilla development and suppresses skin-specific differentiation of the mammalian tongue epithelium. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1313-22 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings show that Pax9 regulates appendage formation in the mammalian tongue and identify Pax9 as an important factor for the region-specific differentiation of the surface ectoderm. ..
  3. Reichelt J, Bauer C, Porter R, Lane E, Magin V. Out of balance: consequences of a partial keratin 10 knockout. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 18):2175-86 pubmed
  4. Martinez P, Flores J, Blasco M. 53BP1 deficiency combined with telomere dysfunction activates ATR-dependent DNA damage response. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:283-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In intact mice, combined 53BP1/TRF1 deficiency in stratified epithelia resulted in earlier onset of DNA damage and increased CHK1 phosphorylation during embryonic development, leading to aggravation of skin phenotypes. ..
  5. Stoler A, Kopan R, Duvic M, Fuchs E. Use of monospecific antisera and cRNA probes to localize the major changes in keratin expression during normal and abnormal epidermal differentiation. J Cell Biol. 1988;107:427-46 pubmed
    ..of three antisera, each of which is specific for a single keratin from one of the three different pairs (K1/K10, K14/K5, K16/K6) that are differentially expressed in normal human epidermis and in epidermal diseases of ..
  6. Peng X, Xu P, Chen M, Hahn Windgassen A, Skeen J, Jacobs J, et al. Dwarfism, impaired skin development, skeletal muscle atrophy, delayed bone development, and impeded adipogenesis in mice lacking Akt1 and Akt2. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1352-65 pubmed
  7. Poulson N, Lechler T. Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:915-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have uncovered two important regulatory points controlling ACD in the epidermis and allow a framework for analysis of how external cues control this important choice. ..
  8. Byrne C, Tainsky M, Fuchs E. Programming gene expression in developing epidermis. Development. 1994;120:2369-83 pubmed
    ..patterns of K5 and K14 gene expression parallel proliferative capacity and not stratification; and (5) K1 and K10 mRNAs are first detected as early as E13...
  9. Mill P, Mo R, Fu H, Grachtchouk M, Kim P, Dlugosz A, et al. Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:282-94 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that Shh-dependent Gli2 activation plays a critical role in epithelial homeostasis by promoting proliferation through the transcriptional control of cell cycle regulators. ..
  10. McGowan K, Coulombe P. Onset of keratin 17 expression coincides with the definition of major epithelial lineages during skin development. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:469-86 pubmed
    ..The pattern of K17 gene expression during development has direct implications for the morphogenesis of skin epithelia, and points to the existence of a molecular relationship between development and wound repair. ..
  11. Shimizu Y, Thumkeo D, Keel J, Ishizaki T, Oshima H, Oshima M, et al. ROCK-I regulates closure of the eyelids and ventral body wall by inducing assembly of actomyosin bundles. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:941-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ROCK-I regulates closure of the eyelids and ventral body wall through organization of actomyosin bundles. ..
  12. Krieg T, Schafer M, Cheng C, Filpula D, Flaherty P, Steinert P, et al. Organization of a type I keratin gene. Evidence for evolution of intermediate filaments from a common ancestral gene. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:5867-70 pubmed
    ..Subsequent duplication events may then have formed the three known alpha-helical types and each of their various members. ..
  13. Smyth I, Hacking D, Hilton A, Mukhamedova N, Meikle P, Ellis S, et al. A mouse model of harlequin ichthyosis delineates a key role for Abca12 in lipid homeostasis. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000192 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we identify Abca12 as a mediator of Abca1-regulated cellular cholesterol efflux, a finding that may have significant implications for other diseases of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, including atherosclerosis...
  14. Zenz R, Scheuch H, Martin P, Frank C, Eferl R, Kenner L, et al. c-Jun regulates eyelid closure and skin tumor development through EGFR signaling. Dev Cell. 2003;4:879-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, using three experimental systems, we show that EGFR and HB-EGF are regulated by c-Jun, which controls eyelid development, keratinocyte proliferation, and skin tumor formation. ..
  15. Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Cotsarelis G, Birchmeier W. beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Cell. 2001;105:533-45 pubmed
    ..Further analysis demonstrates that beta-catenin is essential for fate decisions of skin stem cells: in the absence of beta-catenin, stem cells fail to differentiate into follicular keratinocytes, but instead adopt an epidermal fate. ..
  16. Bierkamp C, Schwarz H, Huber O, Kemler R. Desmosomal localization of beta-catenin in the skin of plakoglobin null-mutant mice. Development. 1999;126:371-81 pubmed
    ..Our analysis underlines the central role of plakoglobin for desmosomal assembly and function during embryogenesis. ..
  17. Su X, Cho M, Gi Y, Ayanga B, Sherr C, Flores E. Rescue of key features of the p63-null epithelial phenotype by inactivation of Ink4a and Arf. EMBO J. 2009;28:1904-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the absence of p63, abnormal upregulation of Ink4a and Arf is incompatible with skin development. ..
  18. Mill P, Mo R, Hu M, Dagnino L, Rosenblum N, Hui C. Shh controls epithelial proliferation via independent pathways that converge on N-Myc. Dev Cell. 2005;9:293-303 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Shh signaling controls the rapid and patterned expansion of epithelial progenitors through convergent Gli-mediated regulation. ..
  19. Lopez R, Garcia Silva S, Moore S, Bereshchenko O, Martinez Cruz A, Ermakova O, et al. C/EBPalpha and beta couple interfollicular keratinocyte proliferation arrest to commitment and terminal differentiation. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..of spinous and granular layer markers, whereas C/EBP DNA binding was required for DeltaNp63 downregulation and K1/K10 induction. Finally, loss of C/EBPalpha/beta induced stem cell gene expression signatures in the epidermis...
  20. Fischer H, Langbein L, Reichelt J, Praetzel Wunder S, Buchberger M, Ghannadan M, et al. Loss of keratin K2 expression causes aberrant aggregation of K10, hyperkeratosis, and inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2579-2588 pubmed publisher
    ..suprabasal keratinocytes lacked a regular cytoskeleton and developed massive aggregates of the type I keratin, K10. Aggregate formation, but not hyperkeratosis, was suppressed by the deletion of both K2 and K10, whereas deletion ..
  21. DiTommaso T, Cottle D, Pearson H, Schlüter H, Kaur P, Humbert P, et al. Keratin 76 is required for tight junction function and maintenance of the skin barrier. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004706 pubmed publisher
  22. Dahlhoff M, Muzumdar S, Schafer M, Schneider M. ERBB2 Is Essential for the Growth of Chemically Induced Skin Tumors in Mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:921-930 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ERBB2 may be a promising target for inhibiting human nonmelanoma skin cancer progression. ..
  23. Hoelzl M, Heby Henricson K, Gerling M, Dias J, Kuiper R, Trünkle C, et al. Differential requirement of SUFU in tissue development discovered in a hypomorphic mouse model. Dev Biol. 2017;429:132-146 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that tissue development is differentially affected in response to the reduced SUFU levels, providing novel insight regarding the requirements of different levels of SUFU for proper organogenesis. ..
  24. Mokkapati S, Fleger Weckmann A, Bechtel M, Koch M, Breitkreutz D, Mayer U, et al. Basement membrane deposition of nidogen 1 but not nidogen 2 requires the nidogen binding module of the laminin gamma1 chain. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1911-8 pubmed publisher
  25. Takahashi K, Coulombe P, Miyachi Y. Using transgenic models to study the pathogenesis of keratin-based inherited skin diseases. J Dermatol Sci. 1999;21:73-95 pubmed
    ..A particular emphasis is placed on the role of transgenic mouse models in the past, current, and future studies of these genodermatoses. ..
  26. Chen L, Yang Yen H, Tsai C, Thio C, Chuang H, Yang L, et al. Protein Palmitoylation by ZDHHC13 Protects Skin against Microbial-Driven Dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:894-904 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study suggests that loss of ZDHHC13 in skin impairs the integrity of multiple barrier functions and leads to a dermatitis lesion in response to microbial encounters. ..
  27. Kartasova T, Roop D, Yuspa S. Relationship between the expression of differentiation-specific keratins 1 and 10 and cell proliferation in epidermal tumors. Mol Carcinog. 1992;6:18-25 pubmed
    ..Keratins 1 (K1) and 10 (K10) are commonly expressed in the differentiating layer of benign tumors, but are lost during progression from the ..
  28. Arin M, Roop D. Inducible mouse models for inherited skin diseases: implications for skin gene therapy. Cells Tissues Organs. 2004;177:160-8 pubmed
    ..Whereas mosaic forms have been reported for EHK, which is caused by mutations in the suprabasal keratins K1 or K10, this has never been reported for EBS, which is due to mutations in the basal keratins K5 or K14...
  29. Ruiz S, Segrelles C, Bravo A, Santos M, Perez P, Leis H, et al. Abnormal epidermal differentiation and impaired epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions in mice lacking the retinoblastoma relatives p107 and p130. Development. 2003;130:2341-53 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an essential role for p107 and p130 in the epithelial-mesenchimal interactions. ..
  30. Sevilla L, Latorre V, Sanchis A, Perez P. Epidermal inactivation of the glucocorticoid receptor triggers skin barrier defects and cutaneous inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:361-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results show that epidermal loss of GR provokes skin barrier defects and cutaneous inflammation...
  31. Sato H, Koide T, Masuya H, Wakana S, Sagai T, Umezawa A, et al. A new mutation Rim3 resembling Re(den) is mapped close to retinoic acid receptor alpha (Rara) gene on mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:20-5 pubmed
  32. Sevilla L, Nachat R, Groot K, Klement J, Uitto J, Djian P, et al. Mice deficient in involucrin, envoplakin, and periplakin have a defective epidermal barrier. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1599-612 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, combined loss of the cornified envelope proteins not only impairs the epidermal barrier, but also changes the composition of T cell subpopulations in the skin. ..
  33. Schmidt Ullrich R, Tobin D, Lenhard D, Schneider P, Paus R, Scheidereit C. NF-kappaB transmits Eda A1/EdaR signalling to activate Shh and cyclin D1 expression, and controls post-initiation hair placode down growth. Development. 2006;133:1045-57 pubmed
    ..The strongly decreased number of hair follicles observed in c(IkappaBalphaDeltaN) mice compared with tabby mice, indicates that additional signals, such as TROY, must regulate NF-kappaB activity in specific hair follicle subtypes. ..
  34. Zhong J, Banerjee M, Nikolic M. Pak1 and its T212 phosphorylated form accumulate in neurones and epithelial cells of the developing rodent. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:121-7 pubmed
    ..Pak1T212(PO4) was undetectable in all adult tissues. Together, these data indicate a specific, developmentally regulated role of the Pak1 kinase. ..
  35. Park K, Lee M, Jeon Y, Jeon R, Baek S, Lee H, et al. Skin-Specific Deletion of Mis18α Impedes Proliferation and Stratification of Epidermal Keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:414-421 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we propose that Mis18α is important for epidermal cell proliferation and stratification, because it is required for the deposition of CENP-A at the centromeric nucleosomes. ..
  36. Veniaminova N, Vagnozzi A, Kopinke D, Do T, Murtaugh L, Maillard I, et al. Keratin 79 identifies a novel population of migratory epithelial cells that initiates hair canal morphogenesis and regeneration. Development. 2013;140:4870-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover previously unappreciated long-distance cell movements throughout the life cycle of the hair follicle, and suggest a novel mechanism by which the follicle generates its hollow core through outward cell migration. ..
  37. Weber S, Niessen M, Prox J, Lüllmann Rauch R, Schmitz A, Schwanbeck R, et al. The disintegrin/metalloproteinase Adam10 is essential for epidermal integrity and Notch-mediated signaling. Development. 2011;138:495-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The data identify Adam10 as the major Site-2 processing enzyme for Notch in the epidermis in vivo, and thus as a central regulator of skin development and maintenance. ..
  38. Wolff S, Talos F, Palacios G, Beyer U, Dobbelstein M, Moll U. The alpha/beta carboxy-terminal domains of p63 are required for skin and limb development. New insights from the Brdm2 mouse which is not a complete p63 knockout but expresses p63 gamma-like proteins. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Brdm2 mice are p63alpha/beta isoform-specific knockout mice, gaining unexpected new importance. Our studies identify that p63alpha/beta but not p63gamma are absolutely required for proper skin and limb development. ..
  39. Cheng X, Mihindukulasuriya K, Den Z, Kowalczyk A, Calkins C, Ishiko A, et al. Assessment of splice variant-specific functions of desmocollin 1 in the skin. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:154-63 pubmed
    ..However, a comparison of our mutants with dsc1-null mice suggests that the Dsc1 extracellular domain is necessary to maintain structural integrity of the skin. ..
  40. Ohuchi H, Hori Y, Yamasaki M, Harada H, Sekine K, Kato S, et al. FGF10 acts as a major ligand for FGF receptor 2 IIIb in mouse multi-organ development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;277:643-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FGF10 acts as a major ligand for FGFR2b in mouse multi-organ development. ..
  41. Zhang L, Bhattacharya S, Leid M, Ganguli Indra G, INDRA A. Ctip2 is a dynamic regulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation by integrating EGFR and Notch signaling. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5733-44 pubmed publisher
  42. Ellis T, Smyth I, Riley E, Bowles J, Adolphe C, Rothnagel J, et al. Overexpression of Sonic Hedgehog suppresses embryonic hair follicle morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2003;263:203-15 pubmed
    ..Through a comparison with other mouse models, the characteristics of the HK1-Shh transgenic mice suggest that the precise timing and site of Shh expression are key in dictating the resultant skin and tumour phenotype. ..
  43. Dowling J, Yu Q, Fuchs E. Beta4 integrin is required for hemidesmosome formation, cell adhesion and cell survival. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:559-72 pubmed
  44. Sato H, Koide T, Sagai T, Ishiguro S, Tamai M, Saitou N, et al. The genomic organization of type I keratin genes in mice. Genomics. 1999;56:303-9 pubmed
  45. Matsui T, Kinoshita Ida Y, Hayashi Kisumi F, Hata M, Matsubara K, Chiba M, et al. Mouse homologue of skin-specific retroviral-like aspartic protease involved in wrinkle formation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27512-25 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first evidence that retroviral-like aspartic protease is functionally important in mammalian tissue organization. ..
  46. Chakravarti D, Su X, Cho M, Bui N, Coarfa C, Venkatanarayan A, et al. Induced multipotency in adult keratinocytes through down-regulation of ?Np63 or DGCR8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E572-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a role for ?Np63 in the transcriptional regulation of DGCR8 to reprogram adult somatic cells into multipotent stem cells. ..
  47. Francis J, Thomsen M, Taketo M, Swain A. ?-catenin is required for prostate development and cooperates with Pten loss to drive invasive carcinoma. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003180 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide novel information on cancer progression pathways that give rise to lethal prostate disease in humans...
  48. Rice D, Hansen G, Liu F, Crist M, Newhouse M, Potter D, et al. Keratinocyte migration in the developing eyelid requires LIMK2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47168 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that LIMK2 activity is required for keratinocyte migration in the developing eyelid. ..
  49. Reichelt J, Furstenberger G, Magin T. Loss of keratin 10 leads to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, increased keratinocyte turnover, and decreased tumor formation in mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:973-81 pubmed
    Keratin 10 (K10) is the major protein in the upper epidermis where it maintains keratinocyte integrity. Others have reported that K10 may act as a tumor suppressor upon ectopic expression in mice...
  50. Sanchis A, Bayo P, Sevilla L, Perez P. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonizes EGFR function to regulate eyelid development. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Additionally, we demonstrate that GR regulates epithelial cell migration in vitro by interfering with EGFR-mediated signaling. Overall, GR/EGFR antagonism appears as a major mechanism regulating ocular epithelial development. ..
  51. Reichelt J, Bussow H, Grund C, Magin T. Formation of a normal epidermis supported by increased stability of keratins 5 and 14 in keratin 10 null mice. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1557-68 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the loss of K10, the most prominent epidermal protein, allowed the formation of a normal epidermis in neonatal mice without signs ..
  52. Schacht V, Ramirez M, Hong Y, Hirakawa S, Feng D, Harvey N, et al. T1alpha/podoplanin deficiency disrupts normal lymphatic vasculature formation and causes lymphedema. EMBO J. 2003;22:3546-56 pubmed
    ..These data identify T1alpha/podoplanin as a novel critical player that regulates different key aspects of lymphatic vasculature formation. ..
  53. Egawa G, Osawa M, Uemura A, Miyachi Y, Nishikawa S. Transient expression of ephrin b2 in perinatal skin is required for maintenance of keratinocyte homeostasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2386-95 pubmed publisher
  54. Kiso M, Tanaka S, Saba R, Matsuda S, Shimizu A, Ohyama M, et al. The disruption of Sox21-mediated hair shaft cuticle differentiation causes cyclic alopecia in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Sox21 is a master regulator of hair shaft cuticle differentiation and shed light on the possible causes of human hair disorders. ..
  55. Francone O, Subbaiah P, Van Tol A, Royer L, Haghpassand M. Abnormal phospholipid composition impairs HDL biogenesis and maturation in mice lacking Abca1. Biochemistry. 2003;42:8569-78 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that ABCA1 is necessary for the adequate lipidation of apoAI, which enables the interaction with LCAT and subsequent maturation...
  56. Montenegro M, Rojas M, Dominguez S, Vergara A. Cytokeratin, vimentin and E-cadherin immunodetection in the embryonic palate in two strains of mice with different susceptibility to glucocorticoid-induced clefting. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 2000;20:137-43 pubmed
    ..These results may be related to the loss of cytokeratin expression observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transformation in the embryonic palate. ..
  57. Barrott J, Cash G, Smith A, Barrow J, Murtaugh L. Deletion of mouse Porcn blocks Wnt ligand secretion and reveals an ectodermal etiology of human focal dermal hypoplasia/Goltz syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional deletion of Porcn thus provides an experimental model of FDH, as well as a valuable tool to probe Wnt ligand function in vivo...
  58. Ezhkova E, Pasolli H, Parker J, Stokes N, Su I, Hannon G, et al. Ezh2 orchestrates gene expression for the stepwise differentiation of tissue-specific stem cells. Cell. 2009;136:1122-35 pubmed publisher
    ..They maintain their proliferative potential and globally repressing undesirable differentiation programs while selectively establishing a specific terminal differentiation program in a stepwise fashion. ..
  59. Romano R, Smalley K, Liu S, Sinha S. Abnormal hair follicle development and altered cell fate of follicular keratinocytes in transgenic mice expressing DeltaNp63alpha. Development. 2010;137:1431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence supporting a role for DeltaNp63alpha in actively suppressing hair follicle differentiation and directing IFE cell lineage commitment. ..
  60. Jensen J, Schutze S, Neumann C, Proksch E. Impaired cutaneous permeability barrier function, skin hydration, and sphingomyelinase activity in keratin 10 deficient mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;115:708-13 pubmed
    Point mutations in the suprabasal cytokeratins 1 (K1) or 10 (K10) in humans have been shown to be the cause of the congenital ichthyosis epidermolytic hyperkeratosis...
  61. Zhang H, Hara M, Seki K, Fukuda K, Nishida T. Eyelid fusion and epithelial differentiation at the ocular surface during mouse embryonic development. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:195-204 pubmed
    ..adult mice were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining and by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to keratins K4, K10, K12, and K14. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed that eyelid fusion occurred at E17.5...
  62. Ouellet T, Lussier M, Babai F, Lapointe L, Royal A. Differential expression of the epidermal K1 and K10 keratin genes during mouse embryo development. Biochem Cell Biol. 1990;68:448-53 pubmed
    Induction of genes coding for the K1 and K10 keratins during mouse development was studied by measuring the accumulation of their respective mRNAs in day 10 to 17 embryos using an RNase protection assay...
  63. Okano J, Lichti U, Mamiya S, Aronova M, Zhang G, Yuspa S, et al. Increased retinoic acid levels through ablation of Cyp26b1 determine the processes of embryonic skin barrier formation and peridermal development. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1827-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are important in understanding pathologies associated with abnormal embryonic skin development and barrier dysfunction. ..
  64. Darido C, Georgy S, Wilanowski T, Dworkin S, Auden A, Zhao Q, et al. Targeting of the tumor suppressor GRHL3 by a miR-21-dependent proto-oncogenic network results in PTEN loss and tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data define the GRHL3-PTEN axis as a critical tumor suppressor pathway in SCC. ..
  65. Baris O, Klose A, Kloepper J, Weiland D, Neuhaus J, Schauen M, et al. The mitochondrial electron transport chain is dispensable for proliferation and differentiation of epidermal progenitor cells. Stem Cells. 2011;29:1459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we here provide unequivocal evidence that EPSCs, and probably tissue stem cells in general, are independent of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but still require a functional dynamic mitochondrial compartment. ..
  66. Reichelt J, Breiden B, Sandhoff K, Magin T. Loss of keratin 10 is accompanied by increased sebocyte proliferation and differentiation. Eur J Cell Biol. 2004;83:747-59 pubmed
    Here, we present strong evidence that the targeted deletion of keratin 10 (K10) alters sebocyte differentiation in mice, mediated by an increased proliferation and differentiation of cells located in the periphery of the glands...
  67. Lee D, Prowse D, Brissette J. Association between mouse nude gene expression and the initiation of epithelial terminal differentiation. Dev Biol. 1999;208:362-74 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that whn expression encompasses the transition from a proliferative to a postmitotic state and that whn regulates the initiation of terminal differentiation. ..
  68. Shalom Feuerstein R, Lena A, Zhou H, de la Forest Divonne S, van Bokhoven H, Candi E, et al. ?Np63 is an ectodermal gatekeeper of epidermal morphogenesis. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the earliest recognized action of ?Np63 in the induction epidermal morphogenesis at E11.5. In the absence of p63, a mesodermal program is activated while epidermal morphogenesis does not initiate...
  69. Shen J, Liu B, Sinclair A, Cunha G, Baskin L, Choudhry S. Expression Analysis of DGKK during External Genitalia Formation. J Urol. 2015;194:1728-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of DGKK in hypospadias. ..
  70. Fischer H, Langbein L, Reichelt J, Buchberger M, Tschachler E, Eckhart L. Keratins K2 and K10 are essential for the epidermal integrity of plantar skin. J Dermatol Sci. 2016;81:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the main type II keratins in the suprabasal epidermis where each of them heterodimerizes with the type I keratin K10 to form intermediate filaments...
  71. Krishnaswami S, Kumar S, Ordoukhanian P, Yu B. Fate and plasticity of the epidermis in response to congenital activation of BRAF. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies indicate that early activation of the RAF signaling pathway in the ectoderm has effects on specific steps of epidermal differentiation, which may be amenable to treatment with currently available pharmacologic inhibitors. ..
  72. Kaytes P, McNab A, Rea T, Groppi V, Kawabe T, Buhl A, et al. Hair-specific keratins: characterization and expression of a mouse type I keratin gene. J Invest Dermatol. 1991;97:835-42 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization shows that transcripts of this gene are first found in the relatively undifferentiated proximal cortex area in the keratogenous zone of mouse vibrissae. ..
  73. Fuchs E, Esteves R, Coulombe P. Transgenic mice expressing a mutant keratin 10 gene reveal the likely genetic basis for epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6906-10 pubmed
    ..suggesting that a genetic basis for human EH residues in mutations in genes encoding suprabasal keratins K1 and K10. In addition, we show that (i) stimulation of basal cell proliferation can arise from a defect in suprabasal cells, ..
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