Gene Symbol: Jun
Description: jun proto-oncogene
Alias: AP-1, Junc, c-jun, transcription factor AP-1, AH119, AP1, Jun oncogene, V-jun avian sarcoma virus 17 oncogene homolog, activator protein 1, immediate early, jun A, proto-oncogene c-jun
Species: mouse
Products:     Jun

Top Publications

  1. David J, Sabapathy K, Hoffmann O, Idarraga M, Wagner E. JNK1 modulates osteoclastogenesis through both c-Jun phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4317-25 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of Jun by the Jun kinases (JNKs) modulates the transcriptional activity of AP-1, a dimeric transcription factor typically composed of c-Jun and c-Fos, the latter being essential for osteoclast ..
  2. Kang Y, Wingerd B, Arakawa T, Smith W. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene transcription in a macrophage model of inflammation. J Immunol. 2006;177:8111-22 pubmed
    ..In support of this concept, we found, using inhibitors of Jun kinase and NF-kappaB p50 nuclear localization, that COX-2 gene transcription was completely dependent on phospho-c-..
  3. Wiesner P, Choi S, Almazan F, Benner C, Huang W, Diehl C, et al. Low doses of lipopolysaccharide and minimally oxidized low-density lipoprotein cooperatively activate macrophages via nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein-1: possible mechanism for acceleration of atherosclerosis by subclinical endotoxemia. Circ Res. 2010;107:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In a nuclear factor-DNA binding assay, the cooperative effect of mmLDL and LPS costimulation on c-Jun and c-Fos DNA binding, but not on p65 or p50, was dependent on mmLDL-induced activation of extracellular signal-..
  4. Hasselblatt P, Rath M, Komnenovic V, Zatloukal K, Wagner E. Hepatocyte survival in acute hepatitis is due to c-Jun/AP-1-dependent expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17105-10 pubmed
    ..c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a major mediator of cytokine-induced cell death during hepatitis, but the signaling ..
  5. Nateri A, Spencer Dene B, Behrens A. Interaction of phosphorylated c-Jun with TCF4 regulates intestinal cancer development. Nature. 2005;437:281-5 pubmed
    The proto-oncoprotein c-Jun is a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, the activity of which is augmented in many tumour types...
  6. Maeda S, Kamata H, Luo J, Leffert H, Karin M. IKKbeta couples hepatocyte death to cytokine-driven compensatory proliferation that promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Cell. 2005;121:977-90 pubmed
    ..IKKbeta, therefore, orchestrates inflammatory crosstalk between hepatocytes and hematopoietic-derived cells that promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
  7. Podkowa M, Zhao X, Chow C, Coffey E, Davis R, Attisano L. Microtubule stabilization by bone morphogenetic protein receptor-mediated scaffolding of c-Jun N-terminal kinase promotes dendrite formation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP7 rapidly activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), known regulators of microtubule dynamics, and we show that JNKs associate with the ..
  8. Zhang L, Wang W, Hayashi Y, Jester J, Birk D, Gao M, et al. A role for MEK kinase 1 in TGF-beta/activin-induced epithelium movement and embryonic eyelid closure. EMBO J. 2003;22:4443-54 pubmed
    ..fibers in wild-type mice, but compact cell contacts, lack of polymerized actin and a concomitant impairment in c-Jun N-terminal phosphorylation in MEKK1-deficient mice...
  9. Fernandes K, Harder J, Kim J, Libby R. JUN regulates early transcriptional responses to axonal injury in retinal ganglion cells. Exp Eye Res. 2013;112:106-17 pubmed publisher
    The AP1 family transcription factor JUN is an important molecule in the neuronal response to injury. In retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), JUN is upregulated soon after axonal injury and disrupting JUN activity delays RGC death...

More Information


  1. Diefenbacher M, Sekula S, Heilbock C, Maier J, Litfin M, van Dam H, et al. Restriction to Fos family members of Trip6-dependent coactivation and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent trans-repression of activator protein-1. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1767-80 pubmed publisher
    ..activator protein (AP)-1 describes homodimeric and heterodimeric transcription factors composed of members of the Jun, Fos, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) families of proteins...
  2. Cooper S, Ranger Moore J, Bowden T. Differential inhibition of UVB-induced AP-1 and NF-kappaB transactivation by components of the jun bZIP domain. Mol Carcinog. 2005;43:108-16 pubmed
    ..of both these ultraviolet light B (UVB)-induced transcription factors has been shown with the dominant-negative c-jun mutant, TAM67; however, its mechanism of action has not yet been determined...
  3. MacLaren A, Black E, Clark W, Gillespie D. c-Jun-deficient cells undergo premature senescence as a result of spontaneous DNA damage accumulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9006-18 pubmed
    Mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient for the c-Jun proto-oncogene (c-Jun-/- MEF) undergo p53-dependent premature senescence in conventional culture...
  4. Weston C, Wong A, Hall J, Goad M, Flavell R, Davis R. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase is essential for epidermal growth factor expression during epidermal morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14114-9 pubmed
    The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) group of mitogen-activated protein kinases is activated in response to a wide array of cellular stresses and proinflammatory cytokines...
  5. Raivich G, Bohatschek M, Da Costa C, Iwata O, Galiano M, Hristova M, et al. The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is required for efficient axonal regeneration. Neuron. 2004;43:57-67 pubmed
    ..c-Jun is a component of the heterodimeric AP-1 transcription factor, and c-Jun is highly expressed in response to ..
  6. Gdalyahu A, Ghosh I, Levy T, Sapir T, Sapoznik S, Fishler Y, et al. DCX, a new mediator of the JNK pathway. EMBO J. 2004;23:823-32 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that DCX is a substrate of JNK and interacts with both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and JNK interacting protein (JIP)...
  7. Cooper S, MacGowan J, Ranger Moore J, Young M, Colburn N, Bowden G. Expression of dominant negative c-jun inhibits ultraviolet B-induced squamous cell carcinoma number and size in an SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Mol Cancer Res. 2003;1:848-54 pubmed
    ..the hypothesis that AP-1 activation plays a role in the promotion of UVB-induced skin tumors, a dominant negative c-jun (TAM67) mutant transgene was expressed in the epidermis of SKH-1 hairless mice and bred with mice expressing an AP-..
  8. Hoeck J, Jandke A, Blake S, Nye E, Spencer Dene B, Brandner S, et al. Fbw7 controls neural stem cell differentiation and progenitor apoptosis via Notch and c-Jun. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1365-72 pubmed publisher
    ..accumulation of two SCF(Fbw7) substrates, the transcription factors active Notch1 and N-terminally phosphorylated c-Jun. Genetic and pharmacological rescue experiments identified c-Jun as a key substrate of Fbw7 in controlling ..
  9. Bakiri L, Matsuo K, Wisniewska M, Wagner E, Yaniv M. Promoter specificity and biological activity of tethered AP-1 dimers. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4952-64 pubmed
    b>Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a group of dimeric transcription factors composed of Jun, Fos, and ATF family proteins...
  10. Thompson E, MacGowan J, Young M, Colburn N, Bowden G. A dominant negative c-jun specifically blocks okadaic acid-induced skin tumor promotion. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3044-7 pubmed
    ..One or more of the pathways affected by OA leads to increased signaling via the activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor...
  11. Aguilera C, Nakagawa K, Sancho R, Chakraborty A, Hendrich B, Behrens A. c-Jun N-terminal phosphorylation antagonises recruitment of the Mbd3/NuRD repressor complex. Nature. 2011;469:231-5 pubmed publisher
    AP-1 (activator protein 1) activity is strongly induced in response to numerous signals, including growth factors, cytokines and extracellular stresses...
  12. Meixner A, Karreth F, Kenner L, Penninger J, Wagner E. Jun and JunD-dependent functions in cell proliferation and stress response. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1409-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Jun is essential for fetal development, as fetuses lacking Jun die at mid-gestation with multiple cellular defects in liver and heart...
  13. Liu X, Manzano G, Lovett D, Kim H. Role of AP-1 and RE-1 binding sites in matrix metalloproteinase-2 transcriptional regulation in skeletal muscle atrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:219-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel information gained from this study has improved our understanding of in vivo transcriptional regulation of MMP-2 in skeletal muscle atrophy. ..
  14. Rorke E, Adhikary G, Jans R, Crish J, Eckert R. AP1 factor inactivation in the suprabasal epidermis causes increased epidermal hyperproliferation and hyperkeratosis but reduced carcinogen-dependent tumor formation. Oncogene. 2010;29:5873-82 pubmed publisher
    Activator protein one (AP1) (jun/fos) factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators (c-jun, junB, junD, c-fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2) that are key controllers of epidermal keratinocyte survival and differentiation, and are ..
  15. Arthur Farraj P, Latouche M, Wilton D, Quintes S, Chabrol E, Banerjee A, et al. c-Jun reprograms Schwann cells of injured nerves to generate a repair cell essential for regeneration. Neuron. 2012;75:633-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that activation of the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells is a global regulator of Wallerian degeneration...
  16. Katiyar S, Casimiro M, Dettin L, Ju X, Wagner E, Tanaka H, et al. C-jun inhibits mammary apoptosis in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:4264-74 pubmed publisher
    c-jun, which is overexpressed in a number of human cancers encodes a critical component of the AP-1 complex. c-jun has been shown to either induce or inhibit cellular apoptosis...
  17. Sancho R, Nateri A, de Vinuesa A, Aguilera C, Nye E, Spencer Dene B, et al. JNK signalling modulates intestinal homeostasis and tumourigenesis in mice. EMBO J. 2009;28:1843-54 pubmed publisher
    ..show here that the JNK MAP kinase pathway and one of its most important substrates, the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun, modulates Wnt signalling strength in the intestine...
  18. Parkinson D, Bhaskaran A, Arthur Farraj P, Noon L, Woodhoo A, Lloyd A, et al. c-Jun is a negative regulator of myelination. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:625-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that c-Jun is an important regulator of this plasticity...
  19. Albanito L, Reddy C, Musti A. c-Jun is essential for the induction of Il-1? gene expression in in vitro activated Bergmann glial cells. Glia. 2011;59:1879-90 pubmed publisher
    In the central nervous system (CNS), the c-Jun transcription factor has been mainly studied in neuronal cells and coupled to apoptotic and regenerative pathways following brain injury...
  20. Holmström T, Mialon A, Kallio M, Nymalm Y, Mannermaa L, Holm T, et al. c-Jun supports ribosomal RNA processing and nucleolar localization of RNA helicase DDX21. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7046-53 pubmed publisher
    The molecular mechanisms by which the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun exerts its biological functions are not clearly understood...
  21. Hettinger K, Vikhanskaya F, Poh M, Lee M, de Belle I, Zhang J, et al. c-Jun promotes cellular survival by suppression of PTEN. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:218-29 pubmed
    Activation of c-Jun, a component of the AP-1 family of transcription factors, leads to either promotion or prevention of apoptosis. However, the molecular determinants of c-Jun-mediated cell survival are still unclear...
  22. Behrens A, Sibilia M, David J, Möhle Steinlein U, Tronche F, Schutz G, et al. Impaired postnatal hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in mice lacking c-jun in the liver. EMBO J. 2002;21:1782-90 pubmed
    Mice lacking the AP-1 transcription factor c-jun die at mid-gestation showing heart defects and impaired hepatogenesis. To inactivate c-jun in hepatocytes, mice carrying a floxed c-jun allele were generated...
  23. Eferl R, Ricci R, Kenner L, Zenz R, David J, Rath M, et al. Liver tumor development. c-Jun antagonizes the proapoptotic activity of p53. Cell. 2003;112:181-92 pubmed
    The transcription factor c-Jun mediates several cellular processes, including proliferation and survival, and is upregulated in many carcinomas...
  24. Ruff C, Staak N, Patodia S, Kaswich M, Rocha Ferreira E, Da Costa C, et al. Neuronal c-Jun is required for successful axonal regeneration, but the effects of phosphorylation of its N-terminus are moderate. J Neurochem. 2012;121:607-18 pubmed publisher
    Although neural c-Jun is essential for successful peripheral nerve regeneration, the cellular basis of this effect and the impact of c-Jun activation are incompletely understood...
  25. Katiyar S, Jiao X, Wagner E, Lisanti M, Pestell R. Somatic excision demonstrates that c-Jun induces cellular migration and invasion through induction of stem cell factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1356-69 pubmed
    Cancer cells arise through sequential acquisition of mutations in tumor suppressors and oncogenes. c-Jun, a critical component of the AP-1 complex, is frequently overexpressed in diverse tumor types and has been implicated in promoting ..
  26. Hasselblatt P, Gresh L, Kudo H, Guinea Viniegra J, Wagner E. The role of the transcription factor AP-1 in colitis-associated and beta-catenin-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. Oncogene. 2008;27:6102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor c-Jun/AP-1 (activator protein 1) is involved in inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis and has been proposed as an essential mediator of ..
  27. Ezhkova E, Pasolli H, Parker J, Stokes N, Su I, Hannon G, et al. Ezh2 orchestrates gene expression for the stepwise differentiation of tissue-specific stem cells. Cell. 2009;136:1122-35 pubmed publisher
    ..the Ink4A-Ink4B locus and tempers the developmental rate of differentiation by preventing premature recruitment of AP1 transcriptional activator to the structural genes that are required for epidermal differentiation...
  28. Huang J, Dattilo L, Rajagopal R, Liu Y, Kaartinen V, Mishina Y, et al. FGF-regulated BMP signaling is required for eyelid closure and to specify conjunctival epithelial cell fate. Development. 2009;136:1741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..c-Jun, another key regulator of eyelid closure, was present and phosphorylated in eyelid periderm cells at the time of ..
  29. Zenz R, Eferl R, Kenner L, Florin L, Hummerich L, Mehic D, et al. Psoriasis-like skin disease and arthritis caused by inducible epidermal deletion of Jun proteins. Nature. 2005;437:369-75 pubmed
    ..We propose that the abrogation of JunB/activator protein 1 (AP-1) in keratinocytes triggers chemokine/cytokine expression, which recruits neutrophils and macrophages ..
  30. Passegue E, Jochum W, Behrens A, Ricci R, Wagner E. JunB can substitute for Jun in mouse development and cell proliferation. Nat Genet. 2002;30:158-66 pubmed
    The Jun and JunB components of the AP-1 transcription factor are known to have antagonistic functions...
  31. Sancho R, Jandke A, Davis H, Diefenbacher M, Tomlinson I, Behrens A. F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 regulates intestinal cell lineage commitment and is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:929-41 pubmed publisher
    ..and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (Fbw7) degrades several proto-oncogenes including c-Myc, cyclinE, Notch1, and c-Jun. Fbw7 is the fourth most frequently mutated gene in human colorectal carcinomas and has recently been described as ..
  32. Guinea Viniegra J, Zenz R, Scheuch H, Hnisz D, Holcmann M, Bakiri L, et al. TNFalpha shedding and epidermal inflammation are controlled by Jun proteins. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2663-74 pubmed publisher
    Inducible epidermal deletion of JunB and c-Jun in adult mice causes a psoriasis-like inflammatory skin disease. Increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha play a major role in this phenotype...
  33. Watkins T, Wang B, Huntwork Rodriguez S, Yang J, Jiang Z, Eastham Anderson J, et al. DLK initiates a transcriptional program that couples apoptotic and regenerative responses to axonal injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4039-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that these seemingly contradictory responses to injury are mechanistically coupled through a DLK-based damage detection mechanism...
  34. Stepniak E, Ricci R, Eferl R, Sumara G, Sumara I, Rath M, et al. c-Jun/AP-1 controls liver regeneration by repressing p53/p21 and p38 MAPK activity. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2306-14 pubmed
    The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is a key regulator of hepatocyte proliferation. Mice lacking c-Jun in the liver (c-jun (Deltali*)) display impaired liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH)...
  35. Kollmann K, Heller G, Ott R, Scheicher R, Zebedin Brandl E, Schneckenleithner C, et al. c-JUN promotes BCR-ABL-induced lymphoid leukemia by inhibiting methylation of the 5' region of Cdk6. Blood. 2011;117:4065-75 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor c-JUN and its upstream kinase JNK1 have been implicated in BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis...
  36. Ghosh A, Wang B, Pozniak C, Chen M, Watts R, Lewcock J. DLK induces developmental neuronal degeneration via selective regulation of proapoptotic JNK activity. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:751-64 pubmed publisher
    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is essential for neuronal degeneration in multiple contexts but also regulates neuronal homeostasis...
  37. Behrens A, Haigh J, Mechta Grigoriou F, Nagy A, Yaniv M, Wagner E. Impaired intervertebral disc formation in the absence of Jun. Development. 2003;130:103-9 pubmed
    b>Jun is a major component of the heterodimeric transcription factor AP-1 and is essential for embryonic development, as foetuses that lack Jun die at mid-gestation...
  38. Schonthaler H, Huggenberger R, Wculek S, Detmar M, Wagner E. Systemic anti-VEGF treatment strongly reduces skin inflammation in a mouse model of psoriasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Simultaneous deletion of JunB and c-Jun (DKO*) in the epidermis of adult mice leads to a psoriasis-like phenotype with hyper- and parakeratosis and ..
  39. Tichelaar J, Yan Y, Tan Q, Wang Y, Estensen R, Young M, et al. A dominant-negative c-jun mutant inhibits lung carcinogenesis in mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:1148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We then used a transgenic mouse model directing conditional expression of the dominant-negative c-jun mutant TAM67 in lung epithelial cells to determine the effect of AP-1 inhibition on mouse lung tumorigenesis...
  40. Zenz R, Scheuch H, Martin P, Frank C, Eferl R, Kenner L, et al. c-Jun regulates eyelid closure and skin tumor development through EGFR signaling. Dev Cell. 2003;4:879-89 pubmed
    To investigate the function of c-Jun during skin development and skin tumor formation, we conditionally inactivated c-jun in the epidermis...
  41. Yamaguchi T, Takada Y, Maruyama K, Shimoda K, Arai Y, Nango N, et al. Fra-1/AP-1 impairs inflammatory responses and chondrogenesis in fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:2056-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the Fra-1-containing transcription factor AP-1 inhibits fracture-induced endochondral ossification and bony bridge formation presumably through suppression of inflammation-induced chondrogenesis. ..
  42. Parkinson D, Bhaskaran A, Droggiti A, Dickinson S, D Antonio M, Mirsky R, et al. Krox-20 inhibits Jun-NH2-terminal kinase/c-Jun to control Schwann cell proliferation and death. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:385-94 pubmed
    ..Significantly, a major function of Krox-20 is to suppress the c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-c-Jun pathway, activation of which is required for both proliferation and death...
  43. Fuest M, Willim K, MacNelly S, Fellner N, Resch G, Blum H, et al. The transcription factor c-Jun protects against sustained hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress thereby promoting hepatocyte survival. Hepatology. 2012;55:408-18 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress results in the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways including Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)...
  44. Fontana X, Hristova M, Da Costa C, Patodia S, Thei L, Makwana M, et al. c-Jun in Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration and motoneuron survival via paracrine signaling. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:127-41 pubmed publisher
    The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is a master regulator of the axonal response in neurons. c-Jun also functions as a negative regulator of myelination in Schwann cells (SCs) and is strongly reactivated in SCs upon axonal injury...
  45. Palmada M, Kanwal S, Rutkoski N, Gustafson Brown C, Johnson R, Wisdom R, et al. c-jun is essential for sympathetic neuronal death induced by NGF withdrawal but not by p75 activation. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:453-61 pubmed
    ..transcription-dependent apoptotic response, which is suggested to require activation of the transcription factor c-Jun. Similarly, apoptosis can also be induced by selective activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor...
  46. Tanos T, Marinissen M, Leskow F, Hochbaum D, Martinetto H, Gutkind J, et al. Phosphorylation of c-Fos by members of the p38 MAPK family. Role in the AP-1 response to UV light. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18842-52 pubmed
    ..Among them, the rapid activation of genes coding for two subfamilies of proto-oncoproteins, Fos and Jun, which constitute the AP-1 transcription factor, plays a key role in the subsequent regulation of expression of ..
  47. O Shaughnessy R, Welti J, Sully K, Byrne C. Akt-dependent Pp2a activity is required for epidermal barrier formation during late embryonic development. Development. 2009;136:3423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Akt signaling increased as the barrier wave crossed epidermis and Jun was transiently dephosphorylated...
  48. Hirai S, Cui D, Miyata T, Ogawa M, Kiyonari H, Suda Y, et al. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase activator dual leucine zipper kinase regulates axon growth and neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11992-2002 pubmed
    ..Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) induces activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a molecule that regulates morphogenesis in various organisms...
  49. Schonthaler H, Guinea Viniegra J, Wculek S, Ruppen I, Ximénez Embún P, Guio Carrion A, et al. S100A8-S100A9 protein complex mediates psoriasis by regulating the expression of complement factor C3. Immunity. 2013;39:1171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, inhibition of C3 in the mouse model strongly reduced the inflammatory skin disease. Thus, S100A8-S100A9 can regulate C3 at the nuclear level and present potential new therapeutic targets for psoriasis. ..
  50. Zhang J, Chang J, Huang Y, Lin X, Luo Y, Schwartz R, et al. The FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates outflow tract valve primordium formation by promoting cushion neural crest cell differentiation. Circ Res. 2010;107:1209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates formation of OFT valve primordia by controlling smooth muscle differentiation of cushion NCCs. ..
  51. Blank U, Brown A, Adams D, Karolak M, Oxburgh L. BMP7 promotes proliferation of nephron progenitor cells via a JNK-dependent mechanism. Development. 2009;136:3557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..find that BMP7 directly and rapidly activates JNK signaling in nephron progenitors resulting in phosphorylation of Jun and ATF2 transcription factors...
  52. Eferl R, Sibilia M, Hilberg F, Fuchsbichler A, Kufferath I, Guertl B, et al. Functions of c-Jun in liver and heart development. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:1049-61 pubmed
    Mice lacking the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun die around embryonic day E13.0 but little is known about the cell types affected as well as the cause of embryonic lethality. Here we show that a fraction of mutant E13...
  53. Estus S, Zaks W, Freeman R, Gruda M, Bravo R, Johnson E. Altered gene expression in neurons during programmed cell death: identification of c-jun as necessary for neuronal apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:1717-27 pubmed
    ..A temporal cascade of induced genes included "immediate early genes," which were remarkable in that their induction occurred hours after the initial stimulus of NGF ..