Gene Symbol: Irf4
Description: interferon regulatory factor 4
Alias: AI385587, IRF-4, LSIRF, NF-EM5, Spip, interferon regulatory factor 4, PU.1 interaction partner, Sfpi1/PU.1 interaction partner, lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor, transcriptional activator PIP
Species: mouse
Products:     Irf4

Top Publications

  1. Negishi H, Ohba Y, Yanai H, Takaoka A, Honma K, Yui K, et al. Negative regulation of Toll-like-receptor signaling by IRF-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15989-94 pubmed
    ..induction of proinflammatory cytokines is markedly enhanced in peritoneal macrophages from mice deficient in the Irf4 gene, whereas the induction is inhibited by the ectopic expression of IRF-4 in a macrophage cell line...
  2. Grossman A, Mittrucker H, Nicholl J, Suzuki A, Chung S, Antonio L, et al. Cloning of human lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor (hLSIRF/hIRF4) and mapping of the gene to 6p23-p25. Genomics. 1996;37:229-33 pubmed
    ..To study the role of LSIRF in human lymphocyte development, we have cloned the complete 5.3-kb cDNA for the human homolog (hLSIRF)...
  3. Bajana S, Roach K, Turner S, Paul J, Kovats S. IRF4 promotes cutaneous dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes during homeostasis and inflammation. J Immunol. 2012;189:3368-77 pubmed
    ..investigated whether the development and migration of skin-resident DC were regulated by IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), a transcription factor that is required for the development of CD11b(+) splenic DC...
  4. Raczkowski F, Ritter J, Heesch K, Schumacher V, Guralnik A, Höcker L, et al. The transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 is required for the generation of protective effector CD8+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15019-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the transcription factor IFN Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is crucial for the protective CD8(+) T-cell response to the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes...
  5. Shukla V, Ma S, Hardy R, Joshi S, Lu R. A role for IRF4 in the development of CLL. Blood. 2013;122:2848-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical transcriptional regulator of B-cell development and function...
  6. Honma K, Kimura D, Tominaga N, Miyakoda M, Matsuyama T, Yui K. Interferon regulatory factor 4 differentially regulates the production of Th2 cytokines in naive vs. effector/memory CD4+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15890-5 pubmed publisher
    ..IRF-4 inhibits Th2 cytokine production in naïve CD4(+) T cells, whereas it promotes Th2 cytokine production in effector/memory CD4(+) T cells. ..
  7. Lee C, Kang K, So J, Kwon H, Son J, Song M, et al. A distal cis-regulatory element, CNS-9, controls NFAT1 and IRF4-mediated IL-10 gene activation in T helper cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro binding of NFAT1 and IRF4 to the CNS-9 region was observed by EMSA...
  8. Jiang D, Bian Z, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Liu Y, Zhang R, et al. Role of interferon regulatory factor 4 in the regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertension. 2013;61:1193-202 pubmed publisher
    b>IRF4, a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, was previously shown to be restricted in the immune system and involved in the differentiation of immune cells...
  9. Johnson K, Hashimshony T, Sawai C, Pongubala J, Skok J, Aifantis I, et al. Regulation of immunoglobulin light-chain recombination by the transcription factor IRF-4 and the attenuation of interleukin-7 signaling. Immunity. 2008;28:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..By using Irf4-/-Irf8-/- pre-B cells, we demonstrated that two pathways converge to synergistically drive light-chain ..

More Information


  1. Tominaga N, Ohkusu Tsukada K, Udono H, Abe R, Matsuyama T, Yui K. Development of Th1 and not Th2 immune responses in mice lacking IFN-regulatory factor-4. Int Immunol. 2003;15:1-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, development of CD4(+) T cell subsets differentially depends on IRF-4; induction of T(h)1 response does not depend on IRF-4, while T(h)2 response depends entirely on IRF-4. ..
  2. Hu C, Jang S, Fanzo J, Pernis A. Modulation of T cell cytokine production by interferon regulatory factor-4. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49238-46 pubmed
    ..These studies thus support the notion that IRF-4 represents one of the lymphoid-specific components that control the ability of T lymphocytes to produce a distinctive array of cytokines. ..
  3. Rosenbauer F, Waring J, Foerster J, Wietstruk M, Philipp D, Horak I. Interferon consensus sequence binding protein and interferon regulatory factor-4/Pip form a complex that represses the expression of the interferon-stimulated gene-15 in macrophages. Blood. 1999;94:4274-81 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the formation of cell-type-specific heteromeric complexes between individual IRFs plays a crucial role in regulating IFN responses. ..
  4. Jo S, Schatz J, Acquaviva J, Singh H, Ren R. Cooperation between deficiencies of IRF-4 and IRF-8 promotes both myeloid and lymphoid tumorigenesis. Blood. 2010;116:2759-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) plays important functions in B- and T-cell development and immune response regulation and was originally identified as the product of a proto-oncogene involved in chromosomal translocations in ..
  5. Yao S, Buzo B, Pham D, Jiang L, Taparowsky E, Kaplan M, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 4 sustains CD8(+) T cell expansion and effector differentiation. Immunity. 2013;39:833-45 pubmed publisher
    ..How these phases are transcriptionally regulated is incompletely defined. Here, we report that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), dispensable for early CD8(+) T cell activation, was vital for sustaining the expansion and ..
  6. Chen Q, Yang W, Gupta S, Biswas P, Smith P, Bhagat G, et al. IRF-4-binding protein inhibits interleukin-17 and interleukin-21 production by controlling the activity of IRF-4 transcription factor. Immunity. 2008;29:899-911 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IBP appears to be important in preventing T cell-mediated autoimmunity by ensuring that the production of IL-17 and IL-21 does not occur in response to self-antigens. ..
  7. Brüstle A, Heink S, Huber M, Rosenplänter C, Stadelmann C, Yu P, et al. The development of inflammatory T(H)-17 cells requires interferon-regulatory factor 4. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:958-66 pubmed
    Interferon-regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for the development of T helper type 2 cells...
  8. Lazorchak A, Schlissel M, Zhuang Y. E2A and IRF-4/Pip promote chromatin modification and transcription of the immunoglobulin kappa locus in pre-B cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:810-21 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide genetic evidence in the mouse that E2A gene dosage can influence the development of pre-B cells during the phase of Igkappa gene activation. ..
  9. Kwon H, Thierry Mieg D, Thierry Mieg J, Kim H, Oh J, Tunyaplin C, et al. Analysis of interleukin-21-induced Prdm1 gene regulation reveals functional cooperation of STAT3 and IRF4 transcription factors. Immunity. 2009;31:941-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified an IL-21 response element downstream of Prdm1 that binds the transcription factors STAT3 and IRF4, which are required for optimal Prdm1 expression...
  10. Suzuki S, Honma K, Matsuyama T, Suzuki K, Toriyama K, Akitoyo I, et al. Critical roles of interferon regulatory factor 4 in CD11bhighCD8alpha- dendritic cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8981-6 pubmed
    ..These results imply that IRF-4 and IRF-8 selectively play critical roles in the development of the DC subsets that express them. ..
  11. Man K, Miasari M, Shi W, Xin A, Henstridge D, Preston S, et al. The transcription factor IRF4 is essential for TCR affinity-mediated metabolic programming and clonal expansion of T cells. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:1155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We found here that the transcription factor IRF4 was induced in a manner dependent on affinity for the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and acted as a dose-dependent ..
  12. Ochiai K, Maienschein Cline M, Simonetti G, Chen J, Rosenthal R, Brink R, et al. Transcriptional regulation of germinal center B and plasma cell fates by dynamical control of IRF4. Immunity. 2013;38:918-29 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor IRF4 regulates immunoglobulin class switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation. Its differing concentrations appear to regulate mutually antagonistic programs of B and plasma cell gene expression...
  13. Pedchenko T, Park G, Joo M, Blackwell T, Christman J. Inducible binding of PU.1 and interacting proteins to the Toll-like receptor 4 promoter during endotoxemia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;289:L429-37 pubmed
    ..Endotoxemia in animals caused the similar inducible interaction between PU.1 and IRF4 and the TLR4 promoter in lung tissue of mice that was treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin...
  14. Bollig N, Brüstle A, Kellner K, Ackermann W, Abass E, Raifer H, et al. Transcription factor IRF4 determines germinal center formation through follicular T-helper cell differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8664-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we identify the transcription factor IRF4 as a T-cell intrinsic precondition for T(FH) cell differentiation and GC formation...
  15. Li P, Spolski R, Liao W, Wang L, Murphy T, Murphy K, et al. BATF-JUN is critical for IRF4-mediated transcription in T cells. Nature. 2012;490:543-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is an IRF family transcription factor with critical roles in lymphoid development and in regulating the immune response...
  16. Fanzo J, Hu C, Jang S, Pernis A. Regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis by interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4). J Exp Med. 2003;197:303-14 pubmed
    ..In these studies, we have investigated whether Fas-mediated apoptosis can be regulated by interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4), a lymphoid-restricted member of the IRF family of transcription factors...
  17. Glasmacher E, Agrawal S, Chang A, Murphy T, Zeng W, Vander Lugt B, et al. A genomic regulatory element that directs assembly and function of immune-specific AP-1-IRF complexes. Science. 2012;338:975-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and IRF8 regulate B, T, macrophage, and dendritic cell differentiation. They are recruited to cis-regulatory Ets-IRF composite elements by PU.1 or Spi-B...
  18. Staudt V, Bothur E, Klein M, Lingnau K, Reuter S, Grebe N, et al. Interferon-regulatory factor 4 is essential for the developmental program of T helper 9 cells. Immunity. 2010;33:192-202 pubmed publisher
    Interferon-regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for the development of T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cells...
  19. Mandal M, Powers S, Ochiai K, Georgopoulos K, Kee B, Singh H, et al. Ras orchestrates exit from the cell cycle and light-chain recombination during early B cell development. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show how pre-BCR signaling poises pre-B cells to undergo differentiation after escape from IL-7R signaling. ..
  20. Honma K, Udono H, Kohno T, Yamamoto K, Ogawa A, Takemori T, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 4 negatively regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages in response to LPS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16001-6 pubmed
    ..These results imply that IRF-4 negatively regulates TLR signaling and is inhibitory to the production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to TLR stimulation. ..
  21. Ma S, Pathak S, Mandal M, Trinh L, Clark M, Lu R. Ikaros and Aiolos inhibit pre-B-cell proliferation by directly suppressing c-Myc expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our studies identify a pre-B-cell receptor signaling induced inhibitory network, orchestrated by Ikaros and Aiolos, which functions to terminate pre-B-cell expansion. ..
  22. Ciofani M, Madar A, Galan C, Sellars M, Mace K, Pauli F, et al. A validated regulatory network for Th17 cell specification. Cell. 2012;151:289-303 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that cooperatively bound BATF and IRF4 contribute to initial chromatin accessibility and, with STAT3, initiate a transcriptional program that is then ..
  23. Eguchi J, Wang X, Yu S, Kershaw E, Chiu P, Dushay J, et al. Transcriptional control of adipose lipid handling by IRF4. Cell Metab. 2011;13:249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical determinant of the transcriptional response to nutrient availability in ..
  24. Ma S, Pathak S, Trinh L, Lu R. Interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8 induce the expression of Ikaros and Aiolos to down-regulate pre-B-cell receptor and promote cell-cycle withdrawal in pre-B-cell development. Blood. 2008;111:1396-403 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8 (IRF4,8) suppress surrogate light chain expression and down-regulate pre-BCR in pre-B cells...
  25. Tamura T, Tailor P, Yamaoka K, Kong H, Tsujimura H, O Shea J, et al. IFN regulatory factor-4 and -8 govern dendritic cell subset development and their functional diversity. J Immunol. 2005;174:2573-81 pubmed
    ..Together, IRF-4 and IRF-8 serve as a backbone of the molecular program regulating DC subset development and their functional diversity. ..
  26. Huber M, Brüstle A, Reinhard K, Guralnik A, Walter G, Mahiny A, et al. IRF4 is essential for IL-21-mediated induction, amplification, and stabilization of the Th17 phenotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20846-51 pubmed publisher
    ..that these effects of IL-21 on Th17 differentiation are completely dependent on IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4)...
  27. Grumont R, Gerondakis S. Rel induces interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) expression in lymphocytes: modulation of interferon-regulated gene expression by rel/nuclear factor kappaB. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1281-92 pubmed
    ..This cross-regulation between two different signaling pathways represents a novel mechanism that Rel/nuclear factor kappaB can repress the transcription of IFN-regulated genes in a cell type-specific manner. ..
  28. Matsuyama T, Grossman A, Mittrucker H, Siderovski D, Kiefer F, Kawakami T, et al. Molecular cloning of LSIRF, a lymphoid-specific member of the interferon regulatory factor family that binds the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE). Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:2127-36 pubmed
    ..We report here the characterization of LSIRF, a new member of the IRF gene family cloned from mouse spleen by the polymerase chain reaction using degenerate ..
  29. Lu R, Medina K, Lancki D, Singh H. IRF-4,8 orchestrate the pre-B-to-B transition in lymphocyte development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1703-8 pubmed
    ..On the basis of molecular analysis, we propose that IRF-4,8 function as a genetic switch to down-regulate surrogate light-chain gene expression and induce conventional light-chain gene transcription and rearrangement. ..
  30. Mittrucker H, Matsuyama T, Grossman A, Kundig T, Potter J, Shahinian A, et al. Requirement for the transcription factor LSIRF/IRF4 for mature B and T lymphocyte function. Science. 1997;275:540-3 pubmed
    Lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor (LSIRF) (now called IRF4) is a transcription factor expressed only in lymphocytes...
  31. Mamane Y, Heylbroeck C, Genin P, Algarte M, Servant M, Lepage C, et al. Interferon regulatory factors: the next generation. Gene. 1999;237:1-14 pubmed
    ..The aim of this review is to provide an update on the novel discoveries in the area of IRF transcription factors and the important roles of the new generation of IRFs--particularly IRF-3, IRF-4 and IRF-7. ..
  32. Biswas P, Gupta S, Chang E, Song L, Stirzaker R, Liao J, et al. Phosphorylation of IRF4 by ROCK2 regulates IL-17 and IL-21 production and the development of autoimmunity in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3280-95 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase 2 (ROCK2) becomes activated in mouse T cells under Th17 skewing conditions and phosphorylates interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), a transcription factor that is absolutely required for the production of IL-17 and IL-21...
  33. Satoh T, Takeuchi O, Vandenbon A, Yasuda K, Tanaka Y, Kumagai Y, et al. The Jmjd3-Irf4 axis regulates M2 macrophage polarization and host responses against helminth infection. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:936-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Jmjd3 deficiency affected trimethylation of H3K27 in only a limited number of genes. Among them, we identified Irf4 as encoding a key transcription factor that controls M2 macrophage polarization...
  34. Tussiwand R, Lee W, Murphy T, Mashayekhi M, Kc W, Albring J, et al. Compensatory dendritic cell development mediated by BATF-IRF interactions. Nature. 2012;490:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..factors is based on the shared capacity of their leucine zipper domains to interact with non-AP1 factors such as IRF4 and IRF8 to mediate cooperative gene activation...
  35. Lee C, Hwang W, Maeng K, Kwon H, So J, Sahoo A, et al. IRF4 regulates IL-10 gene expression in CD4(+) T cells through differential nuclear translocation. Cell Immunol. 2011;268:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Interferon regulatory factor IRF4 is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors and plays critical roles in the development of CD4(+) T ..
  36. Sciammas R, Li Y, Warmflash A, Song Y, Dinner A, Singh H. An incoherent regulatory network architecture that orchestrates B cell diversification in response to antigen signaling. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:495 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, this network motif could be used to translate a morphogen gradient into developmental inductive events of varying time, thereby enabling the specification of distinct cell fates. ..
  37. Kaku H, Rothstein T. Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule expression in B cells is regulated through IRF4 in a feed-forward mechanism. J Immunol. 2009;183:5575-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Faim is regulated by IRF4. The Faim promoter contains three IRF binding sites, any two of which promote Faim expression...
  38. Lech M, Weidenbusch M, Kulkarni O, Ryu M, Darisipudi M, Susanti H, et al. IRF4 deficiency abrogates lupus nephritis despite enhancing systemic cytokine production. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..IRF7 modulate processes involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus and lupus nephritis, but the contribution of IRF4, which has multiple roles in innate and adaptive immunity, is unknown...
  39. Eisenbeis C, Singh H, Storb U. Pip, a novel IRF family member, is a lymphoid-specific, PU.1-dependent transcriptional activator. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1377-87 pubmed
    ..The amino-terminal DNA-binding domain of Pip exhibits a high degree of homology to the DNA-binding domains of members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, which includes IRF-1, IRF-2, ICSBP, and ISGF3 gamma. ..
  40. Lohoff M, Mittrücker H, Prechtl S, Bischof S, Sommer F, Kock S, et al. Dysregulated T helper cell differentiation in the absence of interferon regulatory factor 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11808-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that IRF4 directly regulates Th cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo during murine leishmaniasis...
  41. Nayar R, Enos M, Prince A, Shin H, Hemmers S, Jiang J, et al. TCR signaling via Tec kinase ITK and interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) regulates CD8+ T-cell differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2794-802 pubmed publisher
    ..also contribute to this pathway, we investigated the role of the transcription factor, IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4)...
  42. Klein U, Casola S, Cattoretti G, Shen Q, Lia M, Mo T, et al. Transcription factor IRF4 controls plasma cell differentiation and class-switch recombination. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:773-82 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the transcription factor IRF4 is required for the generation of plasma cells...
  43. Sciammas R, Shaffer A, Schatz J, Zhao H, Staudt L, Singh H. Graded expression of interferon regulatory factor-4 coordinates isotype switching with plasma cell differentiation. Immunity. 2006;25:225-36 pubmed
    ..Genome-wide analysis demonstrated that Irf4(-/-) B cells failed to induce the entire Blimp-1-dependent plasma cell program...
  44. Cretney E, Xin A, Shi W, Minnich M, Masson F, Miasari M, et al. The transcription factors Blimp-1 and IRF4 jointly control the differentiation and function of effector regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that the transcription factor IRF4, but not the transcription factor T-bet, was essential for Blimp-1 expression and for the differentiation of all ..
  45. Acquaviva J, Chen X, Ren R. IRF-4 functions as a tumor suppressor in early B-cell development. Blood. 2008;112:3798-806 pubmed publisher
    ..The context dependent roles of IRF-4 in oncogenesis should be an important consideration in developing cancer therapies targeting IRF-4. ..
  46. Ma S, Turetsky A, Trinh L, Lu R. IFN regulatory factor 4 and 8 promote Ig light chain kappa locus activation in pre-B cell development. J Immunol. 2006;177:7898-904 pubmed
    ..stage in IFN regulatory factor (IRF)4 (pip) and IRF8 (IFN consensus sequence binding protein) double mutant mice (IRF4,8(-/-))...
  47. Pathak S, Ma S, Trinh L, Lu R. A role for interferon regulatory factor 4 in receptor editing. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2815-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) and IRF-8 promote immunoglobulin light-chain rearrangement and transcription at the pre-B ..
  48. Muljo S, Schlissel M. A small molecule Abl kinase inhibitor induces differentiation of Abelson virus-transformed pre-B cell lines. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:31-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests a key role for these factors, and perhaps for c-Abl itself, in the regulated activation of Ig light chain gene rearrangement...
  49. Escalante C, Brass A, Pongubala J, Shatova E, Shen L, Singh H, et al. Crystal structure of PU.1/IRF-4/DNA ternary complex. Mol Cell. 2002;10:1097-105 pubmed
    ..Together, the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions provide insights into the stereochemical basis of cooperativity and anti-cooperativity between Ets and IRF factors. ..
  50. El Chartouni C, Schwarzfischer L, Rehli M. Interleukin-4 induced interferon regulatory factor (Irf) 4 participates in the regulation of alternative macrophage priming. Immunobiology. 2010;215:821-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that interferon regulatory factor 4 (Irf4) is strongly induced on RNA and protein level in bone marrow-derived macrophages upon priming ..
  51. Zheng Y, Chaudhry A, Kas A, deRoos P, Kim J, Chu T, et al. Regulatory T-cell suppressor program co-opts transcription factor IRF4 to control T(H)2 responses. Nature. 2009;458:351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that in mouse T(reg) cells, high amounts of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4), a transcription factor essential for T(H)2 effector cell differentiation, is dependent on Foxp3 expression...
  52. Ahyi A, Chang H, Dent A, Nutt S, Kaplan M. IFN regulatory factor 4 regulates the expression of a subset of Th2 cytokines. J Immunol. 2009;183:1598-606 pubmed publisher
    ..When Th2 cells are separated based on levels of IL-10 secretion, IRF4 expression segregates into the subset of Th2 cells expressing high levels of IL-10...
  53. Carreras E, Turner S, Frank M, Knowlton N, Osban J, Centola M, et al. Estrogen receptor signaling promotes dendritic cell differentiation by increasing expression of the transcription factor IRF4. Blood. 2010;115:238-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We now have identified interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), a transcription factor induced by GM-CSF and critical for CD11b(+) DC development in vivo, as ..