Gene Symbol: Irf3
Description: interferon regulatory factor 3
Alias: C920001K05Rik, IRF-3, interferon regulatory factor 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Irf3

Top Publications

  1. Daffis S, Samuel M, Suthar M, Keller B, Gale M, Diamond M. Interferon regulatory factor IRF-7 induces the antiviral alpha interferon response and protects against lethal West Nile virus infection. J Virol. 2008;82:8465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, in these cells the IFN-beta response remained largely intact. Our data suggest that the early protective IFN-alpha response against WNV occurs through an IRF-7-dependent transcriptional signal. ..
  2. Honda K, Yanai H, Negishi H, Asagiri M, Sato M, Mizutani T, et al. IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses. Nature. 2005;434:772-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, all elements of IFN responses, whether the systemic production of IFN in innate immunity or the local action of IFN from plasmacytoid dendritic cells in adaptive immunity, are under the control of IRF-7. ..
  3. Unterholzner L, Keating S, Baran M, Horan K, Jensen S, Sharma S, et al. IFI16 is an innate immune sensor for intracellular DNA. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..ortholog p204 by RNA-mediated interference inhibited gene induction and activation of the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-?B induced by DNA and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)...
  4. Sato M, Suemori H, Hata N, Asagiri M, Ogasawara K, Nakao K, et al. Distinct and essential roles of transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 in response to viruses for IFN-alpha/beta gene induction. Immunity. 2000;13:539-48 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the essential and distinct roles of thetwo factors, which together ensure the transcriptional efficiency and diversity of IFN-alpha/beta genes for the antiviral response. ..
  5. Hoebe K, Du X, Georgel P, Janssen E, Tabeta K, Kim S, et al. Identification of Lps2 as a key transducer of MyD88-independent TIR signalling. Nature. 2003;424:743-8 pubmed
    ..This reveals that an alternative MyD88-dependent 'adaptor X' pathway is present in some, but not all, macrophages, and implies afferent immune specialization. ..
  6. Rudd P, Wilson J, Gardner J, Larcher T, Babarit C, Le T, et al. Interferon response factors 3 and 7 protect against Chikungunya virus hemorrhagic fever and shock. J Virol. 2012;86:9888-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that CHIKV infection of adult mice deficient in interferon response factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/7(-/-)) is lethal...
  7. Daffis S, Szretter K, Schriewer J, Li J, Youn S, Errett J, et al. 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members. Nature. 2010;468:452-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential methylation of cytoplasmic RNA probably serves as an example for pattern recognition and restriction of propagation of foreign viral RNA in host cells. ..
  8. Gleason C, Ordureau A, Gourlay R, Arthur J, Cohen P. Polyubiquitin binding to optineurin is required for optimal activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 and production of interferon ?. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35663-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, the phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and the production of IFN? mRNA and secretion were reduced...
  9. Guo B, Chang E, Cheng G. The type I IFN induction pathway constrains Th17-mediated autoimmune inflammation in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1680-90 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Fitzgerald K, Rowe D, Barnes B, Caffrey D, Visintin A, Latz E, et al. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1043-55 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that TRIF and TRAM both function in LPS-TLR4 signaling to regulate the MyD88-independent pathway during the innate immune response to LPS. ..
  2. Ferguson B, Mansur D, Peters N, Ren H, Smith G. DNA-PK is a DNA sensor for IRF-3-dependent innate immunity. elife. 2012;1:e00047 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we now define a novel anti-microbial function for DNA-PK, a finding with implications for host defence, vaccine development and autoimmunity.DOI: ..
  3. Takaoka A, Wang Z, Choi M, Yanai H, Negishi H, Ban T, et al. DAI (DLM-1/ZBP1) is a cytosolic DNA sensor and an activator of innate immune response. Nature. 2007;448:501-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, DAI (DLM-1/ZBP1) binds to double-stranded DNA and, by doing so, enhances its association with the IRF3 transcription factor and the TBK1 serine/threonine kinase...
  4. Roberts Z, Goutagny N, Perera P, Kato H, Kumar H, Kawai T, et al. The chemotherapeutic agent DMXAA potently and specifically activates the TBK1-IRF-3 signaling axis. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1559-69 pubmed
    ..These findings detail a novel pathway for TBK1-mediated IRF-3 activation and provide new insights into the mechanism of this new class of chemotherapeutic drugs. ..
  5. McWhirter S, Barbalat R, Monroe K, Fontana M, Hyodo M, Joncker N, et al. A host type I interferon response is induced by cytosolic sensing of the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1899-911 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptional profile, including triggering of type I interferons and coregulated genes via induction of TBK1, IRF3, nuclear factor kappaB, and MAP kinases...
  6. Daffis S, Suthar M, Szretter K, Gale M, Diamond M. Induction of IFN-beta and the innate antiviral response in myeloid cells occurs through an IPS-1-dependent signal that does not require IRF-3 and IRF-7. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000607 pubmed publisher
  7. Henry T, Brotcke A, Weiss D, Thompson L, Monack D. Type I interferon signaling is required for activation of the inflammasome during Francisella infection. J Exp Med. 2007;204:987-94 pubmed
    ..This connection underscores the importance of the cytosolic recognition of pathogens and highlights how multiple innate immunity pathways interact before commitment to critical host responses...
  8. Ishii K, Coban C, Kato H, Takahashi K, Torii Y, Takeshita F, et al. A Toll-like receptor-independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:40-8 pubmed
    ..B-DNA activated transcription factor IRF3 and the promoter of the gene encoding interferon-beta through a signaling pathway that required the kinases TBK1 ..
  9. Liehl P, Zuzarte Luis V, Chan J, Zillinger T, Baptista F, Carapau D, et al. Host-cell sensors for Plasmodium activate innate immunity against liver-stage infection. Nat Med. 2014;20:47-53 pubmed publisher liver-resident cells through the adaptor molecule for cytosolic RNA sensors, Mavs, and the transcription factors Irf3 and Irf7, is propagated by hepatocytes in an interferon-?/? receptor-dependent manner...
  10. Sander L, Davis M, Boekschoten M, Amsen D, Dascher C, Ryffel B, et al. Detection of prokaryotic mRNA signifies microbial viability and promotes immunity. Nature. 2011;474:385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of vita-PAMPs triggers a state of alert not warranted for dead bacteria. Vaccine formulations that incorporate vita-PAMPs could thus combine the superior protection of live vaccines with the safety of dead vaccines. ..
  11. Dixit E, Boulant S, Zhang Y, Lee A, Odendall C, Shum B, et al. Peroxisomes are signaling platforms for antiviral innate immunity. Cell. 2010;141:668-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The interferon regulatory factor IRF1 plays a crucial role in regulating MAVS-dependent signaling from peroxisomes. These results establish that peroxisomes are an important site of antiviral signal transduction. ..
  12. Bibeau Poirier A, Gravel S, Clément J, Rolland S, Rodier G, Coulombe P, et al. Involvement of the IkappaB kinase (IKK)-related kinases tank-binding kinase 1/IKKi and cullin-based ubiquitin ligases in IFN regulatory factor-3 degradation. J Immunol. 2006;177:5059-67 pubmed
  13. Ran Y, Liu T, Zhou Q, Li S, Mao A, Li Y, et al. SENP2 negatively regulates cellular antiviral response by deSUMOylating IRF3 and conditioning it for ubiquitination and degradation. J Mol Cell Biol. 2011;3:283-92 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor IRF3-mediated type I interferon induction is essential for antiviral innate immunity...
  14. Prantner D, Darville T, Nagarajan U. Stimulator of IFN gene is critical for induction of IFN-beta during Chlamydia muridarum infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:2551-60 pubmed publisher
  15. Yanai H, Chen H, Inuzuka T, Kondo S, Mak T, Takaoka A, et al. Role of IFN regulatory factor 5 transcription factor in antiviral immunity and tumor suppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3402-7 pubmed
    ..These results, together with the dual regulation of IRF5 gene expression by IFN signaling and p53, may provide a new link in the transcriptional network underlying antiviral immunity and tumor suppression. ..
  16. Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H, Uematsu S, Hoshino K, Kaisho T, et al. TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1144-50 pubmed
    ..TLR4- but not TLR3-mediated MyD88-independent interferon-beta production and activation of signaling cascades were abolished in TRAM-deficient cells. Thus, TRAM provides specificity for the MyD88-independent component of TLR4 signaling. ..
  17. Carrigan S, Junkins R, Yang Y, MacNeil A, Richardson C, Johnston B, et al. IFN regulatory factor 3 contributes to the host response during Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice. J Immunol. 2010;185:3602-9 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa lung infection remain incompletely defined. The transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is primarily associated with host defense against viral infections, and a role of IRF3 in P...
  18. Okabe Y, Kawane K, Nagata S. IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7-dependent and -independent gene induction by mammalian DNA that escapes degradation. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, DNase II(-/-)IRF3(-/-)IRF7(-/-) mice do not suffer from anemia, but they still produce TNF-alpha, and age-dependently develop chronic ..
  19. Zhai J, Gao D, Liu W, Hong R, Qin Y, Ouyang H, et al. Characterization of a novel isoform of murine interferon regulatory factor 3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:384-388 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that mIRF-3a may act as a modulator of mIRF-3 functions in vivo. ..
  20. Sharma S, Deoliveira R, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, et al. Innate immune recognition of an AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Immunity. 2011;35:194-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, AT-rich DNA sensing involved an unknown receptor that coupled to the STING, TBK1 and IRF3-IRF7 signaling pathway...
  21. Kleinman M, Yamada K, Takeda A, Chandrasekaran V, Nozaki M, Baffi J, et al. Sequence- and target-independent angiogenesis suppression by siRNA via TLR3. Nature. 2008;452:591-7 pubmed publisher
  22. Daffis S, Samuel M, Keller B, Gale M, Diamond M. Cell-specific IRF-3 responses protect against West Nile virus infection by interferon-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e106 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that cell-specific IRF-3 responses protect against WNV infection through both IFN-dependent and -independent programs. ..
  23. Stockinger S, Reutterer B, Schaljo B, Schellack C, Brunner S, Materna T, et al. IFN regulatory factor 3-dependent induction of type I IFNs by intracellular bacteria is mediated by a TLR- and Nod2-independent mechanism. J Immunol. 2004;173:7416-25 pubmed
    ..death, in turn, was absolutely dependent upon the presence of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)...
  24. Schmitz F, Heit A, Guggemoos S, Krug A, Mages J, Schiemann M, et al. Interferon-regulatory-factor 1 controls Toll-like receptor 9-mediated IFN-beta production in myeloid dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:315-27 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that TLR-9 activation of mDC and macrophages contributes to antiviral immunity via IRF-1. ..
  25. Saitoh T, Tun Kyi A, Ryo A, Yamamoto M, Finn G, Fujita T, et al. Negative regulation of interferon-regulatory factor 3-dependent innate antiviral response by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:598-605 pubmed
    Recognition of double-stranded RNA activates interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-dependent expression of antiviral factors...
  26. Kim T, Lee J, Jung J, Oh S, Kwak S, Jin X, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 3 activates p53-dependent cell growth inhibition. Cancer Lett. 2006;242:215-21 pubmed
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcriptional factor that plays a crucial role in activation of innate immunity and inflammation in response to viral infection...
  27. Schilte C, Buckwalter M, Laird M, Diamond M, Schwartz O, Albert M. Cutting edge: independent roles for IRF-3 and IRF-7 in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells during host response to Chikungunya infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:2967-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the interplay between nonimmune and immune cells during Chikungunya virus infection and suggest an important role for nonhematopoietic cells as a critical source of IFN-?/?...
  28. Marsh B, Stevens S, Packard A, Gopalan B, Hunter B, Leung P, et al. Systemic lipopolysaccharide protects the brain from ischemic injury by reprogramming the response of the brain to stroke: a critical role for IRF3. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9839-49 pubmed publisher
    ..through its adapter molecule Toll/interleukin receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFNbeta (TRIF) and the IRF3 transcription factor...
  29. Biswas S, Bist P, Dhillon M, Kajiji T, del Fresno C, Yamamoto M, et al. Role for MyD88-independent, TRIF pathway in lipid A/TLR4-induced endotoxin tolerance. J Immunol. 2007;179:4083-92 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations constitute evidence for a role of the TRIF/IFN-beta pathway in the regulation of lipid A/TLR4-mediated endotoxin homotolerance. ..
  30. Gratz N, Siller M, Schaljo B, Pirzada Z, Gattermeier I, Vojtek I, et al. Group A streptococcus activates type I interferon production and MyD88-dependent signaling without involvement of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that infection of macrophages by GAS causes IRF3 (interferon-regulatory factor 3)-dependent, MyD88-independent production of IFN...
  31. Stockinger S, Materna T, Stoiber D, Bayr L, Steinborn R, Kolbe T, et al. Production of type I IFN sensitizes macrophages to cell death induced by Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 2002;169:6522-9 pubmed
    ..The data stress the importance of type I IFN for the course of infections with intracellular bacteria and suggest that factors other than listeriolysin O contribute to macrophage death during Listeria infection. ..
  32. Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H, Hoshino K, Kaisho T, Sanjo H, et al. Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science. 2003;301:640-3 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense. ..
  33. Stetson D, Medzhitov R. Recognition of cytosolic DNA activates an IRF3-dependent innate immune response. Immunity. 2006;24:93-103 pubmed
    ..Activation of type I interferons by cytosolic DNA is TLR independent and requires IRF3 but occurs without detectable activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases...
  34. Ishibashi D, Atarashi R, Fuse T, Nakagaki T, Yamaguchi N, Satoh K, et al. Protective role of interferon regulatory factor 3-mediated signaling against prion infection. J Virol. 2012;86:4947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..elucidate the role of the innate immune system in prion infection, we investigated the function of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor of the MyD88-independent type I interferon (IFN) production pathway...
  35. Chattopadhyay S, Yamashita M, Zhang Y, Sen G. The IRF-3/Bax-mediated apoptotic pathway, activated by viral cytoplasmic RNA and DNA, inhibits virus replication. J Virol. 2011;85:3708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..infected by Sendai virus (SeV), which triggers the cytosolic RIG-I pathway, requires the presence of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)...
  36. Downer E, Clifford E, Gran B, Nel H, Fallon P, Moynagh P. Identification of the synthetic cannabinoid R(+)WIN55,212-2 as a novel regulator of IFN regulatory factor 3 activation and IFN-beta expression: relevance to therapeutic effects in models of multiple sclerosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10316-28 pubmed publisher
    ..axis triggered by TLR3 and TLR4, whereas selectively augmenting TLR3-induced activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and expression of IFN-?...
  37. Honda K, Takaoka A, Taniguchi T. Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors. Immunity. 2006;25:349-60 pubmed
    ..Here, we summarize the recent studies on IRFs, providing a paradigm of how genes are ingeniously regulated during immune responses. We also consider some evolutional aspects on the IFN-IRF system. ..
  38. McWhirter S, Fitzgerald K, Rosains J, Rowe D, Golenbock D, Maniatis T. IFN-regulatory factor 3-dependent gene expression is defective in Tbk1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:233-8 pubmed
    ..induction requires the coordinate activation of several transcription factors, including IFN-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)...
  39. Poeck H, Bscheider M, Gross O, Finger K, Roth S, Rebsamen M, et al. Recognition of RNA virus by RIG-I results in activation of CARD9 and inflammasome signaling for interleukin 1 beta production. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify the CARD9-Bcl-10 module as an essential component of the RIG-I-dependent proinflammatory response and establish RIG-I as a sensor able to activate the inflammasome in response to certain RNA viruses. ..
  40. Sakaguchi S, Negishi H, Asagiri M, Nakajima C, Mizutani T, Takaoka A, et al. Essential role of IRF-3 in lipopolysaccharide-induced interferon-beta gene expression and endotoxin shock. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:860-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, the IRF-3-deficient mice show resistance to LPS-induced endotoxin shock. These results place IRF-3 as a molecule central to LPS/TLR4 signaling. ..
  41. Negishi H, Yanai H, Nakajima A, Koshiba R, Atarashi K, Matsuda A, et al. Cross-interference of RLR and TLR signaling pathways modulates antibacterial T cell responses. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:659-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The RLR-activated transcription factor IRF3 bound dominantly, relative to IRF5, to the Il12b promoter, where it interfered with the TLR-induced assembly of a ..
  42. Hidmark A, McInerney G, Nordström E, Douagi I, Werner K, Liljestrom P, et al. Early alpha/beta interferon production by myeloid dendritic cells in response to UV-inactivated virus requires viral entry and interferon regulatory factor 3 but not MyD88. J Virol. 2005;79:10376-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, mDCs may contribute to the antiviral response activated by the immune system at early time points after infection. ..
  43. Chattopadhyay S, Marques J, Yamashita M, Peters K, Smith K, Desai A, et al. Viral apoptosis is induced by IRF-3-mediated activation of Bax. EMBO J. 2010;29:1762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IRF-3 is a dual-action cytoplasmic protein that, upon activation, translocates to the nucleus or to the mitochondrion and triggers two complementary antiviral responses of the infected cell. ..
  44. O Connell R, Saha S, Vaidya S, Bruhn K, Miranda G, Zarnegar B, et al. Type I interferon production enhances susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Exp Med. 2004;200:437-45 pubmed
    ..monocytogenes-induced splenic apoptosis in IRF3- and IFNAR1-deficient mice...
  45. Stetson D, Ko J, Heidmann T, Medzhitov R. Trex1 prevents cell-intrinsic initiation of autoimmunity. Cell. 2008;134:587-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a cell-intrinsic mechanism for initiation of autoimmunity, implicate the ISD pathway as the cause of AGS, and suggest an unanticipated contribution of endogenous retroelements to autoimmunity. ..
  46. Doni A, Musso T, Morone D, Bastone A, Zambelli V, Sironi M, et al. An acidic microenvironment sets the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 in a tissue repair mode. J Exp Med. 2015;212:905-25 pubmed publisher
  47. Chen H, King K, Tu J, Sanchez M, Luster A, Shresta S. The roles of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in innate antiviral immunity against dengue virus. J Immunol. 2013;191:4194-201 pubmed publisher
  48. Ysebrant de Lendonck L, Tonon S, Nguyen M, Vandevenne P, Welsby I, Martinet V, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 3 controls interleukin-17 expression in CD8 T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we assessed its contribution to T-cell activation. We observed that poly(I:C)-induced IRF3 activation in CD8 T cells represses IL-17 expression in a type I IFN-independent fashion...
  49. Malakhova O, Malakhov M, Hetherington C, Zhang D. Lipopolysaccharide activates the expression of ISG15-specific protease UBP43 via interferon regulatory factor 3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14703-11 pubmed
    ..Coordinated induction of ISG15 and UBP43 suggests that ISG15 conjugation is a dynamic process and that a critical balance of ISG15-modification should be maintained during innate immune response. ..
  50. Ouyang X, Negishi H, Takeda R, Fujita Y, Taniguchi T, Honda K. Cooperation between MyD88 and TRIF pathways in TLR synergy via IRF5 activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;354:1045-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings offer a mechanistic insight into TLR synergy, revealing the hitherto unknown cross talk between the MyD88 and TRIF pathways for a robust TLR-mediated activation of the immune system. ..
  51. Yang K, Shi H, Qi R, Sun S, Tang Y, Zhang B, et al. Hsp90 regulates activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 and TBK-1 stabilization in Sendai virus-infected cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1461-71 pubmed
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) plays a crucial role in mediating cellular responses to virus intrusion. The protein kinase TBK1 is a key regulator inducing phosphorylation of IRF3...
  52. O Connell R, Vaidya S, Perry A, Saha S, Dempsey P, Cheng G. Immune activation of type I IFNs by Listeria monocytogenes occurs independently of TLR4, TLR2, and receptor interacting protein 2 but involves TNFR-associated NF kappa B kinase-binding kinase 1. J Immunol. 2005;174:1602-7 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we provide evidence that both the LM- and TLR-dependent pathways converge at TBK1 to activate type I IFNs, highlighting the central role of this molecule in modulating type I IFNs in host defense and disease. ..
  53. Suhara W, Yoneyama M, Kitabayashi I, Fujita T. Direct involvement of CREB-binding protein/p300 in sequence-specific DNA binding of virus-activated interferon regulatory factor-3 holocomplex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22304-13 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the critical function of these domains in virus-induced gene activation was demonstrated in vivo by using p300 mutants. ..
  54. Koppe U, Högner K, Doehn J, Müller H, Witzenrath M, Gutbier B, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae stimulates a STING- and IFN regulatory factor 3-dependent type I IFN production in macrophages, which regulates RANTES production in macrophages, cocultured alveolar epithelial cells, and mouse lungs. J Immunol. 2012;188:811-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identified an immune sensing pathway detecting S. pneumoniae that triggers a type I IFN response and positively regulates RANTES production. ..
  55. Yanai H, Ban T, Wang Z, Choi M, Kawamura T, Negishi H, et al. HMGB proteins function as universal sentinels for nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses. Nature. 2009;462:99-103 pubmed publisher a more profound defect, accompanied by impaired activation of the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB...
  56. Murphy A, Rosato P, Parker Z, Khalenkov A, Leib D. Synergistic control of herpes simplex virus pathogenesis by IRF-3, and IRF-7 revealed through non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Virology. 2013;444:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines HSV-1 pathogenesis in IRF-3(-/-), IRF-7(-/-) and double-deleted IRF3/7(-/-) (DKO) mice...
  57. Kim S, Lee K, Chin C, Ng S, Pereira N, Xu S, et al. DOK3 is required for IFN-? production by enabling TRAF3/TBK1 complex formation and IRF3 activation. J Immunol. 2014;193:840-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, DOK3 plays a critical and positive role in TLR3 signaling by enabling TRAF3/TBK1 complex formation and facilitating TBK1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 activation and the induction of IFN-? production. ..
  58. Kobayashi H, Kobayashi C, Nakamura Ishizu A, Karigane D, Haeno H, Yamamoto K, et al. Bacterial c-di-GMP affects hematopoietic stem/progenitors and their niches through STING. Cell Rep. 2015;11:71-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define machinery underlying the dynamic regulation of HSPCs and their niches during bacterial infection through c-di-GMP/STING signaling. ..
  59. Zhang X, Zheng Z, Liu X, Shu B, Mao P, Bai B, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis virus induces chemokine RANTES expression via activation of IRF-3 pathway. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:209 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings together provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying RANTES production induced by TBEV, highlighting its potential importance in the process of neuroinflammatory responses to TBEV infection. ..
  60. Sen A, Pruijssers A, Dermody T, García Sastre A, Greenberg H. The early interferon response to rotavirus is regulated by PKR and depends on MAVS/IPS-1, RIG-I, MDA-5, and IRF3. J Virol. 2011;85:3717-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>IRF3 was found to be essential for MAVS/IPS-1-directed ISG transcription and IFN-β secretion during rotavirus ..
  61. Dalet A, Argüello R, Combes A, Spinelli L, Jaeger S, Fallet M, et al. Protein synthesis inhibition and GADD34 control IFN-β heterogeneous expression in response to dsRNA. EMBO J. 2017;36:761-782 pubmed publisher
    ..GADD34 expression, shown here to be dependent on the IRF3 transcription factor, is responsible for a biochemical cycle permitting pulse of IFN synthesis to occur in cells ..