Inhbb

Summary

Gene Symbol: Inhbb
Description: inhibin beta-B
Alias: inhibin beta B chain, activin beta-B chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Inhbb

Top Publications

  1. Neeper M, Lowe R, Galuska S, Hofmann K, Smith R, Elbrecht A. Molecular cloning of an avian anti-Müllerian hormone homologue. Gene. 1996;176:203-9 pubmed
    ..The avian AMH gene is transcribed in both male and female gonads but not in liver, heart, kidney or muscle. ..
  2. Fang J, Wang S, Smiley E, Bonadio J. Genes coding for mouse activin beta C and beta E are closely linked and exhibit a liver-specific expression pattern in adult tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;231:655-61 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate close chromosomal linkage between members of the TGF-beta superfamily as well as a liver-restricted expression pattern for a TGF-beta-like gene. ..
  3. Hecht D, Davis A, Brooks C, Johnson P. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid for chicken inhibin/activin beta(B) subunit. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:1128-34 pubmed
    ..Activin B, as well as other intraovarian signals, may regulate early follicle selection and/or development in the chicken. ..
  4. Hoggard N, Cruickshank M, Moar K, Barrett P, Bashir S, Miller J. Inhibin betaB expression in murine adipose tissue and its regulation by leptin, insulin and dexamethasone. J Mol Endocrinol. 2009;43:171-7 pubmed publisher
    Inhibin betaB (INHBB; coding for the activin betaB subunit) has previously been identified in both human and rodent adipose tissue and using Taqman real-time PCR with specific primers we confirm the expression of INHBB mRNA in rodent ..
  5. Vassalli A, Matzuk M, Gardner H, Lee K, Jaenisch R. Activin/inhibin beta B subunit gene disruption leads to defects in eyelid development and female reproduction. Genes Dev. 1994;8:414-27 pubmed
    ..Altered regulation of beta A activin in beta B-deficient mice may contribute to the mutant phenotype. ..
  6. Brown C, Houston Hawkins D, Woodruff T, Matzuk M. Insertion of Inhbb into the Inhba locus rescues the Inhba-null phenotype and reveals new activin functions. Nat Genet. 2000;25:453-7 pubmed
    The activins (dimers of betaA or betaB subunits, encoded by the genes Inhba and Inhbb, respectively) are TGF-beta superfamily members that have roles in reproduction and development...
  7. Yao H, Aardema J, Holthusen K. Sexually dimorphic regulation of inhibin beta B in establishing gonadal vasculature in mice. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:978-83 pubmed
    ..Inhibin beta B is strategically positioned at the intersection of these opposing pathways. ..
  8. Tomizuka K, Horikoshi K, Kitada R, Sugawara Y, Iba Y, Kojima A, et al. R-spondin1 plays an essential role in ovarian development through positively regulating Wnt-4 signaling. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1278-91 pubmed publisher
  9. Ferguson C, Tucker A, Christensen L, Lau A, Matzuk M, Sharpe P. Activin is an essential early mesenchymal signal in tooth development that is required for patterning of the murine dentition. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2636-49 pubmed
    ..The early requirement for activin signaling in the mesenchyme in incisor and mandibular molar tooth germs must be carried-out in maxillary molar mesenchyme by other independent signaling pathways...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Zhang Y, Cleary M, Si Y, Liu G, Eto Y, Kritzik M, et al. Inhibition of activin signaling induces pancreatic epithelial cell expansion and diminishes terminal differentiation of pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. 2004;53:2024-33 pubmed
    ..Follistatin participates in this process by promoting expansion of precursor cells during pancreas growth. ..
  2. Simmons D, Cross J. Determinants of trophoblast lineage and cell subtype specification in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2005;284:12-24 pubmed
    ..Here, we review recent insights into the molecular pathways regulating trophoblast lineage segregation, stem cell maintenance, and subtype differentiation. ..
  3. Liu C, Parker K, Yao H. WNT4/beta-catenin pathway maintains female germ cell survival by inhibiting activin betaB in the mouse fetal ovary. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10382 pubmed publisher
    ..Activin betaB (Inhbb), a subunit of activins, was upregulated in the Wnt4 and beta-catenin knockout ovaries, suggesting that Inhbb ..
  4. Pihlajoki M, Gretzinger E, Cochran R, Kyrönlahti A, Schrade A, Hiller T, et al. Conditional mutagenesis of Gata6 in SF1-positive cells causes gonadal-like differentiation in the adrenal cortex of mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1754-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings offer genetic proof that GATA6 regulates the differentiation of steroidogenic progenitors into adrenocortical cells. ..
  5. Besson Fournier C, Gineste A, Latour C, Gourbeyre O, Meynard D, Martin P, et al. Hepcidin upregulation by inflammation is independent of Smad1/5/8 signaling by activin B. Blood. 2017;129:533-536 pubmed publisher
  6. Ritvos O, Tuuri T, Erämaa M, Sainio K, Hilden K, Saxen L, et al. Activin disrupts epithelial branching morphogenesis in developing glandular organs of the mouse. Mech Dev. 1995;50:229-45 pubmed
    ..Our results are suggestive of a potential role for the activin-follistatin system as an intrinsic regulator of epithelial branching morphogenesis during mammalian organogenesis. ..
  7. Lafuse W, Zwilling B. Localization of the inhibin beta B gene on mouse chromosome 1. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:399-400 pubmed
  8. Robinson G, Hennighausen L. Inhibins and activins regulate mammary epithelial cell differentiation through mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. Development. 1997;124:2701-8 pubmed
    ..The betaB-deficient mice provide the first genetic evidence for stromal signalling in the adult mammary gland in vivo. ..
  9. Freiman R, Albright S, Zheng S, Sha W, Hammer R, Tjian R. Requirement of tissue-selective TBP-associated factor TAFII105 in ovarian development. Science. 2001;293:2084-7 pubmed
  10. Moore C, Mjaatvedt C, Gearhart J. Expression and function of activin beta A during mouse cardiac cushion tissue formation. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:548-62 pubmed
  11. Gherardi S, Ripoche D, Mikaelian I, Chanal M, Teinturier R, Goehrig D, et al. Menin regulates Inhbb expression through an Akt/Ezh2-mediated H3K27 histone modification. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017;1860:427-437 pubmed publisher
    ..Having found that ActivinB - a TGF? superfamily member encoded by the Inhbb gene - is upregulated in insulinoma tumours caused by Men1 invalidation, we hypothesize that Menin could directly ..
  12. Jenkin G, McFarlane J, de Kretser D. Implication of inhibin and related proteins in fetal development. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1995;7:323-31 pubmed
  13. Hübner G, Hu Q, Smola H, Werner S. Strong induction of activin expression after injury suggests an important role of activin in wound repair. Dev Biol. 1996;173:490-8 pubmed
    ..Our data provide evidence for a novel function of activin and indicate that--besides TGF beta s themselves--other members of this superfamily might also play an important role in tissue repair. ..
  14. Lu R, Matsuyama S, Nishihara M, Takahashi M. Developmental expression of activin/inhibin beta A, beta B, and alpha subunits, and activin receptor-IIB genes in preimplantation mouse embryos. Biol Reprod. 1993;49:1163-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that activin is physiologically involved in the process of early development of mouse embryos. ..
  15. Brown C, Li L, Houston Hawkins D, Matzuk M. Activins are critical modulators of growth and survival. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2404-17 pubmed
    Activins betaA and betaB (encoded by Inhba and Inhbb genes, respectively) are related members of the TGF-beta superfamily...
  16. Bamberger C, Schärer A, Antsiferova M, Tychsen B, Pankow S, Müller M, et al. Activin controls skin morphogenesis and wound repair predominantly via stromal cells and in a concentration-dependent manner via keratinocytes. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:733-47 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that activin affects both stromal cells and keratinocytes in normal and wounded skin and that the effect on keratinocytes is dose-dependent in vivo. ..
  17. Bonomi L, Brown M, Ungerleider N, Muse M, Matzuk M, Schneyer A. Activin B regulates islet composition and islet mass but not whole body glucose homeostasis or insulin sensitivity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, loss of activin B signaling alone does not account for the ALK7-null phenotype, but activin B may have important roles in modulating islet mass, islet number, and the cellular composition of islets. ..
  18. Schrewe H, Gendron Maguire M, Harbison M, Gridley T. Mice homozygous for a null mutation of activin beta B are viable and fertile. Mech Dev. 1994;47:43-51 pubmed
    ..Breeding tests have shown that both male and female homozygous mutant animals are fertile. ..
  19. Farnworth P, Stanton P, Wang Y, Escalona R, Findlay J, Ooi G. Inhibins differentially antagonize activin and bone morphogenetic protein action in a mouse adrenocortical cell line. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3462-71 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, inhibins A and B differentially antagonize the actions of activins and BMPs to control adrenocortical C(19) steroid production. ..
  20. Besson Fournier C, Latour C, Kautz L, Bertrand J, Ganz T, Roth M, et al. Induction of activin B by inflammatory stimuli up-regulates expression of the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin through Smad1/5/8 signaling. Blood. 2012;120:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a dramatic induction of Inhbb mRNA, encoding the activin ?(B)-subunit, in the livers of mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide, slightly ..
  21. Manova K, Paynton B, Bachvarova R. Expression of activins and TGF beta 1 and beta 2 RNAs in early postimplantation mouse embryos and uterine decidua. Mech Dev. 1992;36:141-52 pubmed
    ..TGF beta 1 is expressed in the secondary decidual zone and in developing endothelial cells in the decidua and embryo. TGF beta 2 is expressed in the mesometrial decidua at 6 1/2 days and in the midline of the cranial neural plate. ..
  22. Kaftanovskaya E, Lopez C, Ferguson L, Myhr C, Agoulnik A. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis. FASEB J. 2015;29:2327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the antiandrogenic exposure during early development may similarly result in an increase of FLC in adult testis, leading to abnormal LC differentiation. ..
  23. Wu R, Zeng Y, Chen Y, Lanz R, Wu M. Temporal-Spatial Establishment of Initial Niche for the Primary Spermatogonial Stem Cell Formation Is Determined by an ARID4B Regulatory Network. Stem Cells. 2017;35:1554-1565 pubmed publisher
    ..Stem Cells 2017;35:1554-1565. ..
  24. Barton D, Yang Feng T, Mason A, Seeburg P, Francke U. Mapping of genes for inhibin subunits alpha, beta A, and beta B on human and mouse chromosomes and studies of jsd mice. Genomics. 1989;5:91-9 pubmed
    ..The possibility that the mutation in jsd involves the INH alpha or INH beta B gene was investigated by Southern blotting of DNA from jsd/jsd mice, and no major deletions or rearrangements were detected. ..
  25. Feijen A, Goumans M, van den Eijnden van Raaij A. Expression of activin subunits, activin receptors and follistatin in postimplantation mouse embryos suggests specific developmental functions for different activins. Development. 1994;120:3621-37 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the present data suggest that follistatin, but not one of the known activin forms (A,B,AB) is involved in early postimplantation development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  26. Ageta H, Ikegami S, Miura M, Masuda M, Migishima R, Hino T, et al. Activin plays a key role in the maintenance of long-term memory and late-LTP. Learn Mem. 2010;17:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the level of activin in the brain during the retrieval phase plays a key role in the maintenance of long-term memory. ..
  27. Pangas S, Jorgez C, Tran M, Agno J, Li X, Brown C, et al. Intraovarian activins are required for female fertility. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2458-71 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking ovarian activin betaA were intercrossed to Inhbb homozygous null mice to produce double activin knockouts...
  28. Gokoffski K, Wu H, Beites C, Kim J, Kim E, Matzuk M, et al. Activin and GDF11 collaborate in feedback control of neuroepithelial stem cell proliferation and fate. Development. 2011;138:4131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate a close connection between the signals involved in the control of tissue size and those that regulate the proportions of different cell types...
  29. Lee S, Lee Y, Zimmers T, Soleimani A, Matzuk M, Tsuchida K, et al. Regulation of muscle mass by follistatin and activins. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1998-2008 pubmed publisher
  30. O Shaughnessy P, Gray S. Gonadotropin-dependent and gonadotropin-independent development of inhibin subunit messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the mouse ovary. Endocrinology. 1995;136:2060-5 pubmed
    ..The inhibin alpha-subunit, in contrast, is expressed at a high level during development independent of gonadotropin stimulation. ..
  31. Dutta D, Zameer A, Mariani J, Zhang J, Asp L, Huynh J, et al. Combinatorial actions of Tgf? and Activin ligands promote oligodendrocyte development and CNS myelination. Development. 2014;141:2414-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In spinal cords of ActB-deficient Inhbb(-/-) embryos, apoptosis in the oligodendrocyte lineage is increased and OLP numbers transiently reduced, but ..
  32. van den Eijnden van Raaij A, Feijen A, Lawson K, Mummery C. Differential expression of inhibin subunits and follistatin, but not of activin receptor type II, during early murine embryonic development. Dev Biol. 1992;154:356-65 pubmed
  33. Schmidt D, Ovitt C, Anlag K, Fehsenfeld S, Gredsted L, Treier A, et al. The murine winged-helix transcription factor Foxl2 is required for granulosa cell differentiation and ovary maintenance. Development. 2004;131:933-42 pubmed
    ..In addition to providing a molecular mechanism for premature ovarian failure in BPES, these results suggest that granulosa cell function is not only crucial for oocyte growth but also to maintain follicular quiescence in vivo. ..
  34. Shillingford J, Miyoshi K, Robinson G, Bierie B, Cao Y, Karin M, et al. Proteotyping of mammary tissue from transgenic and gene knockout mice with immunohistochemical markers: a tool to define developmental lesions. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:555-65 pubmed
    ..We propose that the technique of proteotyping will have wide applications in the analyses of defects in other mouse models. ..
  35. Sarraj M, Escalona R, Western P, Findlay J, Stenvers K. Effects of TGFbeta2 on wild-type and Tgfbr3 knockout mouse fetal testis. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:66 pubmed publisher
  36. Lazarini F, Deslys J, Dormont D. Regulation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein, beta actin and prion protein mRNAs during brain development in mouse. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1991;10:343-6 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, slight but significant increases in the mRNA levels of both GFAP and PrP were observed at older stages (360 days). These results are analysed in the light of the implications of PrP and GFAP in scrapie infection models. ..
  37. Paulusma C, Van der Kruijssen C, van den Eijnden van Raaij A. Localization of activin subunits in early murine development determined by subunit-specific antibodies. J Immunol Methods. 1994;169:143-52 pubmed
    ..5- and 4.5-day mouse blastocysts. The results presented here are consistent with a role for different activin forms in the regulation of distinct processes in early murine development. ..
  38. Li Q, Karam S, Coerver K, Matzuk M, Gordon J. Stimulation of activin receptor II signaling pathways inhibits differentiation of multiple gastric epithelial lineages. Mol Endocrinol. 1998;12:181-92 pubmed
    ..This finding may have therapeutic significance...
  39. Hein L, Dzau V, Barsh G. Linkage mapping of the angiotensin AT2 receptor gene (Agtr2) to the mouse X chromosome. Genomics. 1995;30:369-71 pubmed
    ..The mapping of Agtr2 may expand a region of conserved synteny with human Xq26 that includes Hprt. ..
  40. Pangas S. Regulation of the ovarian reserve by members of the transforming growth factor beta family. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:666-79 pubmed publisher
  41. Maresch C, Stute D, Ludlow H, Hammes H, de Kretser D, Hedger M, et al. Hyperglycemia is associated with reduced testicular function and activin dysregulation in the Ins2Akita+/- mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;446:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia in the Ins2Akita+/- mice leads to progressive testicular disruption mediated by testicular activin activity, rather than hormonal dysregulation. ..
  42. Lau A, Nishimori K, Matzuk M. Structural analysis of the mouse activin beta C gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1307:145-8 pubmed
    ..1 kb. The liver-specific expression of activin beta C suggests an important role of dimeric activin beta C in normal liver function. These studies allow us to address the function of activin beta C in mammalian development. ..
  43. Maldonado T, Kadison A, Crisera C, Grau J, Alkasab S, Longaker M, et al. Ontogeny of activin B and follistatin in developing embryonic mouse pancreas: implications for lineage selection. J Gastrointest Surg. 2000;4:269-75 pubmed
  44. Natale D, Hemberger M, Hughes M, Cross J. Activin promotes differentiation of cultured mouse trophoblast stem cells towards a labyrinth cell fate. Dev Biol. 2009;335:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Activin rather than TGF-beta (or Nodal) acts directly on TS cells influencing both TS cell maintenance and cell fate, depending on whether the cells are also exposed to FGF4. ..
  45. Bertolino P, Holmberg R, Reissmann E, Andersson O, Berggren P, Ibanez C. Activin B receptor ALK7 is a negative regulator of pancreatic beta-cell function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that ALK7 plays an important role in regulating the functional plasticity of pancreatic islets, negatively affecting beta-cell function by mediating the effects of activin B on Ca(2+) signaling. ..
  46. Nicol B, Yao H. Gonadal Identity in the Absence of Pro-Testis Factor SOX9 and Pro-Ovary Factor Beta-Catenin in Mice. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings not only provide insight into the mechanism of sex determination, but also identify candidate genes that are potentially involved in disorders of sex development. ..
  47. Wu H, Mezghenna K, Marmol P, Guo T, Moliner A, Yang S, et al. Differential regulation of mouse pancreatic islet insulin secretion and Smad proteins by activin ligands. Diabetologia. 2014;57:148-56 pubmed publisher
  48. Yokota H, Yamada K, Liu X, Kobayashi J, Abe Y, Mizunuma H, et al. Paradoxical action of activin A on folliculogenesis in immature and adult mice. Endocrinology. 1997;138:4572-6 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory action of activin A was in part restored by co-culture with follistatin (100 ng/ml). These results indicate that activin A is folliculogenetic in the prepubertal mouse, but not in adults. ..
  49. Jones R, Kaitu u Lino T, Nie G, Sanchez Partida L, Findlay J, Salamonsen L. Complex expression patterns support potential roles for maternally derived activins in the establishment of pregnancy in mouse. Reproduction. 2006;132:799-810 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a role for maternally derived activins in the support of the pre-implantation embryo, and during gastrulation and embryogenesis. ..
  50. Arai K, Nishiyama T. Developmental changes in extracellular matrix messenger RNAs in the mouse placenta during the second half of pregnancy: possible factors involved in the regulation of placental extracellular matrix expression. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:923-33 pubmed
    ..Transforming growth factor-beta1-3 (Tgfb1-3), activin subunits (Inhba, Inhbb), follistatin (Fst), and follistatin-like 3 (Fstl3) were expressed in the placenta, whereas significant expression ..
  51. Fang J, Yin W, Smiley E, Wang S, Bonadio J. Molecular cloning of the mouse activin beta E subunit gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;228:669-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, activin beta A and beta B are most related to one another, while activin beta C, beta D, and beta E may represent a subset of related sequences. ..
  52. Tao H, Shimizu M, Kusumoto R, Ono K, Noji S, Ohuchi H. A dual role of FGF10 in proliferation and coordinated migration of epithelial leading edge cells during mouse eyelid development. Development. 2005;132:3217-30 pubmed
    ..The expression of activin/inhibin betaB (ActbetaB/Inhbb) and transforming growth factor alpha (Tgfa), previously reported to be crucial for eyelid development, is down-..
  53. Matzuk M, Kumar T, Vassalli A, Bickenbach J, Roop D, Jaenisch R, et al. Functional analysis of activins during mammalian development. Nature. 1995;374:354-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast to observations in lower vertebrates, zygotic expression of activins is not essential for mesoderm formation in mice. ..
  54. Mason A, Niall H, Seeburg P. Structure of two human ovarian inhibins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986;135:957-64 pubmed
  55. Curtain M, Heffner C, Maddox D, Gudis P, Donahue L, Murray S. A novel allele of Alx4 results in reduced Fgf10 expression and failure of eyelid fusion in mice. Mamm Genome. 2015;26:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that eyelid fusion in mice requires the expression of Alx4, accompanied by the loss of normal expression of essential components of the eyelid fusion pathway. ..
  56. M baye M, Hua G, Khan H, Yang L. RNAi-mediated knockdown of INHBB increases apoptosis and inhibits steroidogenesis in mouse granulosa cells. J Reprod Dev. 2015;61:391-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the INHBB gene was knocked down by three RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen vector- mediated recombinant plasmids to explore ..
  57. Wang Y, Bilandzic M, Ooi G, Findlay J, Stenvers K. Endogenous inhibins regulate steroidogenesis in mouse TM3 Leydig cells by altering SMAD2 signalling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;436:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of Inha, Inhba, and Inhbb in TM3 cells was determined by RT-PCR and the production of the inhibin-alpha subunit was confirmed by western ..
  58. Ripoche D, Charbord J, Hennino A, Teinturier R, Bonnavion R, Jaafar R, et al. ActivinB Is Induced in Insulinoma To Promote Tumor Plasticity through a β-Cell-Induced Dedifferentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;36:756-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, this work reveals an unexpected role for activinB in the loss of β-cell maturity, islet plasticity, and progression of insulinoma through its participation in β-cell dedifferentiation. ..
  59. Schmitt J, Hötten G, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Pohl J, et al. Structure, chromosomal localization, and expression analysis of the mouse inhibin/activin beta C (Inhbc) gene. Genomics. 1996;32:358-66 pubmed
    ..Ribonuclease protection analyses reveal that mouse Inhbc is predominantly expressed in adult liver. Embryonic expression is detected beginning from Day 14.5 of gestation. ..
  60. Dragani T, Peissel B, Zanesi N, Aloisi A, Dai Y, Kato M, et al. Mapping of melanoma modifier loci in RET transgenic mice. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2000;91:1142-7 pubmed
  61. Miles D, Wakeling S, Stringer J, Van Den Bergen J, Wilhelm D, Sinclair A, et al. Signaling through the TGF beta-activin receptors ALK4/5/7 regulates testis formation and male germ cell development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54606 pubmed publisher
  62. Sandoval Guzmán T, Göngrich C, Moliner A, Guo T, Wu H, Broberger C, et al. Neuroendocrine control of female reproductive function by the activin receptor ALK7. FASEB J. 2012;26:4966-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Alk7 gene variants may contribute to female reproductive disorders in humans, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. ..
  63. Albano R, Arkell R, Beddington R, Smith J. Expression of inhibin subunits and follistatin during postimplantation mouse development: decidual expression of activin and expression of follistatin in primitive streak, somites and hindbrain. Development. 1994;120:803-13 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a role for activin in mesoderm formation in the mouse embryo, and suggest functions for follistatin in addition to its role as an inhibitor of activin. ..
  64. Magnusson B, Svensson P, Carlsson L, Sjöholm K. Activin B inhibits lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:373-6 pubmed publisher
    Activin B, consisting of two inhibin betaB (INHBB) subunits, is a hormone known to affect gonadal function, reproduction and fetal development...