Gene Symbol: Inhba
Description: inhibin beta-A
Alias: inhibin beta A chain, activin A, activin beta-A chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Inhba

Top Publications

  1. Mithraprabhu S, Mendis S, Meachem S, Tubino L, Matzuk M, Brown C, et al. Activin bioactivity affects germ cell differentiation in the postnatal mouse testis in vivo. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:980-90 pubmed publisher
    The transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligand activin A controls juvenile testis growth by stimulating Sertoli cell proliferation...
  2. Matzuk M, Kumar T, Vassalli A, Bickenbach J, Roop D, Jaenisch R, et al. Functional analysis of activins during mammalian development. Nature. 1995;374:354-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast to observations in lower vertebrates, zygotic expression of activins is not essential for mesoderm formation in mice. ..
  3. Wang X, Suomalainen M, Jorgez C, Matzuk M, Werner S, Thesleff I. Follistatin regulates enamel patterning in mouse incisors by asymmetrically inhibiting BMP signaling and ameloblast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:719-30 pubmed
    ..Hence, ameloblast differentiation is regulated by antagonistic actions of BMP4 and activin A from two mesenchymal cell layers flanking the dental epithelium, and asymmetrically expressed follistatin ..
  4. Archambeault D, Yao H. Activin A, a product of fetal Leydig cells, is a unique paracrine regulator of Sertoli cell proliferation and fetal testis cord expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10526-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to this notion, we have identified activin A, a member of the TGF-beta protein superfamily, as a product of the murine fetal Leydig cells that acts directly ..
  5. Feijen A, Goumans M, van den Eijnden van Raaij A. Expression of activin subunits, activin receptors and follistatin in postimplantation mouse embryos suggests specific developmental functions for different activins. Development. 1994;120:3621-37 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the present data suggest that follistatin, but not one of the known activin forms (A,B,AB) is involved in early postimplantation development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  6. Yao H, Aardema J, Holthusen K. Sexually dimorphic regulation of inhibin beta B in establishing gonadal vasculature in mice. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:978-83 pubmed
    ..Inhibin beta B is strategically positioned at the intersection of these opposing pathways. ..
  7. Hardcastle Z, Mo R, Hui C, Sharpe P. The Shh signalling pathway in tooth development: defects in Gli2 and Gli3 mutants. Development. 1998;125:2803-11 pubmed
    ..These results show an essential role for Shh signalling in tooth development that involves functional redundancy of downstream Gli genes...
  8. Mendis S, Meachem S, Sarraj M, Loveland K. Activin A balances Sertoli and germ cell proliferation in the fetal mouse testis. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:379-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the contribution of activin A to murine fetal testicular development, revealing contrasting outcomes of activin actions on Sertoli cells and ..
  9. Klein O, Minowada G, Peterkova R, Kangas A, Yu B, Lesot H, et al. Sprouty genes control diastema tooth development via bidirectional antagonism of epithelial-mesenchymal FGF signaling. Dev Cell. 2006;11:181-90 pubmed

More Information


  1. Brown C, Houston Hawkins D, Woodruff T, Matzuk M. Insertion of Inhbb into the Inhba locus rescues the Inhba-null phenotype and reveals new activin functions. Nat Genet. 2000;25:453-7 pubmed
    The activins (dimers of betaA or betaB subunits, encoded by the genes Inhba and Inhbb, respectively) are TGF-beta superfamily members that have roles in reproduction and development...
  2. Brown C, Li L, Houston Hawkins D, Matzuk M. Activins are critical modulators of growth and survival. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2404-17 pubmed
    Activins betaA and betaB (encoded by Inhba and Inhbb genes, respectively) are related members of the TGF-beta superfamily...
  3. Zhang H, Bailey J, Coss D, Lin B, Tsutsumi R, Lawson M, et al. Activin modulates the transcriptional response of LbetaT2 cells to gonadotropin-releasing hormone and alters cellular proliferation. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2909-30 pubmed
  4. Cho S, Yao Z, Wang S, Alban R, Barbers R, French S, et al. Regulation of activin A expression in mast cells and asthma: its effect on the proliferation of human airway smooth muscle cells. J Immunol. 2003;170:4045-52 pubmed
    b>Activin A, a homodimeric protein (betaAbetaA) and a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, is involved in the inflammatory repair process...
  5. Hein L, Dzau V, Barsh G. Linkage mapping of the angiotensin AT2 receptor gene (Agtr2) to the mouse X chromosome. Genomics. 1995;30:369-71 pubmed
    ..The mapping of Agtr2 may expand a region of conserved synteny with human Xq26 that includes Hprt. ..
  6. Lobach D, Rochelle J, Watson M, Seldin M, Blackshear P. Nucleotide sequence, expression, and chromosomal mapping of Mrp and mapping of five related sequences. Genomics. 1993;17:194-204 pubmed
    ..Three of these related sequences have been cloned, and all appear to represent pseudogenes. ..
  7. Albano R, Groome N, Smith J. Activins are expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos and in ES and EC cells and are regulated on their differentiation. Development. 1993;117:711-23 pubmed
    ..When ES and EC cells are induced to differentiate, levels of activin fall dramatically. These results are consistent with a role for activins in mesoderm formation and other steps of early mouse development. ..
  8. Wang Q, Yu Y, Zhang P, Chen Y, Li C, Chen J, et al. The crucial role of activin A/ALK4 pathway in the pathogenesis of Ang-II-induced atrial fibrosis and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation. Basic Res Cardiol. 2017;112:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have implicated both activin A and its specific downstream component activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) in stimulating fibrosis in non-..
  9. Davis A, Matzuk M, Reh T. Activin A promotes progenitor differentiation into photoreceptors in rodent retina. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2000;15:11-21 pubmed
    ..We found that activin A treatment of embryonic day 18 rat retinal cultures causes the progenitor cells in the cultures to exit the cell ..
  10. Munz B, Tretter Y, Hertel M, Engelhardt F, Alzheimer C, Werner S. The roles of activins in repair processes of the skin and the brain. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;180:169-77 pubmed
    ..To further analyze the role of activin A in skin morphogenesis and wound repair, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress activin A under the ..
  11. Lee S, Lee Y, Zimmers T, Soleimani A, Matzuk M, Tsuchida K, et al. Regulation of muscle mass by follistatin and activins. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1998-2008 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present genetic evidence suggesting that activin A may be one of the ligands that is regulated by follistatin and that functions with myostatin to limit muscle ..
  12. Ting C, McQueen P, Pandya N, Lin T, Yang M, Reddy O, et al. Photoreceptor-derived activin promotes dendritic termination and restricts the receptive fields of first-order interneurons in Drosophila. Neuron. 2014;81:830-846 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that afferent-derived Activin regulates the dendritic field size of their postsynaptic partners to ensure appropriate synaptic partnership. ..
  13. Takatalo M, Tummers M, Thesleff I, Ronnholm R. Novel Golgi protein, GoPro49, is a specific dental follicle marker. J Dent Res. 2009;88:534-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Bsp1, bone sialoprotein 1; GoPro49, Golgi protein 49 kDa; E16, embryonic day 16; HERS, Hertwig's epithelial root sheath; PDL, periodontal ligament; dpn, day post-natal. ..
  14. Hudson J, Chen L, Fode C, Binkert C, Dennis J. Sak kinase gene structure and transcriptional regulation. Gene. 2000;241:65-73 pubmed
    ..Using various Sak promoter/luciferase constructs, the core promoter region required for expression was located within 400bp of the message Cap site, and sequence further 5' strongly suppressed transcription. ..
  15. Oka C, Tsujimoto R, Kajikawa M, Koshiba Takeuchi K, Ina J, Yano M, et al. HtrA1 serine protease inhibits signaling mediated by Tgfbeta family proteins. Development. 2004;131:1041-53 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that HtrA1 protease is a novel inhibitor of Tgfbeta family members. ..
  16. Ferguson C, Tucker A, Heikinheimo K, Nomura M, Oh P, Li E, et al. The role of effectors of the activin signalling pathway, activin receptors IIA and IIB, and Smad2, in patterning of tooth development. Development. 2001;128:4605-13 pubmed
    ..Activin, thus, has an essential role in early development of incisor and mandibular molar teeth but this pathway is not required for development of maxillary molars. ..
  17. Looyenga B, Hammer G. Origin and identity of adrenocortical tumors in inhibin knockout mice: implications for cellular plasticity in the adrenal cortex. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2848-63 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Inha-/- adrenocortical tumors cells are derived from pluripotent adrenocortical progenitor cells that adopt a gonadal fate due to the convergent loss of inhibin and chronic exposure to elevated gonadotropins...
  18. McDowall M, Edwards N, Jahoda C, Hynd P. The role of activins and follistatins in skin and hair follicle development and function. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2008;19:415-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarises the activin signal transduction pathways and the interactions between activins and other TGFbeta signalling systems during hair follicle formation, hair growth cycling, skin function and wound healing. ..
  19. Vallet S, Mukherjee S, Vaghela N, Hideshima T, Fulciniti M, Pozzi S, et al. Activin A promotes multiple myeloma-induced osteolysis and is a promising target for myeloma bone disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify activin A, a TGF-beta family member, as a therapeutically amenable target exploited by multiple myeloma (MM) to alter its ..
  20. Robinson G, Hennighausen L. Inhibins and activins regulate mammary epithelial cell differentiation through mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. Development. 1997;124:2701-8 pubmed
    ..The betaB-deficient mice provide the first genetic evidence for stromal signalling in the adult mammary gland in vivo. ..
  21. Sun Z, Li Z, Zhang Y. Adult testicular dysgenesis of Inhba conditional knockout mice may also be caused by disruption of cross-talk between Leydig cells and germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:E135; author reply E136 pubmed publisher
  22. Antsiferova M, Klatte J, Bodo E, Paus R, Jorcano J, Matzuk M, et al. Keratinocyte-derived follistatin regulates epidermal homeostasis and wound repair. Lab Invest. 2009;89:131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..However, granulation tissue formation and scarring were not affected. These results demonstrate that selective activation of activin in the epidermis enhances reepithelialization without affecting the quality of the healed wound. ..
  23. Link A, Kurinna S, Havlicek S, Lehnert S, Reichel M, Kornhuber J, et al. Kdm6b and Pmepa1 as Targets of Bioelectrically and Behaviorally Induced Activin A Signaling. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:4210-4225 pubmed publisher
    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member activin A exerts multiple neurotrophic and protective effects in the brain...
  24. Pihlajoki M, Gretzinger E, Cochran R, Kyrönlahti A, Schrade A, Hiller T, et al. Conditional mutagenesis of Gata6 in SF1-positive cells causes gonadal-like differentiation in the adrenal cortex of mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1754-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings offer genetic proof that GATA6 regulates the differentiation of steroidogenic progenitors into adrenocortical cells. ..
  25. Huh S, Närhi K, Lindfors P, Häärä O, Yang L, Ornitz D, et al. Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles. Genes Dev. 2013;27:450-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Willems E, Leyns L. Patterning of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived pan-mesoderm by Activin A/Nodal and Bmp4 signaling requires Fibroblast Growth Factor activity. Differentiation. 2008;76:745-59 pubmed publisher
    ..and mesoderm derivatives such as cardiac tissue or hemangioblasts has been demonstrated; however, the roles of Activin A/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in the early patterning of ..
  27. Chen J, Walton K, Winbanks C, Murphy K, Thomson R, Makanji Y, et al. Elevated expression of activins promotes muscle wasting and cachexia. FASEB J. 2014;28:1711-23 pubmed publisher
    ..induces cachexia, we used recombinant serotype 6 adeno-associated virus (rAAV6) vectors to increase circulating activin A levels in C57BL/6 mice. While mice injected with control vector gained ~10% of their starting body mass (3.8±0...
  28. Sarraj M, Escalona R, Western P, Findlay J, Stenvers K. Effects of TGFbeta2 on wild-type and Tgfbr3 knockout mouse fetal testis. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:66 pubmed publisher
  29. Natale D, Hemberger M, Hughes M, Cross J. Activin promotes differentiation of cultured mouse trophoblast stem cells towards a labyrinth cell fate. Dev Biol. 2009;335:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Activin rather than TGF-beta (or Nodal) acts directly on TS cells influencing both TS cell maintenance and cell fate, depending on whether the cells are also exposed to FGF4. ..
  30. Johansson B, Wiles M. Evidence for involvement of activin A and bone morphogenetic protein 4 in mammalian mesoderm and hematopoietic development. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:141-51 pubmed
    ..In CDM, this differentiation is responsive to TGF-beta family members in a concentration-dependent manner, with activin A mediating the formation of dorsoanterior-like mesoderm and bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediating the formation ..
  31. Aberg T, Wang X, Kim J, Yamashiro T, Bei M, Rice R, et al. Runx2 mediates FGF signaling from epithelium to mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;270:76-93 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Runx2 mediates the functions of epithelial FGF signals regulating Fgf3 expression in the dental mesenchyme and that Fgf3 may be a direct target gene of Runx2. ..
  32. Fang J, Wang S, Smiley E, Bonadio J. Genes coding for mouse activin beta C and beta E are closely linked and exhibit a liver-specific expression pattern in adult tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;231:655-61 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate close chromosomal linkage between members of the TGF-beta superfamily as well as a liver-restricted expression pattern for a TGF-beta-like gene. ..
  33. Bonomi L, Brown M, Ungerleider N, Muse M, Matzuk M, Schneyer A. Activin B regulates islet composition and islet mass but not whole body glucose homeostasis or insulin sensitivity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..have been proposed to play distinct roles in regulating pancreatic islet function and glucose homeostasis, with activin A acting to enhance islet function and insulin release while activin B antagonizes these actions...
  34. Valenti G, Quinn H, Heynen G, Lan L, Holland J, Vogel R, et al. Cancer Stem Cells Regulate Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts via Activation of Hedgehog Signaling in Mammary Gland Tumors. Cancer Res. 2017;77:2134-2147 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting CAFs with Hedgehog inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(8); 2134-47. ©2017 AACR. ..
  35. Wang X, Suomalainen M, Jorgez C, Matzuk M, Wankell M, Werner S, et al. Modulation of activin/bone morphogenetic protein signaling by follistatin is required for the morphogenesis of mouse molar teeth. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:98-108 pubmed
    ..We propose that finely tuned antagonistic effects between follistatin and TGF beta superfamily signals are critical for enamel knot formation and function, as well as for patterning of tooth cusps. ..
  36. Hübner G, Hu Q, Smola H, Werner S. Strong induction of activin expression after injury suggests an important role of activin in wound repair. Dev Biol. 1996;173:490-8 pubmed
    ..We found a large induction of activin A and a minor induction of activin B mRNA expression 1 day after skin injury and high expression levels of activin ..
  37. Piprek R, Kolasa M, Podkowa D, Kloc M, Kubiak J. Cell adhesion molecules expression pattern indicates that somatic cells arbitrate gonadal sex of differentiating bipotential fetal mouse gonad. Mech Dev. 2017;147:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that differential CAMs expression pattern in the somatic cells but not in the germ line arbitrates structural organization of gonadal anlagen into testis or ovary. ..
  38. Shoham T, Parameswaran R, Shav Tal Y, Barda Saad M, Zipori D. The mesenchymal stroma negatively regulates B cell lymphopoiesis through the expression of activin A. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;996:245-60 pubmed
    The negative control of B cell generation is only partially resolved. We assessed the role of activin A in regulation of B lymphopoiesis in view of its specific inhibitory effects on tumor B lineage cells...
  39. Juuri E, Saito K, Lefebvre S, Michon F. Establishment of crown-root domain borders in mouse incisor. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of different mechanisms to establish domain borders gives indications of the incisor functional asymmetry. ..
  40. Jhaveri S, Erzurumlu R, Chiaia N, Kumar T, Matzuk M. Defective whisker follicles and altered brainstem patterns in activin and follistatin knockout mice. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998;12:206-19 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the notion that formation of barrelettes depends on neural activity initiated by the whiskers. ..
  41. Manova K, Paynton B, Bachvarova R. Expression of activins and TGF beta 1 and beta 2 RNAs in early postimplantation mouse embryos and uterine decidua. Mech Dev. 1992;36:141-52 pubmed
    ..Thus activin A could play a role within the embyro during gastrulation...
  42. Lee S, Huynh T, Lee Y, Sebald S, Wilcox Adelman S, Iwamori N, et al. Role of satellite cells versus myofibers in muscle hypertrophy induced by inhibition of the myostatin/activin signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2353-60 pubmed publisher
    Myostatin and activin A are structurally related secreted proteins that act to limit skeletal muscle growth...
  43. Parameswaran R, Morad V, Laronne A, Rousso Noori L, Shani N, Naffar Abu Amara S, et al. Targeting the bone marrow with activin A-overexpressing embryonic multipotent stromal cells specifically modifies B lymphopoiesis. Stem Cells Dev. 2008;17:93-106 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we aimed to test the contribution of a specific cytokine, activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, to lymphohematopoiesis in mouse bone marrow...
  44. Wang S, Tai G, Zhang P, Mu D, Zhang X, Liu Z. Inhibitory effect of activin A on activation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Cytokine. 2008;42:85-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A is a member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, which is also named restrictin-P, and can inhibit the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) from LPS-activated mouse macrophages...
  45. Yaden B, Wang Y, Wilson J, Culver A, Milner A, Datta Mannan A, et al. Inhibition of activin A ameliorates skeletal muscle injury and rescues contractile properties by inducing efficient remodeling in female mice. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1152-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, provides pleiotropic regulation of fibrosis and inflammation. We aimed at determining whether selective inhibition of activin A would provide a regenerative benefit...
  46. Funa N, Saldeen J, Akerblom B, Welsh M. Interdependent fibroblast growth factor and activin A signaling promotes the expression of endodermal genes in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells expressing Src Homology 2-domain inactive Shb. Differentiation. 2008;76:443-53 pubmed
    ..elucidated, although previous studies have suggested the participation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and activin A in these processes...
  47. Cappello S, Böhringer C, Bergami M, Conzelmann K, Ghanem A, Tomassy G, et al. A radial glia-specific role of RhoA in double cortex formation. Neuron. 2012;73:911-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data not only demonstrate that RhoA is largely dispensable for migration in neurons but also showed that defects in radial glial cells, rather than neurons, can be sufficient to produce SBH. ..
  48. Barton D, Yang Feng T, Mason A, Seeburg P, Francke U. Mapping of genes for inhibin subunits alpha, beta A, and beta B on human and mouse chromosomes and studies of jsd mice. Genomics. 1989;5:91-9 pubmed
    ..The possibility that the mutation in jsd involves the INH alpha or INH beta B gene was investigated by Southern blotting of DNA from jsd/jsd mice, and no major deletions or rearrangements were detected. ..
  49. Farnworth P, Stanton P, Wang Y, Escalona R, Findlay J, Ooi G. Inhibins differentially antagonize activin and bone morphogenetic protein action in a mouse adrenocortical cell line. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3462-71 pubmed
    ..Inhibin A provided more potent and effective antagonism of both activins than did inhibin B, and activin A was less subject to antagonism by either inhibin than was activin B...
  50. Justice M, Silan C, Ceci J, Buchberg A, Copeland N, Jenkins N. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 13 anchored by the beige (bg) and satin (sa) loci. Genomics. 1990;6:341-51 pubmed
    ..The map locations of Ctla-3, Dhfr, Fim-1, 4/12, Hexb, Hilda, Inhba, Lamb-1.13, Ral, Rrm2-ps3, and Tcrg were determined with respect to the beige (bg) and satin (sa) loci...
  51. Pangas S, Jorgez C, Tran M, Agno J, Li X, Brown C, et al. Intraovarian activins are required for female fertility. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2458-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to the known tumor suppressor role of activins in some tissues, our data indicate that activin betaA and betaB function redundantly in a growth stimulatory pathway in the mammalian ovary. ..
  52. Brackmann F, Link A, Jung S, Richter M, Zoglauer D, Walkinshaw G, et al. Activin A regulation under global hypoxia in developing mouse brain. Brain Res. 2013;1531:65-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A is a multifunctional growth and differentiation factor with pronounced neuroprotective properties that is strongly up-regulated in various forms of acute brain disorders and injuries including epilepsy, stroke and trauma...
  53. Vanhoutteghem A, Messiaen S, Hervé F, Delhomme B, Moison D, Petit J, et al. The zinc-finger protein basonuclin 2 is required for proper mitotic arrest, prevention of premature meiotic initiation and meiotic progression in mouse male germ cells. Development. 2014;141:4298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the extreme evolutionary conservation of BNC2, the findings described here are likely to apply to many species. ..
  54. O Shaughnessy P, Gray S. Gonadotropin-dependent and gonadotropin-independent development of inhibin subunit messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the mouse ovary. Endocrinology. 1995;136:2060-5 pubmed
    ..The inhibin alpha-subunit, in contrast, is expressed at a high level during development independent of gonadotropin stimulation. ..
  55. Laurikkala J, Pispa J, Jung H, Nieminen P, Mikkola M, Wang X, et al. Regulation of hair follicle development by the TNF signal ectodysplasin and its receptor Edar. Development. 2002;129:2541-53 pubmed
    ..expression of placodal genes, including Bmp4, Lef1, Shh, Ptch and Edar, and the genes for beta-catenin and activin A. Finally, we identified activin as a mesenchymal signal that stimulates Edar expression and WNT as a signal that ..
  56. Nicholls P, Harrison C, Rainczuk K, Wayne Vogl A, Stanton P. Retinoic acid promotes Sertoli cell differentiation and antagonises activin-induced proliferation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;377:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study implicates retinoid signalling in the differentiation of both somatic and germ cells in the testis at puberty. ..
  57. Ferguson C, Tucker A, Christensen L, Lau A, Matzuk M, Sharpe P. Activin is an essential early mesenchymal signal in tooth development that is required for patterning of the murine dentition. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2636-49 pubmed
    ..Implantation of beads soaked in activin A, into developing mandibles, is able to completely rescue tooth development from E11.5, but not E12.5 or E13...
  58. Lafuse W, Zwilling B. Localization of the inhibin beta B gene on mouse chromosome 1. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:399-400 pubmed
  59. Kelber J, Shani G, Booker E, Vale W, Gray P. Cripto is a noncompetitive activin antagonist that forms analogous signaling complexes with activin and nodal. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:4490-500 pubmed
    ..Together, our data indicate that Cripto facilitates Nodal signaling and inhibits activin signaling by forming receptor complexes with these ligands that are structurally and functionally similar. ..
  60. Porciuncula A, Zapata N, Guruceaga E, Agirre X, Barajas M, Prosper F. MicroRNA signatures of iPSCs and endoderm-derived tissues. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide insights into how differentiation may be guided more efficiently towards the endoderm and further into the liver or pancreas. Moreover, we also report novel miRNAs enriched for each of the cell types analyzed. ..
  61. Tomaszewski J, Joseph A, Archambeault D, Yao H. Essential roles of inhibin beta A in mouse epididymal coiling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11322-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified inhibin beta A (or Inhba) as a regional paracrine factor in mouse mesonephroi that controls coiling of the epithelium in the anterior ..
  62. Bowser M, Herberg S, Arounleut P, Shi X, Fulzele S, Hill W, et al. Effects of the activin A-myostatin-follistatin system on aging bone and muscle progenitor cells. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48:290-7 pubmed publisher
    The activin A-myostatin-follistatin system is thought to play an important role in the regulation of muscle and bone mass throughout growth, development, and aging; however, the effects of these ligands on progenitor cell proliferation ..
  63. Fame R, Dehay C, Kennedy H, Macklis J. Subtype-Specific Genes that Characterize Subpopulations of Callosal Projection Neurons in Mouse Identify Molecularly Homologous Populations in Macaque Cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:1817-1830 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data inform future studies regarding CPN subpopulations that are unique to primates and rodents, and indicate putative evolutionary relationships. ..
  64. Ageta H, Murayama A, Migishima R, Kida S, Tsuchida K, Yokoyama M, et al. Activin in the brain modulates anxiety-related behavior and adult neurogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1869 pubmed publisher
    ..Activin and its signaling pathway may represent novel therapeutic targets for anxiety disorder as well as ischemic brain injury. ..
  65. Yamazaki S, Iwama A, Takayanagi S, Eto K, Ema H, Nakauchi H. TGF-beta as a candidate bone marrow niche signal to induce hematopoietic stem cell hibernation. Blood. 2009;113:1250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data uncover a critical role for TGF-beta as a candidate niche signal in the control of HSC hibernation and provide TGF-beta as a novel tool for ex vivo modeling of the HSC niche. ..
  66. Nicholls P, Stanton P, Chen J, Olcorn J, Haverfield J, Qian H, et al. Activin signaling regulates Sertoli cell differentiation and function. Endocrinology. 2012;153:6065-77 pubmed publisher
    Throughout development, activin A signaling stimulates proliferation and inhibits differentiation of testicular Sertoli cells...
  67. Matzuk M, Finegold M, Mishina Y, Bradley A, Behringer R. Synergistic effects of inhibins and müllerian-inhibiting substance on testicular tumorigenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 1995;9:1337-45 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that inhibin and MIS synergize to influence testicular tumor development. ..
  68. Gilson H, Schakman O, Kalista S, Lause P, Tsuchida K, Thissen J. Follistatin induces muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell proliferation and inhibition of both myostatin and activin. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results show that satellite cell proliferation and both Mstn and Act inhibition are involved in the FS-induced muscle hypertrophy. ..
  69. Mathews L, Vale W. Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase. Cell. 1991;65:973-82 pubmed
    ..were cloned from AtT20 mouse corticotropic cells by screening COS cell transfectants for binding of 125I-activin A. The cDNAs code for a protein of 494 amino acids comprising a ligand-binding extracellular domain, a single ..
  70. Freiman R, Albright S, Zheng S, Sha W, Hammer R, Tjian R. Requirement of tissue-selective TBP-associated factor TAFII105 in ovarian development. Science. 2001;293:2084-7 pubmed
  71. Simmons D, Cross J. Determinants of trophoblast lineage and cell subtype specification in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2005;284:12-24 pubmed
    ..Here, we review recent insights into the molecular pathways regulating trophoblast lineage segregation, stem cell maintenance, and subtype differentiation. ..
  72. Tu A, Luo K. Acetylation of Smad2 by the co-activator p300 regulates activin and transforming growth factor beta response. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21187-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies reveal a novel mechanism of modulating Smad2 activity and localization through protein acetylation. ..
  73. Shimizu M, Higuchi K, Kasai S, Tsuboyama T, Matsushita M, Mori M, et al. Chromosome 13 locus, Pbd2, regulates bone density in mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16:1972-82 pubmed
    ..These results confirmed the existence of a Pbd2 locus regulating bone density in the SAM strains. ..
  74. Greenwald J, Vega M, Allendorph G, Fischer W, Vale W, Choe S. A flexible activin explains the membrane-dependent cooperative assembly of TGF-beta family receptors. Mol Cell. 2004;15:485-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that activin affinity is modulated by the ligand flexibility and that cooperativity is achieved by binding to two ActRII chains that immobilize activin in a type I binding-competent orientation. ..
  75. Chen Y, Rothnie C, Spring D, Verrier E, Venardos K, Kaye D, et al. Regulation and actions of activin A and follistatin in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Cytokine. 2014;69:255-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, is stimulated early in inflammation via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling pathway, which is also activated in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion...
  76. Jenkin G, McFarlane J, de Kretser D. Implication of inhibin and related proteins in fetal development. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1995;7:323-31 pubmed
  77. Ogawa K, Funaba M, Tsujimoto M. A dual role of activin A in regulating immunoglobulin production of B cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:1451-8 pubmed publisher
    Here, we report that activin A has a dual role in regulating Ig production of murine B cells. Activated B cells secrete activin activity by increasing activin A and decreasing follistatin expression...
  78. Archambeault D, Tomaszewski J, Childs A, Anderson R, Yao H. Testicular somatic cells, not gonocytes, are the major source of functional activin A during testis morphogenesis. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4358-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously identified activin A, the protein product of the activin ?A (Inhba) gene, as a key regulator of murine Sertoli cell proliferation and ..
  79. Gold E, Jetly N, O Bryan M, Meachem S, Srinivasan D, Behuria S, et al. Activin C antagonizes activin A in vitro and overexpression leads to pathologies in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:184-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A is a potent growth and differentiation factor whose synthesis and bioactivity are tightly regulated...
  80. Itman C, Small C, Griswold M, Nagaraja A, Matzuk M, Brown C, et al. Developmentally regulated SMAD2 and SMAD3 utilization directs activin signaling outcomes. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1688-700 pubmed publisher
    ..In immature, proliferating, Sertoli cells, activin A induces nuclear accumulation of SMAD3, but not SMAD2, although both proteins become phosphorylated...
  81. Moore C, Mjaatvedt C, Gearhart J. Expression and function of activin beta A during mouse cardiac cushion tissue formation. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:548-62 pubmed
  82. Camargos B, Tavares R, Del Puerto H, Andrade L, Camargos A, Reis F. BMP-4 increases activin A gene expression during osteogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Growth Factors. 2015;33:133-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Activin A is a growth factor released by mature osteoblasts that has a critical effect on bone formation...