Gene Symbol: Ina
Description: internexin neuronal intermediate filament protein, alpha
Alias: AV028420, NF-66, NF66, alpha-internexin, 66 kDa neurofilament protein, alpha-Inx, neurofilament-66
Species: mouse
Products:     Ina

Top Publications

  1. Chien C, Liem R. Characterization of the mouse gene encoding the neuronal intermediate filament protein alpha-internexin. Gene. 1994;149:289-92 pubmed
    ..of the coding region of the mouse gene encoding the neuronal intermediate filament protein, alpha-internexin (alpha INX)...
  2. Lamberti A, Sanges C, Chambery A, Migliaccio N, Rosso F, Di Maro A, et al. Analysis of interaction partners for eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A M-domain by functional proteomics. Biochimie. 2011;93:1738-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, a co-localization of SORBS2 and eEF1A was evidenced at level of plasma membrane, thus suggesting the involvement of eEF1A1 in novel key signal transduction complexes. ..
  3. Thompson J, Zembrzycki A, Mansouri A, Ziman M. Pax7 is requisite for maintenance of a subpopulation of superior collicular neurons and shows a diverging expression pattern to Pax3 during superior collicular development. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:62 pubmed publisher
    ..The differential nature of Pax7 and Pax3 with respect to neuronal differentiation may have implications for future stem cell therapies aimed at exploiting their developmental capabilities. ..
  4. Chien C, Lee T, Lu K. Distribution of neuronal intermediate filament proteins in the developing mouse olfactory system. J Neurosci Res. 1998;54:353-63 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that alpha-internexin may play a functional role in the neuronal cytoarchitecture of developing olfactory system, and can be a neuronal marker for detecting postmitotic migrating neurons in the adult olfactory bulb. ..
  5. Julien J, Beaulieu J. Cytoskeletal abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: beneficial or detrimental effects?. J Neurol Sci. 2000;180:7-14 pubmed
    ..These results together with the detection of peripherin inclusions at early stage of disease in mice expressing mutant SOD1 suggest that IF inclusions containing peripherin may play a contributory role in ALS pathogenesis. ..
  6. King A, Blizzard C, Southam K, Vickers J, Dickson T. Degeneration of axons in spinal white matter in G93A mSOD1 mouse characterized by NFL and ?-internexin immunoreactivity. Brain Res. 2012;1465:90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that white matter degeneration in this mouse model of ALS is widespread and involves a specific molecular signature, particularly the accumulation of NFL and alpha-internexin proteins. ..
  7. Ching G, Liem R. Structure of the gene for the neuronal intermediate filament protein alpha-internexin and functional analysis of its promoter. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:19459-68 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis shows that the -254 to -78 region contains several potential positive regulatory elements. ..
  8. Goryunov D, He C, Lin C, Leung C, Liem R. Nervous-tissue-specific elimination of microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1a results in multiple developmental defects in the mouse brain. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Embryonic neurons showed a defect in traversing the cortical plate. Our data suggest a critical role for MACF1 in neuronal migration that is dependent on its ability to interact with both microfilaments and microtubules. ..
  9. Yuan A, Rao M, Kumar A, Julien J, Nixon R. Neurofilament transport in vivo minimally requires hetero-oligomer formation. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9452-8 pubmed
    ..They also show that NF-M can partner with intermediate filament proteins other than the NF-H and NF-L subunits in neurons to support slow transport and possibly other functions of neuronal intermediate filaments. ..

More Information


  1. Faussone Pellegrini M, Matini P, DeFelici M. The cytoskeleton of the myenteric neurons during murine embryonic life. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1999;199:459-69 pubmed
  2. Chan S, Chiu F. The 66-kDa neurofilament protein (NF-66): sequence analysis and evolution. Neurochem Res. 1996;21:449-55 pubmed
    ..Zooblot analyses suggested that the putative ancestral gene for vimentin and NF-66 was detectable in the avian. By comparison, the ancestral sequence for GFAP appeared after that for vimentin. ..
  3. Levavasseur F, Zhu Q, Julien J. No requirement of alpha-internexin for nervous system development and for radial growth of axons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999;69:104-12 pubmed
    ..Ours results do not support the hypothesis of a role for type IV intermediate filaments in axonal outgrowth during development of nervous system. ..
  4. Mu X, Fu X, Sun H, Liang S, Maeda H, Frishman L, et al. Ganglion cells are required for normal progenitor- cell proliferation but not cell-fate determination or patterning in the developing mouse retina. Curr Biol. 2005;15:525-30 pubmed
    ..Intrinsic rather than extrinsic factors are likely to play the critical roles in determining retinal cell fate. ..
  5. Yuan A, Rao M, Sasaki T, Chen Y, Kumar A, Veeranna -, et al. Alpha-internexin is structurally and functionally associated with the neurofilament triplet proteins in the mature CNS. J Neurosci. 2006;26:10006-19 pubmed
  6. Mu X, Fu X, Beremand P, Thomas T, Klein W. Gene regulation logic in retinal ganglion cell development: Isl1 defines a critical branch distinct from but overlapping with Pou4f2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6942-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reveal that identical RGC expression patterns are achieved by different combinations of divergent inputs from upstream transcription factors. ..
  7. Tseng K, Chau Y, Yang M, Lu K, Chien C. Abnormal cellular translocation of alpha-internexin in spinal motor neurons of Dystonia musculorum mice. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1053-64 pubmed
  8. Ching G, Liem R. RE1 silencing transcription factor is involved in regulating neuron-specific expression of alpha-internexin and neurofilament genes. J Neurochem. 2009;109:1610-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, REST regulates expression of these neuronal genes, partly by a HDAC-dependent epigenetic mechanism. ..
  9. Wang P, Wang S, Hsieh C, Chien C. Neural expression of alpha-internexin promoter in vitro and in vivo. J Cell Biochem. 2006;97:275-87 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the cre transgene driven by mouse alpha-internexin promoter, described here, provides a useful animal model to specifically manipulate genes in the developing nervous system. ..
  10. Kajimura D, Dragomir C, Ramirez F, Laub F. Identification of genes regulated by transcription factor KLF7 in differentiating olfactory sensory neurons. Gene. 2007;388:34-42 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results advance knowledge of transcriptional regulation of olfactory neurogenesis and KLF7 action. ..
  11. Molliver D, Wright D, Leitner M, Parsadanian A, Doster K, Wen D, et al. IB4-binding DRG neurons switch from NGF to GDNF dependence in early postnatal life. Neuron. 1997;19:849-61 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings suggest that IB4-binding neurons switch from dependence on NGF in embryonic life to dependence on GDNF in postnatal life and are likely regulated by GDNF in maturity. ..
  12. Chien C, Liem R. The neuronal intermediate filament, alpha-internexin is transiently expressed in amacrine cells in the developing mouse retina. Exp Eye Res. 1995;61:749-56 pubmed
    ..The transient presence of alpha-internexin in amacrine cells only in early development suggests that the protein may play a role in the plasticity of neuronal connections in the retina. ..
  13. Chien C, Mason C, Liem R. alpha-Internexin is the only neuronal intermediate filament expressed in developing cerebellar granule neurons. J Neurobiol. 1996;29:304-18 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, alpha-internexin may play a key role in neurite outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal cytoarchitecture. ..