Gene Symbol: Il9
Description: interleukin 9
Alias: Il-9, P40, interleukin-9, T-cell growth factor P40, cytokine P40
Species: mouse
Products:     Il9

Top Publications

  1. Steenwinckel V, Louahed J, Orabona C, Huaux F, Warnier G, McKenzie A, et al. IL-13 mediates in vivo IL-9 activities on lung epithelial cells but not on hematopoietic cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:3244-51 pubmed
  2. McMillan S, Bishop B, Townsend M, McKenzie A, Lloyd C. The absence of interleukin 9 does not affect the development of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation nor airway hyperreactivity. J Exp Med. 2002;195:51-7 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that IL-9 is not obligatory for the development of eosinophilia and AHR, and imply that other Th2 cytokines can act in a compensatory fashion. ..
  3. Jones T, Hallgren J, Humbles A, Burwell T, Finkelman F, Alcaide P, et al. Antigen-induced increases in pulmonary mast cell progenitor numbers depend on IL-9 and CD1d-restricted NKT cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:5251-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate type 2 NKT cells and IL-9 as central regulators that function in the same pathway mediating the Ag-induced increase in numbers of pulmonary MCp. ..
  4. Fontaine R, Cases O, Lelievre V, Mesples B, Renauld J, Loron G, et al. IL-9/IL-9 receptor signaling selectively protects cortical neurons against developmental apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1542-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that IL-9/IL-9 receptor signaling pathway represents a novel endogenous antiapoptotic mechanism for cortical neurons by controlling JAK/STAT and Bax levels. ..
  5. Fallon P, Ballantyne S, Mangan N, Barlow J, Dasvarma A, Hewett D, et al. Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1105-16 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that these IL-25-regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion...
  6. Knoops L, Louahed J, Van Snick J, Renauld J. IL-9 promotes but is not necessary for systemic anaphylaxis. J Immunol. 2005;175:335-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data reported in this study indicate that IL-9 promotes systemic anaphylaxis reactions, acting at both the sensitization and effector stages, but is not absolutely required for this process. ..
  7. Godfraind C, Louahed J, Faulkner H, Vink A, Warnier G, Grencis R, et al. Intraepithelial infiltration by mast cells with both connective tissue-type and mucosal-type characteristics in gut, trachea, and kidneys of IL-9 transgenic mice. J Immunol. 1998;160:3989-96 pubmed
  8. Staudt V, Bothur E, Klein M, Lingnau K, Reuter S, Grebe N, et al. Interferon-regulatory factor 4 is essential for the developmental program of T helper 9 cells. Immunity. 2010;33:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses revealed direct IRF4 binding to the Il9 promoter in Th9 cells...
  9. Renauld J, van der Lugt N, Vink A, van Roon M, Godfraind C, Warnier G, et al. Thymic lymphomas in interleukin 9 transgenic mice. Oncogene. 1994;9:1327-32 pubmed
    Transgenic mice overexpressing the interleukin 9 gene were generated to study the biological activity of this cytokine in vivo...

More Information


  1. Elyaman W, Bradshaw E, Uyttenhove C, Dardalhon V, Awasthi A, Imitola J, et al. IL-9 induces differentiation of TH17 cells and enhances function of FoxP3+ natural regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12885-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of IL-9 effects on T(H)17 and T(regs) is through activation of STAT3 and STAT5 signaling. Our findings highlight a role of IL-9 as a regulator of pathogenic versus protective mechanisms of immune responses. ..
  2. Louahed J, Zhou Y, Maloy W, Rani P, Weiss C, Tomer Y, et al. Interleukin 9 promotes influx and local maturation of eosinophils. Blood. 2001;97:1035-42 pubmed
    The interleukin 9 (IL-9) pathway has recently been associated with the asthmatic phenotype including an eosinophilic tissue inflammation. The mechanism by which IL-9 affects eosinophils (eos) is not known...
  3. Lange K, Uckert W, Blankenstein T, Nadrowitz R, Bittner C, Renauld J, et al. Overexpression of NPM-ALK induces different types of malignant lymphomas in IL-9 transgenic mice. Oncogene. 2003;22:517-27 pubmed
  4. Steenwinckel V, Louahed J, Lemaire M, Sommereyns C, Warnier G, McKenzie A, et al. IL-9 promotes IL-13-dependent paneth cell hyperplasia and up-regulation of innate immunity mediators in intestinal mucosa. J Immunol. 2009;182:4737-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that Paneth cell hyperplasia and expression of their various antimicrobial products contribute to the immune response driven by TH2 cytokines, such as IL-9 and IL-13 in the intestinal mucosa...
  5. Van Snick J, Goethals A, Renauld J, Van Roost E, Uyttenhove C, Rubira M, et al. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA for a new mouse T cell growth factor (P40). J Exp Med. 1989;169:363-8 pubmed
    ..This molecule, designated P40, was identified as a glycoprotein capable of supporting antigen-independent growth of certain helper T cell clones...
  6. Nowak E, Weaver C, Turner H, Begum Haque S, Becher B, Schreiner B, et al. IL-9 as a mediator of Th17-driven inflammatory disease. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1653-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data implicate IL-9 as a Th17-derived cytokine that can contribute to inflammatory disease...
  7. Tan C, Aziz M, Lovaas J, Vistica B, Shi G, Wawrousek E, et al. Antigen-specific Th9 cells exhibit uniqueness in their kinetics of cytokine production and short retention at the inflammatory site. J Immunol. 2010;185:6795-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data provide new information concerning Th9 cells and reveal their uniqueness, in particular with regard to the unusual production kinetics of IL-9 and the short retention of these cells in affected target tissues. ..
  8. Chang H, Sehra S, Goswami R, Yao W, Yu Q, Stritesky G, et al. The transcription factor PU.1 is required for the development of IL-9-producing T cells and allergic inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the ETS-family transcription factor PU.1 was required for the development of an interleukin 9 (IL-9)-secreting subset of helper T cells. Decreasing PU...
  9. Fallon P, Jolin H, Smith P, Emson C, Townsend M, Fallon R, et al. IL-4 induces characteristic Th2 responses even in the combined absence of IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. Immunity. 2002;17:7-17 pubmed
    ..These mice reveal distinct spatial, temporal, and hierarchical cytokine requirements in immune function...
  10. Townsend J, Fallon G, Matthews J, Smith P, Jolin E, McKenzie N. IL-9-deficient mice establish fundamental roles for IL-9 in pulmonary mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia but not T cell development. Immunity. 2000;13:573-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, deletion of IL-9 manifests as a highly defined phenotype in Th2 responses modulating mucus production and mast cell proliferation...
  11. Fallon P, Smith P, Richardson E, Jones F, Faulkner H, Van Snick J, et al. Expression of interleukin-9 leads to Th2 cytokine-dominated responses and fatal enteropathy in mice with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infections. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6005-11 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the pleiotropic in vivo activity of IL-9 and demonstrates that an elevated Th2 cytokine phenotype leads to death during murine schistosome infection. ..
  12. Uyttenhove C, Simpson R, Van Snick J. Functional and structural characterization of P40, a mouse glycoprotein with T-cell growth factor activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:6934-8 pubmed
    ..A factor, termed P40, supporting the growth of these lines was purified and characterized as a basic 32- to 39-kDa single-chain ..
  13. Angkasekwinai P, Chang S, Thapa M, Watarai H, Dong C. Regulation of IL-9 expression by IL-25 signaling. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, the IL-25-IL-17RB pathway regulates IL-9 expression in allergic airway inflammation. Thus, IL-25 is a newly identified regulator of IL-9 expression. ..
  14. Nicolaides N, Holroyd K, Ewart S, Eleff S, Kiser M, Dragwa C, et al. Interleukin 9: a candidate gene for asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13175-80 pubmed
    ..We assessed bronchial responsiveness as a quantitative trait in mice and found it linked to chromosome 13. Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is located in the linked region and was analyzed as a gene candidate...
  15. Ye J, Zhu Y, Khan W, Van Snick J, Huizinga J. IL-9 enhances growth of ICC, maintains network structure and strengthens rhythmicity of contraction in culture. J Cell Mol Med. 2006;10:687-94 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that IL-9 promotes ICC growth in culture and it can be hypothesized that IL-9 is a critical factor in the maintenance of ICC health and ICC repair after injury. ..
  16. Yin T, Tsang M, Yang Y. JAK1 kinase forms complexes with interleukin-4 receptor and 4PS/insulin receptor substrate-1-like protein and is activated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-9 in T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:26614-7 pubmed
  17. Arendse B, Van Snick J, Brombacher F. IL-9 is a susceptibility factor in Leishmania major infection by promoting detrimental Th2/type 2 responses. J Immunol. 2005;174:2205-11 pubmed
    ..The results extend efforts made to generate autoantibodies capable of regulating biological processes, with IL-9 a potential drug target against leishmaniasis. ..
  18. Licona Limón P, Henao Mejia J, Temann A, Gagliani N, Licona Limón I, Ishigame H, et al. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection. Immunity. 2013;39:744-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection. ..
  19. Wilhelm C, Hirota K, Stieglitz B, Van Snick J, Tolaini M, Lahl K, et al. An IL-9 fate reporter demonstrates the induction of an innate IL-9 response in lung inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:1071-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a cytokine linked to lung inflammation, but its cellular origin and function remain unclear. Here we describe a reporter mouse strain designed to map the fate of cells that have activated IL-9...
  20. Dardalhon V, Awasthi A, Kwon H, Galileos G, Gao W, Sobel R, et al. IL-4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-beta, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3(-) effector T cells. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells lack suppressive function and constitute a distinct population of helper-effector T cells that promote tissue inflammation. ..
  21. Forbes E, Groschwitz K, Abonia J, Brandt E, Cohen E, Blanchard C, et al. IL-9- and mast cell-mediated intestinal permeability predisposes to oral antigen hypersensitivity. J Exp Med. 2008;205:897-913 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations demonstrate a central role for IL-9 and mast cells in experimental intestinal permeability in oral antigen sensitization and suggest that IL-9-mediated mast cell responses have an important role in food allergy. ..
  22. Eklund K, Ghildyal N, Austen K, Stevens R. Induction by IL-9 and suppression by IL-3 and IL-4 of the levels of chromosome 14-derived transcripts that encode late-expressed mouse mast cell proteases. J Immunol. 1993;151:4266-73 pubmed
  23. Hültner L, Moeller J, Schmitt E, Jager G, Reisbach G, Ring J, et al. Thiol-sensitive mast cell lines derived from mouse bone marrow respond to a mast cell growth-enhancing activity different from both IL-3 and IL-4. J Immunol. 1989;142:3440-6 pubmed
    ..PWM, CSF-1, GM-CSF, IL-1, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IFN-gamma, TGF-alpha, TNF-alpha, NGF, or EPO did not substitute for MEA in our standard proliferation assay. ..
  24. Bram R, Valentine V, Shapiro D, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N. The gene for calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAMLG) is located on human chromosome 5q23 and a syntenic region of mouse chromosome 13. Genomics. 1996;31:257-60 pubmed
    ..In addition, the results will provide a basis for further evaluation of cytogenetic anomalies that may contribute to inherited defects in calcium signaling or immune system function. ..
  25. Eller K, Wolf D, Huber J, Metz M, Mayer G, McKenzie A, et al. IL-9 production by regulatory T cells recruits mast cells that are essential for regulatory T cell-induced immune suppression. J Immunol. 2011;186:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, to our knowledge, we provide the first direct in vivo evidence that the nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory effects of Tregs critically depend on IL-9-mediated attraction of MCs into kidney-draining LNs...
  26. Goswami R, Kaplan M. Gcn5 is required for PU.1-dependent IL-9 induction in Th9 cells. J Immunol. 2012;189:3026-33 pubmed publisher
    ..PU.1, one of the transcription factors required for the development of Th9 cells, binds to the Il9 gene. In this study, we show that PU...
  27. Richard A, Tan C, Hawley E, Gomez Rodriguez J, Goswami R, Yang X, et al. The TNF-family ligand TL1A and its receptor DR3 promote T cell-mediated allergic immunopathology by enhancing differentiation and pathogenicity of IL-9-producing T cells. J Immunol. 2015;194:3567-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data identify TL1A-DR3 interactions as a novel pathway that promotes Th9 differentiation and pathogenicity. TL1A may be a potential therapeutic target in diseases dependent on IL-9. ..
  28. Kaspárek P, Ileninova Z, Zbodakova O, Kanchev I, Benada O, Chalupsky K, et al. KLK5 and KLK7 Ablation Fully Rescues Lethality of Netherton Syndrome-Like Phenotype. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006566 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these findings show that unregulated activities of KLK5 and KLK7 are responsible for NS development and both proteases should become targets for NS therapy. ..
  29. Pae S, Cho J, Dayan S, Miller M, Pemberton A, Broide D. Chronic allergen challenge induces bronchial mast cell accumulation in BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice and is independent of IL-9. Immunogenetics. 2010;62:499-506 pubmed publisher
  30. Kim H, Chung D. IL-9-producing invariant NKT cells protect against DSS-induced colitis in an IL-4-dependent manner. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, IL-9-producing iNKT cells protect against DSS-induced colitis through IFN-? and IL-17A suppression, but IL-10 and TGF-? enhancement, depending on the IL-4 production by iNKT cells. ..
  31. Hoelzinger D, Dominguez A, Cohen P, Gendler S. Inhibition of adaptive immunity by IL9 can be disrupted to achieve rapid T-cell sensitization and rejection of progressive tumor challenges. Cancer Res. 2014;74:6845-55 pubmed publisher
    The tolerogenic cytokine IL9 promotes T regulatory cell function and allergic airway inflammation, but it has not been extensively studied in cancer...
  32. Jiang X, Chen Y, Feng G, Luo M, Sun Q, Li C. [Th9 cells and related cytokines increase in the lung of mice with bronchial asthma]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2015;31:1067-70 pubmed
    ..The expression of IL-9 was higher, but IL-10 was lower in asthma group. Th9 cells might play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. ..
  33. Rauber S, Luber M, Weber S, Maul L, Soare A, Wohlfahrt T, et al. Resolution of inflammation by interleukin-9-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Nat Med. 2017;23:938-944 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, fostering IL-9-mediated ILC2 activation may offer a novel therapeutic approach inducing resolution of inflammation rather than suppression of inflammatory responses. ..
  34. Qiu Y, Krishnan V, Zeng Z, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Gibson L, et al. Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal localization of mouse and human COUP-TF I and II genes. Genomics. 1995;29:240-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we mapped human COUP-TF I to 5q14 of chromosome 5 and COUP-TF II to 15q26 of chromosome 15. The results demonstrate that COUP-TF genes are located in chromosomal regions that are syntenic between mouse and human. ..
  35. Yin T, Keller S, Quelle F, Witthuhn B, Tsang M, Lienhard G, et al. Interleukin-9 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 via JAK tyrosine kinases. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:20497-502 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results strongly suggest that IL-9 and IL-4 utilize common and unique signaling pathways via inducing the similar and distinct tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. ..
  36. Mohapatra A, Van Dyken S, Schneider C, Nussbaum J, Liang H, Locksley R. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells utilize the IRF4-IL-9 module to coordinate epithelial cell maintenance of lung homeostasis. Mucosal Immunol. 2016;9:275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ILC2s link alveolar function to regulation of airway flow, revealing a key interaction between resident lymphoid and structural cells that might underlie similar organizational hierarchies in other organs. ..
  37. Gerlach K, Hwang Y, Nikolaev A, Atreya R, Dornhoff H, Steiner S, et al. TH9 cells that express the transcription factor PU.1 drive T cell-mediated colitis via IL-9 receptor signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. Nat Immunol. 2014;15:676-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found more T cells expressing the transcription factor PU.1 and interleukin 9 (IL-9) in patients with ulcerative colitis...
  38. Tessarollo L, Tsoulfas P, Martin Zanca D, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Copeland N, et al. trkC, a receptor for neurotrophin-3, is widely expressed in the developing nervous system and in non-neuronal tissues. Development. 1993;118:463-75 pubmed
    ..Alignment with available chromosomal maps identify possible linkage between the Trk genes and known neurological mutations. ..
  39. Tisljar K, Deussing J, Peters C. Cathepsin J, a novel murine cysteine protease of the papain family with a placenta-restricted expression. FEBS Lett. 1999;459:299-304 pubmed
    ..Ctsj was mapped to mouse chromosome 13 in the vicinity of cathepsin L suggesting that cathepsin J may have arisen by gene duplication from cathepsin L or a common ancestral gene. ..
  40. Ahrens R, Osterfeld H, Wu D, Chen C, Arumugam M, Groschwitz K, et al. Intestinal mast cell levels control severity of oral antigen-induced anaphylaxis in mice. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:1535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, an awareness of intestinal mast cell levels in patients with food allergies may aid in determining their susceptibility to life-threatening anaphylaxis and may eventually aid in the treatment of food-triggered anaphylaxis...
  41. Pathak B, Shull G, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Mouse chromosomal location of four Na/H exchanger isoform genes. Genomics. 1996;31:261-3 pubmed
    ..These loci map to previously defined homologous regions between human and mouse chromosomes and provide additional information regarding human/mouse comparative mapping. ..
  42. Tawara I, Maeda Y, Sun Y, Lowler K, Liu C, Toubai T, et al. Combined Th2 cytokine deficiency in donor T cells aggravates experimental acute graft-vs-host disease. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:988-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus unequivocally demonstrate that deficiency of the four classical Th2 cytokine enhances T-cell proliferative responses and aggravates GVHD. ..
  43. Renauld J, Goethals A, Houssiau F, Merz H, Van Roost E, Van Snick J. Human P40/IL-9. Expression in activated CD4+ T cells, genomic organization, and comparison with the mouse gene. J Immunol. 1990;144:4235-41 pubmed
    b>P40 is a cytokine that was originally identified in the mouse as a T cell growth factor, but whose spectrum of potential targets was recently shown to include mast cells as well as megakaryoblastic leukemic cells...
  44. Vock C, Yildirim A, Wagner C, Schlick S, Lunding L, Lee C, et al. Distal airways are protected from goblet cell metaplasia by diminished expression of IL-13 signalling components. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45:1447-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This might represent a protective strategy to prevent mucus plugging of distal airways and thus impaired ventilation of attached alveoli. ..
  45. Zhou Y, Sonobe Y, Akahori T, Jin S, Kawanokuchi J, Noda M, et al. IL-9 promotes Th17 cell migration into the central nervous system via CC chemokine ligand-20 produced by astrocytes. J Immunol. 2011;186:4415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that IL-9 is produced by several Th cell subsets in the presence of IL-4 and induces CCL-20 production by astrocytes to induce the migration of Th17 cells into the CNS. ..
  46. Blum H, Rollinghoff M, Gessner A. Expression and co-cytokine function of murine thioredoxin/adult T cell leukaemia-derived factor (ADF). Cytokine. 1996;8:6-13 pubmed
    ..Murine ADF therefore represents a protein constitutively expressed in a wide variety of cells with the capacity to enhance the proliferative effect of several cytokines on murine T cells. ..
  47. Chong S, Kozak C, Liu L, Kristjansson K, Dunn S, Bourdeau J, et al. Cloning, genetic mapping, and expression analysis of a mouse renal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter. Am J Physiol. 1995;268:F1038-45 pubmed
    ..The Npt1 gene was mapped to mouse chromosome 13, close to the Tcrg locus. By both in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Npt1 mRNA was localized predominantly to the proximal tubule...
  48. Elyaman W, Bassil R, Bradshaw E, Orent W, Lahoud Y, Zhu B, et al. Notch receptors and Smad3 signaling cooperate in the induction of interleukin-9-producing T cells. Immunity. 2012;36:623-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can regulate autoimmune responses by enhancing regulatory CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cell survival and T helper 17 (Th17) cell proliferation...
  49. Horka H, Staudt V, Klein M, Taube C, Reuter S, Dehzad N, et al. The tick salivary protein sialostatin L inhibits the Th9-derived production of the asthma-promoting cytokine IL-9 and is effective in the prevention of experimental asthma. J Immunol. 2012;188:2669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, alternative to IL-9 neutralization sialostatin L provides the basis for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies to treat asthma. ..
  50. Mu J, Naggert J, Nishina P, Cheah Y, Paigen B. Strain distribution pattern in AXB and BXA recombinant inbred strains for loci on murine chromosomes 10, 13, 17, and 18. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:148-52 pubmed
    ..The addition of these markers to the AXB, BXA RI strain set increases the genomic region over which linkage for new markers can be detected. ..
  51. Arras M, Louahed J, Heilier J, Delos M, Brombacher F, Renauld J, et al. IL-9 protects against bleomycin-induced lung injury: involvement of prostaglandins. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:107-15 pubmed
    ..Indomethacin treatment, which inhibited PGE2 production in both strains, suppressed the protection in Tg5 mice, supporting the idea that IL-9 controls blm-induced lung injury through a prostaglandin-dependent mechanism. ..
  52. Lossie A, Vandenbergh D, Uhl G, Camper S. Localization of the dopamine transporter gene, Dat1, on mouse chromosome 13. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:117-8 pubmed
  53. Chen C, Lee J, Liu B, Ohta S, Wang P, Kartashov A, et al. Induction of Interleukin-9-Producing Mucosal Mast Cells Promotes Susceptibility to IgE-Mediated Experimental Food Allergy. Immunity. 2015;43:788-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, atopic patients that developed food allergy displayed increased intestinal expression of Il9- and MC-specific transcripts...
  54. Schütze N, Trojandt S, Kuhn S, Tomm J, von Bergen M, Simon J, et al. Allergen-Induced IL-6 Regulates IL-9/IL-17A Balance in CD4+ T Cells in Allergic Airway Inflammation. J Immunol. 2016;197:2653-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the IL-6-mediated reduction of Th2-related IL-4 leads to a decline of the Th9 immune response and allows Th17 differentiation. ..
  55. Stephens G, Swerdlow B, Benjamin E, Coyle A, Humbles A, Kolbeck R, et al. IL-9 is a Th17-derived cytokine that limits pathogenic activity in organ-specific autoimmune disease. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for IL-9 in dampening the pathogenic activities of Th17 cells. ..
  56. Wang Y, Shi J, Yan J, Xiao Z, Hou X, Lu P, et al. Germinal-center development of memory B cells driven by IL-9 from follicular helper T cells. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:921-930 pubmed publisher
    ..GC-MP cells expressed the interleukin 9 (IL-9) receptor and responded to IL-9...
  57. Uyttenhove C, Brombacher F, Van Snick J. TGF-? interactions with IL-1 family members trigger IL-4-independent IL-9 production by mouse CD4(+) T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As IL-9 levels were much lower in Th2 and Th17 cultures, our results identify TGF-?/IL-1 and TGF-?/IL-4 as the main control points of IL-9 synthesis. ..
  58. Stolarski B, Kurowska Stolarska M, Kewin P, Xu D, Liew F. IL-33 exacerbates eosinophil-mediated airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2010;185:3472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study demonstrates that the IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway activates airway eosinophils that exacerbate airway inflammation in an autocrine and paracrine manner. ..
  59. Nath P, Leung S, Williams A, Noble A, Xie S, McKenzie A, et al. Complete inhibition of allergic airway inflammation and remodelling in quadruple IL-4/5/9/13-/- mice. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:1427-35 pubmed
    ..Both redundancy or complementariness of Th2 cytokines can occur in vivo, according to specific aspects of the allergic response. ..
  60. Meersseman G, Verschueren K, Nelles L, Blumenstock C, Kraft H, Wuytens G, et al. The C-terminal domain of Mad-like signal transducers is sufficient for biological activity in the Xenopus embryo and transcriptional activation. Mech Dev. 1997;61:127-40 pubmed
    ..We also mapped the MusMLP gene to a region on mouse chromosome 13 that corresponds to a region on human chromosome 5q that contains cancer-related genes. ..
  61. Fukuda K, Yoshida H, Sato T, Furumoto T, Mizutani Koseki Y, Suzuki Y, et al. Mesenchymal expression of Foxl1, a winged helix transcriptional factor, regulates generation and maintenance of gut-associated lymphoid organs. Dev Biol. 2003;255:278-89 pubmed
    ..Together, the data suggest that Foxl1 might be involved in cellular responses of gut-associated lymphoid tissues dependent upon the Lymphotoxins/Lymphotoxin beta-receptor axis. ..
  62. Sitkauskiene B, Radinger M, Bossios A, Johansson A, Sakalauskas R, Lotvall J. Airway allergen exposure stimulates bone marrow eosinophilia partly via IL-9. Respir Res. 2005;6:33 pubmed
    ..However, in response to allergen, bone marrow cells over-express IL-9. This data suggest that IL-9 may participate in the regulation of granulocytopoiesis in allergic inflammation. ..
  63. Li H, Nourbakhsh B, Ciric B, Zhang G, Rostami A. Neutralization of IL-9 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by decreasing the effector T cell population. J Immunol. 2010;185:4095-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, anti-IL-9 mAb treatment may provide an effective therapeutic strategy against autoimmune diseases...
  64. Bassil R, Orent W, Olah M, Kurdi A, Frangieh M, Buttrick T, et al. BCL6 controls Th9 cell development by repressing Il9 transcription. J Immunol. 2014;193:198-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that, in Th9 cells, BCL6 and STAT5 bind to adjacent motifs in the Il9 promoter...
  65. Claudio E, Tassi I, Wang H, Tang W, Ha H, Siebenlist U. Cutting Edge: IL-25 Targets Dendritic Cells To Attract IL-9-Producing T Cells in Acute Allergic Lung Inflammation. J Immunol. 2015;195:3525-9 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-25-stimulated dendritic cells rapidly induced mediators, such as the chemokine CCL17, which, in turn, attracted IL-9-producing T cells. Importantly, these mechanisms also operated during HDM-induced allergic lung inflammation. ..
  66. Quesniaux V. Interleukins 9, 10, 11 and 12 and kit ligand: a brief overview. Res Immunol. 1992;143:385-400 pubmed
  67. Zhou J, Tagaya Y, Tolouei Semnani R, Schlom J, Sabzevari H. Physiological relevance of antigen presentasome (APS), an acquired MHC/costimulatory complex, in the sustained activation of CD4+ T cells in the absence of APCs. Blood. 2005;105:3238-46 pubmed
  68. Turner J, Morrison P, Wilhelm C, Wilson M, Ahlfors H, Renauld J, et al. IL-9-mediated survival of type 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes damage control in helminth-induced lung inflammation. J Exp Med. 2013;210:2951-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This highlights a unique role for IL-9 as an autocrine amplifier of ILC2 function, promoting tissue repair in the recovery phase after helminth-induced lung inflammation. ..
  69. Martin J, Miano J, Hustad C, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Olson E. A Mef2 gene that generates a muscle-specific isoform via alternative mRNA splicing. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:1647-56 pubmed
    ..The complexity of the MEF2 family of regulatory proteins provides the potential for fine-tuning of transcriptional responses as a consequence of combinatorial interactions among multiple MEF2 isoforms encoded by the four Mef2 genes. ..
  70. Tamiya T, Ichiyama K, Kotani H, Fukaya T, Sekiya T, Shichita T, et al. Smad2/3 and IRF4 play a cooperative role in IL-9-producing T cell induction. J Immunol. 2013;191:2360-71 pubmed publisher
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