Gene Symbol: Il5
Description: interleukin 5
Alias: Il-5, interleukin-5, B-cell growth factor II, BCGF-II, T-cell replacing factor, TRF, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte inducer, eosinophil differentiation factor
Species: mouse
Products:     Il5

Top Publications

  1. Wang J, Palmer K, Lotvall J, Milan S, Lei X, Matthaei K, et al. Circulating, but not local lung, IL-5 is required for the development of antigen-induced airways eosinophilia. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1132-41 pubmed
    ..These findings also provide the rationale for developing strategies to target circulating IL-5 and/or its receptors in bone marrow to effectively control asthmatic airways eosinophilia. ..
  2. Bao S, Beagley K, Murray A, Caristo V, Matthaei K, Young I, et al. Intestinal IgA plasma cells of the B1 lineage are IL-5 dependent. Immunology. 1998;94:181-8 pubmed
  3. Dent L, Strath M, Mellor A, Sanderson C. Eosinophilia in transgenic mice expressing interleukin 5. J Exp Med. 1990;172:1425-31 pubmed
    Experiments in vitro suggest that although interleukin 5 (IL-5) stimulates the late stages of eosinophil differentiation, other cytokines are required for the generation of eosinophil progenitor cells...
  4. Fallon P, Jolin H, Smith P, Emson C, Townsend M, Fallon R, et al. IL-4 induces characteristic Th2 responses even in the combined absence of IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. Immunity. 2002;17:7-17 pubmed
    ..These mice reveal distinct spatial, temporal, and hierarchical cytokine requirements in immune function...
  5. Saeftel M, Arndt M, Specht S, Volkmann L, Hoerauf A. Synergism of gamma interferon and interleukin-5 in the control of murine filariasis. Infect Immun. 2003;71:6978-85 pubmed
    ..Synergistic effects of the two cytokines may be mediated, at least in part, by neutrophils for the control of adult worms...
  6. Klein Wolterink R, Kleinjan A, van Nimwegen M, Bergen I, de Bruijn M, Levani Y, et al. Pulmonary innate lymphoid cells are major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 in murine models of allergic asthma. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:1106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that both ILC2s and Th2 cells produce large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 that contribute to allergic airway inflammation. ..
  7. Lee N, McGarry M, Larson K, Horton M, Kristensen A, Lee J. Expression of IL-5 in thymocytes/T cells leads to the development of a massive eosinophilia, extramedullary eosinophilopoiesis, and unique histopathologies. J Immunol. 1997;158:1332-44 pubmed
    ..These pathologies parallel clinical observations of patients with a profound eosinophilia and imply that IL-5 effector functions during some inflammatory responses may be contingent upon peripheral lymphohemopoietic expression. ..
  8. Foster P, Hogan S, Ramsay A, Matthaei K, Young I. Interleukin 5 deficiency abolishes eosinophilia, airways hyperreactivity, and lung damage in a mouse asthma model. J Exp Med. 1996;183:195-201 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that IL-5 and eosinophils are central mediators in the pathogenesis of allergic lung disease. ..
  9. Pope S, Brandt E, Mishra A, Hogan S, Zimmermann N, Matthaei K, et al. IL-13 induces eosinophil recruitment into the lung by an IL-5- and eotaxin-dependent mechanism. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108:594-601 pubmed
    ..IL-5 is required for IL-13 to induce eosinophilia throughout the lung, whereas eotaxin regulates the distribution of airway eosinophils. ..

More Information


  1. Webb D, Mahalingam S, Cai Y, Matthaei K, Donaldson D, Foster P. Antigen-specific production of interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5 cooperate to mediate IL-4Ralpha-independent airway hyperreactivity. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:3377-85 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that IL-13-dependent processes regulating the development of AHR and T helper bias persist in the in the lungs of allergic IL-4Ralpha(-/-) mice. ..
  2. Vink A, Warnier G, Brombacher F, Renauld J. Interleukin 9-induced in vivo expansion of the B-1 lymphocyte population. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1413-23 pubmed
    ..The increase of antigen-specific antibody concentration in immunized mice suggests that these B-1 cells are directly or indirectly involved in antibody responses in IL-9 transgenic mice. ..
  3. Miller A, Xu D, Asquith D, Denby L, Li Y, Sattar N, et al. IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, IL-33 may play a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis via the induction of IL-5 and ox-LDL antibodies. ..
  4. Buchweitz J, Harkema J, Kaminski N. Time-dependent airway epithelial and inflammatory cell responses induced by influenza virus A/PR/8/34 in C57BL/6 mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35:424-35 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the results of this study indicate that the onset of MCM in airway epithelium occurs during the remodeling process and persists after the inflammatory response has diminished. ..
  5. Hogan S, Matthaei K, Young J, Koskinen A, Young I, Foster P. A novel T cell-regulated mechanism modulating allergen-induced airways hyperreactivity in BALB/c mice independently of IL-4 and IL-5. J Immunol. 1998;161:1501-9 pubmed
    ..These findings may provide an explanation for the dissociation of airways eosinophilia from the development of airways hyperreactivity observed in some cases of asthma and in animal models of this disease. ..
  6. Simons J, Rothenberg M, Lawrence R. Eotaxin-1-regulated eosinophils have a critical role in innate immunity against experimental Brugia malayi infection. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:189-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data show that the presence of eosinophils is critical for innate clearance of B. malayi Mf infection, whereas rapid clearance of secondary infections is independent of both eotaxin-1 and IL-5. ..
  7. Ikutani M, Yanagibashi T, Ogasawara M, Tsuneyama K, Yamamoto S, Hattori Y, et al. Identification of innate IL-5-producing cells and their role in lung eosinophil regulation and antitumor immunity. J Immunol. 2012;188:703-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These newly identified innate IL-5-producing cells thus play a role in tumor surveillance through lung eosinophils and may contribute to development of novel immunotherapies for cancer. ..
  8. Binder C, Hartvigsen K, Chang M, Miller M, Broide D, Palinski W, et al. IL-5 links adaptive and natural immunity specific for epitopes of oxidized LDL and protects from atherosclerosis. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:427-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-5 links adaptive and natural immunity specific to epitopes of OxLDL and protects from atherosclerosis, in part by stimulating the expansion of atheroprotective natural IgM specific for OxLDL. ..
  9. Tominaga A, Takaki S, Koyama N, Katoh S, Matsumoto R, Migita M, et al. Transgenic mice expressing a B cell growth and differentiation factor gene (interleukin 5) develop eosinophilia and autoantibody production. J Exp Med. 1991;173:429-37 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 5 (IL-5) has been suggested to be involved in the growth and differentiation of B cells and eosinophils...
  10. Herbert D, Lee J, Lee N, Nolan T, Schad G, Abraham D. Role of IL-5 in innate and adaptive immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. J Immunol. 2000;165:4544-51 pubmed
  11. Eum S, Haile S, Lefort J, Huerre M, Vargaftig B. Eosinophil recruitment into the respiratory epithelium following antigenic challenge in hyper-IgE mice is accompanied by interleukin 5-dependent bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:12290-4 pubmed
    ..b>Interleukin 5 (IL-5) titers in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of BP2 mice were augmented by the antigenic ..
  12. Yang M, Hogan S, Henry P, Matthaei K, McKenzie A, Young I, et al. Interleukin-13 mediates airways hyperreactivity through the IL-4 receptor-alpha chain and STAT-6 independently of IL-5 and eotaxin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;25:522-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, IL-13-induced AHR, eosinophilia, and mucus production are critically dependent on the IL-4Ralpha chain and STAT-6. ..
  13. Fallon P, Ballantyne S, Mangan N, Barlow J, Dasvarma A, Hewett D, et al. Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1105-16 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that these IL-25-regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion...
  14. Perry H, Oldham S, Fahl S, Que X, Gonen A, Harmon D, et al. Helix-loop-helix factor inhibitor of differentiation 3 regulates interleukin-5 expression and B-1a B cell proliferation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies are the first to identify NH and B-1a B cells in the aorta and provide evidence that Id3 is a key regulator of NH cell IL-5 production and B-1a B cell homeostasis. ..
  15. Nussbaum J, Van Dyken S, von Moltke J, Cheng L, Mohapatra A, Molofsky A, et al. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis. Nature. 2013;502:245-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Molofsky A, Nussbaum J, Liang H, Van Dyken S, Cheng L, Mohapatra A, et al. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. J Exp Med. 2013;210:535-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation. ..
  17. Kopf M, Brombacher F, Hodgkin P, Ramsay A, Milbourne E, Dai W, et al. IL-5-deficient mice have a developmental defect in CD5+ B-1 cells and lack eosinophilia but have normal antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses. Immunity. 1996;4:15-24 pubmed
    ..IL-5 deficiency did not affect the worm burden of infected mice, indicating that increased eosinophils do not play a significant role in the host defence in this parasite model. ..
  18. Corry D, Folkesson H, Warnock M, Erle D, Matthay M, Wiener Kronish J, et al. Interleukin 4, but not interleukin 5 or eosinophils, is required in a murine model of acute airway hyperreactivity. J Exp Med. 1996;183:109-17 pubmed
    ..No role for IL-5 or eosinophils could be demonstrated. ..
  19. Takahashi M, Yoshida M, Satoh H, Hilgers J, Yaoita Y, Honjo T. Chromosomal mapping of the mouse IL-4 and human IL-5 genes. Genomics. 1989;4:47-52 pubmed
  20. Campbell H, Sanderson C, Wang Y, Hort Y, Martinson M, Tucker W, et al. Isolation, structure and expression of cDNA and genomic clones for murine eosinophil differentiation factor. Comparison with other eosinophilopoietic lymphokines and identity with interleukin-5. Eur J Biochem. 1988;174:345-52 pubmed
    b>Eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF) is a recently described regulator affecting eosinophil growth and activation. cDNA clones for murine EDF were isolated by direct expression from libraries prepared from the T cell hybrid NIMP-TH1...
  21. Shimizu H, Obase Y, Katoh S, Mouri K, Kobashi Y, Oka M. Critical role of interleukin-5 in the development of a mite antigen-induced chronic bronchial asthma model. Inflamm Res. 2013;62:911-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that both IL-5 induced eosinophils and cysteinyl leukotrienes are involved in the pathology of this mite antigen-induced chronic asthma model. ..
  22. Dardalhon V, Awasthi A, Kwon H, Galileos G, Gao W, Sobel R, et al. IL-4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-beta, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3(-) effector T cells. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells lack suppressive function and constitute a distinct population of helper-effector T cells that promote tissue inflammation. ..
  23. Cenci E, Mencacci A, Del Sero G, Bacci A, Montagnoli C, d Ostiani C, et al. Interleukin-4 causes susceptibility to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis through suppression of protective type I responses. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:1957-68 pubmed
    ..fumigatus by inhibition of protective Th1 responses. IL-4 appears to have a distinct role in the pathogenesis of allergic and nonallergic lung diseases caused by the fungus. ..
  24. Sylvin H, Matvienko O, Leonchiks A, Alving K, van der Ploeg I. Molecular cloning, expression, and purification of pig interleukin-5. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:59-64 pubmed
    ..Pig IL-5 shows 65% amino acid identity to the human IL-5 sequence and 90, 88, 83, 62, and 61% identity to the cow, sheep, horse, mouse, and rat counterparts. ..
  25. Reiman R, Thompson R, Feng C, Hari D, Knight R, Cheever A, et al. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) augments the progression of liver fibrosis by regulating IL-13 activity. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1471-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, inhibiting the activity of IL-5 or eosinophils may prove effective for a variety of chronic fibrotic diseases...
  26. Hao H, Cohen D, Jennings C, Bryson J, Kaplan A. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is independent of eosinophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:515-21 pubmed
    ..BLM treatment induced significant lung fibrosis in IL-5 knockout mice in the absence of eosinophilia. These findings indicate that eosinophils are not an absolute requirement for BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the mouse. ..
  27. Azuma C, Tanabe T, Konishi M, Kinashi T, Noma T, Matsuda F, et al. Cloning of cDNA for human T-cell replacing factor (interleukin-5) and comparison with the murine homologue. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:9149-58 pubmed
    ..Human interleukin-5 synthesized by the direction of the cloned cDNA induced immunoglobulin synthesis in human B cells stimulated by Staphylococcus aureus mitogen. ..
  28. Ogasawara T, Hatano M, Satake H, Ikari J, Taniguchi T, Tsuruoka N, et al. Development of chronic allergic responses by dampening Bcl6-mediated suppressor activity in memory T helper 2 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E741-E750 pubmed publisher
  29. Fei M, Bhatia S, Oriss T, Yarlagadda M, Khare A, Akira S, et al. TNF-alpha from inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) regulates lung IL-17A/IL-5 levels and neutrophilia versus eosinophilia during persistent fungal infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5360-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies TNF-? as a molecular switch that orchestrates a sequence of events in DCs and CD4 T cells that promote neutrophilic airway inflammation...
  30. Cohn L, Homer R, Macleod H, Mohrs M, Brombacher F, Bottomly K. Th2-induced airway mucus production is dependent on IL-4Ralpha, but not on eosinophils. J Immunol. 1999;162:6178-83 pubmed
    ..These studies show definitively that IL-5, eosinophils, or mast cells are not essential, but signaling through IL-4Ralpha is critically important in Th2 cell stimulation of mucus production. ..
  31. Klein Hessling S, Bopp T, Jha M, Schmidt A, Miyatake S, Schmitt E, et al. Cyclic AMP-induced chromatin changes support the NFATc-mediated recruitment of GATA-3 to the interleukin 5 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31030-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the functional importance of cyclic AMP signals for the interplay between GATA-3 and NFATc factors in the transcriptional control of lymphokine expression in Th2 effector cells. ..
  32. Iseki M, Takaki S, Takatsu K. Molecular cloning of the mouse APS as a member of the Lnk family adaptor proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;272:45-54 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that APS is a member of the Lnk family adaptor protein and likely plays a role in signaling in B cells. ..
  33. Aihara N, Kamiie J, Yamada M, Shirota K. The development of mixed cryoglobulinemia in Capillaria hepatica-infected mice is associated with the capillaria antigen-induced selective proliferation of splenic B-1a cells in response to interleukin-5 stimulation. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:172-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the selective proliferation of IgM rheumatoid factor-secreting B-1a cells is induced by co-stimulation by the specific pathogen antigen and IL-5 in the development of MC in C. hepatica-infected mice. ..
  34. Spilianakis C, Lalioti M, Town T, Lee G, Flavell R. Interchromosomal associations between alternatively expressed loci. Nature. 2005;435:637-45 pubmed
    ..the T(H)2 cytokine genes by participating in a complex between the LCR and promoters of the cytokine genes Il4, Il5 and Il13...
  35. Arras M, Louahed J, Heilier J, Delos M, Brombacher F, Renauld J, et al. IL-9 protects against bleomycin-induced lung injury: involvement of prostaglandins. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:107-15 pubmed
    ..Indomethacin treatment, which inhibited PGE2 production in both strains, suppressed the protection in Tg5 mice, supporting the idea that IL-9 controls blm-induced lung injury through a prostaglandin-dependent mechanism. ..
  36. Tanaka H, Komai M, Nagao K, Ishizaki M, Kajiwara D, Takatsu K, et al. Role of interleukin-5 and eosinophils in allergen-induced airway remodeling in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;31:62-8 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrated that eosinophils are involved in allergen-induced subepithelial and peribronchial fibrosis probably by producing a fibrogenic factor, TGF-beta1. ..
  37. Erickson L, Foy T, Waldschmidt T. Murine B1 B cells require IL-5 for optimal T cell-dependent activation. J Immunol. 2001;166:1531-9 pubmed
  38. Schwarze J, Cieslewicz G, Hamelmann E, Joetham A, Shultz L, Lamers M, et al. IL-5 and eosinophils are essential for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness following acute respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 1999;162:2997-3004 pubmed
    ..IFN-gamma and IL-4 are not essential for these responses to RSV infection. ..
  39. Hawken R, Broom M, van Stijn T, Lumsden J, Broad T, Maddox J. Mapping the ovine genes encoding IL3, IL4, IL5, and CSF2 to sheep chromosome 5q13-q15 by FISH. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:858-9 pubmed
  40. Munks M, McKee A, Macleod M, Powell R, Degen J, Reisdorph N, et al. Aluminum adjuvants elicit fibrin-dependent extracellular traps in vivo. Blood. 2010;116:5191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that aluminum adjuvants form fibrin-dependent nodules in vivo, that these nodules have properties of extracellular traps, and the nodules are not required for aluminum salts to act as adjuvants. ..
  41. Van Dyken S, Liang H, Naikawadi R, Woodruff P, Wolters P, Erle D, et al. Spontaneous Chitin Accumulation in Airways and Age-Related Fibrotic Lung Disease. Cell. 2017;169:497-509.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that altered chitin clearance could exacerbate fibrogenic pathways in the setting of lung diseases characterized by epithelial cell dysfunction. ..
  42. Shibata H, Yoshino K, Muramatsu M, Plass C, Chapman V, Hayashizaki Y. The use of restriction landmark genomic scanning to scan the mouse genome for endogenous loci with imprinted patterns of methylation. Electrophoresis. 1995;16:210-7 pubmed
    ..Irlgs 1 and 3 are B6- and D2-specific loci that had the same strain distribution pattern which mapped to the central region of chromosome 9.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  43. Kudlacz E, Whitney C, Andresenl C, Conklyn M. Functional effects of eotaxin are selectively upregulated on IL-5 transgenic mouse eosinophils. Inflammation. 2002;26:111-9 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence of synergy between eosinophil-specific cytokines and chemokines that may promote accumulation of this cell type under conditions of allergic inflammation in vivo. ..
  44. Mock B, Krall M, Byrd L, Chin H, Barton C, Charles I, et al. The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) isolated from murine macrophages maps near the nude mutation on mouse chromosome 11. Eur J Immunogenet. 1994;21:231-8 pubmed
    ..This map location is discussed relative to map locations for disease susceptibility loci involved in mediating cutaneous leishmaniasis (ScII) and autoimmune type-I diabetes (Idd4). ..
  45. Kuraoka M, Hashiguchi M, Hachimura S, Kaminogawa S. CD4(-)c-kit(-)CD3epsilon(-)IL-2Ralpha(+) Peyer's patch cells are a novel cell subset which secrete IL-5 in response to IL-2: implications for their role in IgA production. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:1920-9 pubmed
  46. Stuber E, Neurath M, Calderhead D, Fell H, Strober W. Cross-linking of OX40 ligand, a member of the TNF/NGF cytokine family, induces proliferation and differentiation in murine splenic B cells. Immunity. 1995;2:507-21 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that the OX40-OX40L interaction is a novel pathway in T cell-dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation. ..
  47. Joetham A, Matsubara S, Okamoto M, Takeda K, Miyahara N, Dakhama A, et al. Plasticity of regulatory T cells: subversion of suppressive function and conversion to enhancement of lung allergic responses. J Immunol. 2008;180:7117-24 pubmed
  48. Des Portes V, Coulpier M, Melki J, Dreyfus P. Early detection of mouse wobbler mutation: a model of pathological motoneurone death. Neuroreport. 1994;5:1861-4 pubmed
    ..The new mutants exhibit motoneurone degeneration despite the new genetic background. ..
  49. Wang A, Fernando M, Leung G, Phan V, Smyth D, McKay D. Exacerbation of oxazolone colitis by infection with the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta: involvement of IL-5 and eosinophils. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2850-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Krulova M, Havelkov√° H, Kosarov√° M, Holan V, Hart A, Demant P, et al. IL-2-induced proliferative response is controlled by loci Cinda1 and Cinda2 on mouse chromosomes 11 and 12: a distinct control of the response induced by different IL-2 concentrations. Genomics. 1997;42:11-5 pubmed
    ..Understanding the action of genetic factors, such as Cinda1 and Cinda2, that control T cell function is expected to contribute to the efficient analysis of the genetic control of susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. ..
  51. Vallance B, Blennerhassett P, Deng Y, Matthaei K, Young I, Collins S. IL-5 contributes to worm expulsion and muscle hypercontractility in a primary T. spiralis infection. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:G400-8 pubmed
    ..IL-5 also appears to play a minor role in expelling a primary T. spiralis infection from the gut. ..
  52. Corcoran L, Metcalf D. IL-5 and Rp105 signaling defects in B cells from commonly used 129 mouse substrains. J Immunol. 1999;163:5836-42 pubmed
    ..This phenotype displays a codominant inheritance pattern, and is accompanied by a variable but significant depression of peritoneal B-1 cell numbers in 50% of the mice. ..
  53. Naura A, Datta R, Hans C, Zerfaoui M, Rezk B, Errami Y, et al. Reciprocal regulation of iNOS and PARP-1 during allergen-induced eosinophilia. Eur Respir J. 2009;33:252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Such dispensability may explain, in part, the reported ineffectiveness of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition in preventing allergen-induced inflammation in humans. ..
  54. Montgomery R, Dallman M. Semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression during thymic ontogeny. Cytokine. 1997;9:717-26 pubmed
    ..The mRNA abundance and pattern of expression of each cytokine or cytokine receptor may indicate the relative contribution that it makes to different stages of fetal thymic ontogeny. ..
  55. Zarei S, Schwenter F, Luy P, Aurrand Lions M, Morel P, Kopf M, et al. Role of GM-CSF signaling in cell-based tumor immunization. Blood. 2009;113:6658-68 pubmed publisher
  56. Mita S, Takaki S, Tominaga A, Takatsu K. Comparative analysis of the kinetics of binding and internalization of IL-5 in murine IL-5 receptors of high and low affinity. J Immunol. 1993;151:6924-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IL-5R alpha may be involved in the internalization of IL-5, whereas IL-5R beta is responsible for slowing the dissociation and the efficient internalization of IL-5 by stabilizing the ligand-receptor complex. ..
  57. Grund L, Komegae E, Lopes Ferreira M, Lima C. IL-5 and IL-17A are critical for the chronic IgE response and differentiation of long-lived antibody-secreting cells in inflamed tissues. Cytokine. 2012;59:335-51 pubmed publisher
  58. Rulifson I, Sperling A, Fields P, Fitch F, Bluestone J. CD28 costimulation promotes the production of Th2 cytokines. J Immunol. 1997;158:658-65 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CD28 ligation promotes the production of Th2-type cytokines by naive murine T cells via an IL-4-dependent mechanism. ..
  59. Jacobsen E, Zellner K, Colbert D, Lee N, Lee J. Eosinophils regulate dendritic cells and Th2 pulmonary immune responses following allergen provocation. J Immunol. 2011;187:6059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The cumulative effect of these eosinophil-dependent immune mechanisms is to promote the Th2 polarization characteristic of the pulmonary microenvironment after allergen challenge. ..
  60. Hemmerle T, Doll F, Neri D. Antibody-based delivery of IL4 to the neovasculature cures mice with arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12008-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Response to treatment was associated with an elevation of IL13 levels and decreased IL6 plasma concentrations. A fully human version of F8-IL4 is currently being developed for clinical investigations. ..
  61. Itakura A, Ikutani M, Takatsu K, Kikuchi Y. Interleukin-5 plays a key role in mouse strain- dependent susceptibility to contact hypersensitivity through its effects on initiator B cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2013;161 Suppl 2:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences in the number of B-1 cells and IgM responses between the two strains of mice may be attributed to the difference in responsiveness of B-1 cells to IL-5. ..
  62. Nomiya R, Okano M, Fujiwara T, Maeda M, Kimura Y, Kino K, et al. CRTH2 plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of Cry j 1-induced pollinosis in mice. J Immunol. 2008;180:5680-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the PGD(2)-CRTH2 interaction is elevated following sensitization and plays a proinflammatory role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in mice. ..
  63. Chen Q, Ghilardi N, Wang H, Baker T, Xie M, Gurney A, et al. Development of Th1-type immune responses requires the type I cytokine receptor TCCR. Nature. 2000;407:916-20 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate the existence of a new cytokine receptor involved in regulating the adaptive immune response and critical to the generation of a Th1 response. ..
  64. Wang H, Li J, Pu H, Hasan B, Ma J, Jones M, et al. Echinococcus granulosus infection reduces airway inflammation of mice likely through enhancing IL-10 and down-regulation of IL-5 and IL-17A. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:522 pubmed publisher
    ..E. granulosus infection remarkably reduces the severity of OVA-induced airway inflammation likely through enhancing IL-10 and down-regulation of IL-5 and IL-17A. ..
  65. Takahashi T, Yamaguchi N, Mita S, Yamaguchi Y, Suda T, Tominaga A, et al. Structural comparison of murine T-cell (B151K12)-derived T-cell-replacing factor (IL-5) with rIL-5: dimer formation is essential for the expression of biological activity. Mol Immunol. 1990;27:911-20 pubmed
    T-cell-replacing factor (TRF)/IL-5 is a T-cell-derived glycoprotein which has pleiotropic activity on lymphoid and myeloid cells...
  66. Babayan S, Read A, Lawrence R, Bain O, Allen J. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000525 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology. ..
  67. Huaux F, Liu T, McGarry B, Ullenbruch M, Xing Z, Phan S. Eosinophils and T lymphocytes possess distinct roles in bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis. J Immunol. 2003;171:5470-81 pubmed
  68. Mishra A, Rothenberg M. Intratracheal IL-13 induces eosinophilic esophagitis by an IL-5, eotaxin-1, and STAT6-dependent mechanism. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:1419-27 pubmed
    ..IL-13 delivery to the lung induces EE by an IL-5, eotaxin-1, and STAT6-dependent mechanism. These results further establish an intimate connection between respiratory and esophageal inflammation. ..
  69. Temann U, Laouar Y, Eynon E, Homer R, Flavell R. IL9 leads to airway inflammation by inducing IL13 expression in airway epithelial cells. Int Immunol. 2007;19:1-10 pubmed
    ..Several T(h)2 cytokines including IL4, IL5 and IL13 were expressed in the lung in response to Tg IL9...
  70. Nakagome K, Dohi M, Okunishi K, Tanaka R, Kouro T, Kano M, et al. IL-5-induced hypereosinophilia suppresses the antigen-induced immune response via a TGF-beta-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2007;179:284-94 pubmed
    ..Therefore, hypereosinophilia could reveal an immunosuppressive effect in the early stage of Ag-induced immune response. ..
  71. Chae W, Henegariu O, Lee S, Bothwell A. The mutant leucine-zipper domain impairs both dimerization and suppressive function of Foxp3 in T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9631-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide insight into the mechanism that controls autoimmune diseases via the deletion of this single glutamic acid residue in the leucine-zipper domain of Foxp3. ..
  72. Hogan S, Koskinen A, Foster P. Interleukin-5 and eosinophils induce airway damage and bronchial hyperreactivity during allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. Immunol Cell Biol. 1997;75:284-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, there are at least two distinct pathophysiological mechanisms for the induction of aeroallergen-induced airway occlusion. ..
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