Gene Symbol: Il4
Description: interleukin 4
Alias: BSF-1, Il-4, interleukin-4, B-cell IgG differentiation factor, B-cell growth factor 1, B-cell stimulatory factor 1, IGG1 induction factor, lymphocyte stimulatory factor 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Il4

Top Publications

  1. Jenkins S, Rückerl D, Thomas G, Hewitson J, Duncan S, Brombacher F, et al. IL-4 directly signals tissue-resident macrophages to proliferate beyond homeostatic levels controlled by CSF-1. J Exp Med. 2013;210:2477-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the IL-4 pathway of proliferation may have developed as an alternative to CSF-1 to increase resident MΦ numbers without coincident monocyte recruitment. ..
  2. Soria J, Arroyo D, Gaviglio E, Rodríguez Galán M, Wang J, Iribarren P. Interleukin 4 induces the apoptosis of mouse microglial cells by a caspase-dependent mechanism. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;43:616-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations demonstrate a novel function of IL-4 in regulating the survival of microglial cells, which may have important significance in reduction of undesired inflammatory responses in the CNS. ..
  3. Phythian Adams A, Cook P, Lundie R, Jones L, Smith K, Barr T, et al. CD11c depletion severely disrupts Th2 induction and development in vivo. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2089-96 pubmed publisher
  4. Perona Wright G, Mohrs K, Mayer K, Mohrs M. Differential regulation of IL-4Ralpha expression by antigen versus cytokine stimulation characterizes Th2 progression in vivo. J Immunol. 2010;184:615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data reveal a tightly controlled program of changing IL-4 responsiveness that characterizes the initiation, amplification, and restriction of a Th2 response in vivo. ..
  5. Kuroda E, Ho V, Ruschmann J, Antignano F, Hamilton M, Rauh M, et al. SHIP represses the generation of IL-3-induced M2 macrophages by inhibiting IL-4 production from basophils. J Immunol. 2009;183:3652-60 pubmed publisher
  6. Everts B, Perona Wright G, Smits H, Hokke C, van der Ham A, Fitzsimmons C, et al. Omega-1, a glycoprotein secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs, drives Th2 responses. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1673-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we identify omega-1, a single component of SEA, as a potent inducer of Th2 responses. ..
  7. Glatman Zaretsky A, Taylor J, King I, Marshall F, Mohrs M, Pearce E. T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. J Exp Med. 2009;206:991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5(-) PD-1(-) IL-4/GFP(+) CD4(+) T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. ..
  8. Lai D, Zhu J, Wang T, Hu Li J, Terabe M, Berzofsky J, et al. KLF13 sustains thymic memory-like CD8(+) T cells in BALB/c mice by regulating IL-4-generating invariant natural killer T cells. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This work documents the impact of a small number of KLF13-dependent iNKT cells on the generation of memory-like CD8(+) T cells. ..
  9. van Panhuys N, Tang S, Prout M, Camberis M, Scarlett D, Roberts J, et al. In vivo studies fail to reveal a role for IL-4 or STAT6 signaling in Th2 lymphocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12423-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Ohnmacht C, Voehringer D. Basophil effector function and homeostasis during helminth infection. Blood. 2009;113:2816-25 pubmed publisher
  2. Hepworth M, Grencis R. Disruption of Th2 immunity results in a gender-specific expansion of IL-13 producing accessory NK cells during helminth infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:3906-14 pubmed publisher
  3. Kiyota T, Okuyama S, Swan R, Jacobsen M, Gendelman H, Ikezu T. CNS expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-4 attenuates Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis in APP+PS1 bigenic mice. FASEB J. 2010;24:3093-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that neuronal anti-inflammatory cytokine signaling may be a potential alternative target for non-Abeta-mediated treatment of AD. ..
  4. Tang H, Cao W, Kasturi S, Ravindran R, Nakaya H, Kundu K, et al. The T helper type 2 response to cysteine proteases requires dendritic cell-basophil cooperation via ROS-mediated signaling. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:608-17 pubmed publisher
    ..responses occur via 'cooperation' between migratory dermal dendritic cells (DCs) and basophils positive for interleukin 4 (IL-4)...
  5. Dickgreber N, Farrand K, van Panhuys N, Knight D, McKee S, Chong M, et al. Immature murine NKT cells pass through a stage of developmentally programmed innate IL-4 secretion. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:999-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate a regulated pattern of IL-4 expression by maturing NKT cells, which may endow these cells with a capacity to influence the development of surrounding cells in the thymus. ..
  6. Sokol C, Chu N, Yu S, Nish S, Laufer T, Medzhitov R. Basophils function as antigen-presenting cells for an allergen-induced T helper type 2 response. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:713-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, basophils function as antigen-presenting cells for T(H)2 differentiation in response to protease allergens...
  7. Morris S, Heidorn S, Herbert D, Perkins C, Hildeman D, Khodoun M, et al. Endogenously produced IL-4 nonredundantly stimulates CD8+ T cell proliferation. J Immunol. 2009;182:1429-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, endogenously produced IL-4 is an important regulator of quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of T cell immunity. ..
  8. Szanto A, Balint B, Nagy Z, Barta E, Dezso B, Pap A, et al. STAT6 transcription factor is a facilitator of the nuclear receptor PPAR?-regulated gene expression in macrophages and dendritic cells. Immunity. 2010;33:699-712 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction, underpinning cell type-specific responses, represents a unique way of controlling nuclear receptor signaling by inflammatory molecules in immune cells. ..
  9. Hübner M, Shi Y, Torrero M, Mueller E, Larson D, Soloviova K, et al. Helminth protection against autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice is independent of a type 2 immune shift and requires TGF-?. J Immunol. 2012;188:559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that L. sigmodontis-mediated protection against diabetes in NOD mice is not dependent on the induction of a type 2 immune shift but does require TGF-?. ..
  10. Dolgachev V, Petersen B, Budelsky A, Berlin A, Lukacs N. Pulmonary IL-17E (IL-25) production and IL-17RB+ myeloid cell-derived Th2 cytokine production are dependent upon stem cell factor-induced responses during chronic allergic pulmonary disease. J Immunol. 2009;183:5705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these studies suggest a complex relationship between SCF, bone marrow-derived IL-25-responsive myeloid cells, Th2 cytokines, and chronic allergic disease. ..
  11. Ji Y, Sun S, Xia S, Yang L, Li X, Qi L. Short term high fat diet challenge promotes alternative macrophage polarization in adipose tissue via natural killer T cells and interleukin-4. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24378-86 pubmed publisher
  12. Charles N, Watford W, Ramos H, Hellman L, Oettgen H, Gomez G, et al. Lyn kinase controls basophil GATA-3 transcription factor expression and induction of Th2 cell differentiation. Immunity. 2009;30:533-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that basophil-expressed Lyn kinase exerts regulatory control on Th2 cell differentiation and function. ..
  13. Everts B, Hussaarts L, Driessen N, Meevissen M, Schramm G, van der Ham A, et al. Schistosome-derived omega-1 drives Th2 polarization by suppressing protein synthesis following internalization by the mannose receptor. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1753-67, S1 pubmed
    ..These experiments reveal an unrecognized pathway involving MR and interference with protein synthesis that conditions DCs for Th2 priming...
  14. Veldhoen M, Uyttenhove C, Van Snick J, Helmby H, Westendorf A, Buer J, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta 'reprograms' the differentiation of T helper 2 cells and promotes an interleukin 9-producing subset. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, transforming growth factor-beta constitutes a regulatory 'switch' that in combination with other cytokines can 'reprogram' effector T cell differentiation along different pathways. ..
  15. Liang H, Reinhardt R, Bando J, Sullivan B, Ho I, Locksley R. Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity. Nat Immunol. 2011;13:58-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are critical for responses to parasitic helminthes. We used genetically engineered reporter mice to assess the temporal and spatial production of these cytokines in vivo...
  16. Yusuf I, Kageyama R, Monticelli L, Johnston R, DiToro D, Hansen K, et al. Germinal center T follicular helper cell IL-4 production is dependent on signaling lymphocytic activation molecule receptor (CD150). J Immunol. 2010;185:190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These data illustrate complexities of SAP-dependent SLAM family receptor signaling, revealing a prominent role for SLAM receptor ligation in IL-4 production by GC CD4 T cells but not in T(FH) cell and GC T(FH) cell differentiation...
  17. Rückerl D, Jenkins S, Laqtom N, Gallagher I, Sutherland T, Duncan S, et al. Induction of IL-4Rα-dependent microRNAs identifies PI3K/Akt signaling as essential for IL-4-driven murine macrophage proliferation in vivo. Blood. 2012;120:2307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data suggest that negative regulation of Akt signaling via microRNAs might play a central role in limiting MΦ expansion and alternative activation during type 2 inflammatory settings. ..
  18. King I, Mohrs M. IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells in reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection are T follicular helper cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1001-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our report reveals the compartmentalization of Th2 priming and IL-4 production in the lymph nodes during infection, and identifies Tfh cells as the dominant source of IL-4 in vivo. ..
  19. Yagi R, Junttila I, Wei G, Urban J, Zhao K, Paul W, et al. The transcription factor GATA3 actively represses RUNX3 protein-regulated production of interferon-gamma. Immunity. 2010;32:507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Runx3-mediated pathway, actively suppressed by GATA3, induces IFN-gamma production in a STAT4- and T-bet-independent manner. ..
  20. Sasaki K, Zhao X, Pardee A, Ueda R, Fujita M, Sehra S, et al. Stat6 signaling suppresses VLA-4 expression by CD8+ T cells and limits their ability to infiltrate tumor lesions in vivo. J Immunol. 2008;181:104-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Stat6-signaling is necessary and sufficient to restrict CD8+ T cell expression of VLA-4 (by IL-4), thereby serving as a regulator for CD8+ T cell infiltration into tumors. ..
  21. Dardalhon V, Awasthi A, Kwon H, Galileos G, Gao W, Sobel R, et al. IL-4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-beta, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3(-) effector T cells. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells lack suppressive function and constitute a distinct population of helper-effector T cells that promote tissue inflammation. ..
  22. Ohnmacht C, Schwartz C, Panzer M, Schiedewitz I, Naumann R, Voehringer D. Basophils orchestrate chronic allergic dermatitis and protective immunity against helminths. Immunity. 2010;33:364-74 pubmed publisher
  23. Hammad H, Plantinga M, Deswarte K, Pouliot P, Willart M, Kool M, et al. Inflammatory dendritic cells--not basophils--are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2097-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen...
  24. Dittrich A, Chen H, Xu L, Ranney P, Connolly S, Yarovinsky T, et al. A new mechanism for inhalational priming: IL-4 bypasses innate immune signals. J Immunol. 2008;181:7307-15 pubmed
    ..Our findings bring new mechanistic knowledge to the phenomenon of polysensitization and primary sensitization in asthma. ..
  25. Tozawa H, Kanki Y, Suehiro J, Tsutsumi S, Kohro T, Wada Y, et al. Genome-wide approaches reveal functional interleukin-4-inducible STAT6 binding to the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2196-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of a novel IL-4-mediated VCAM-1 enhancer may provide a foundation for targeted therapy in vascular disease. ..
  26. Cho J, Song D, Pham A, Rosenthal P, Miller M, Dayan S, et al. Chronic OVA allergen challenged Siglec-F deficient mice have increased mucus, remodeling, and epithelial Siglec-F ligands which are up-regulated by IL-4 and IL-13. Respir Res. 2010;11:154 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, IL-4 and IL-13 are important regulators of Siglec-F ligand expression by airway epithelium. ..
  27. Gao Y, Nish S, Jiang R, Hou L, Licona Limón P, Weinstein J, et al. Control of T helper 2 responses by transcription factor IRF4-dependent dendritic cells. Immunity. 2013;39:722-32 pubmed publisher
    ..IRF4 is known to control Th2 cell differentiation and Th2 cell-associated suppressing function in Treg cells. Our finding suggests that IRF4 also plays a role in DCs where it controls the initiation of Th2 cell responses...
  28. Fukuyama T, Kasper L, Boussouar F, Jeevan T, van Deursen J, Brindle P. Histone acetyltransferase CBP is vital to demarcate conventional and innate CD8+ T-cell development. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3894-904 pubmed publisher
    ..CBP therefore defines a nuclear component of the signaling pathways that demarcate the development of innate and adaptive naïve CD8(+) T cells in the thymus. ..
  29. Ji Y, Sun S, Xu A, Bhargava P, Yang L, Lam K, et al. Activation of natural killer T cells promotes M2 Macrophage polarization in adipose tissue and improves systemic glucose tolerance via interleukin-4 (IL-4)/STAT6 protein signaling axis in obesity. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13561-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data identify a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated inflammation and type 2 diabetes. ..
  30. Tanaka S, Motomura Y, Suzuki Y, Yagi R, Inoue H, Miyatake S, et al. The enhancer HS2 critically regulates GATA-3-mediated Il4 transcription in T(H)2 cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify the DNase I-hypersensitive site 2 (HS2) element located in the second intron of the interleukin 4 locus (Il4) as a critical enhancer strictly controlled by GATA-3 binding...
  31. Apte S, Baz A, Groves P, Kelso A, Kienzle N. Interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 reciprocally regulate CD8 expression in CD8+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The data reveal an unexpected role for IFN-gamma in tuning the CD8 co-receptor during primary CD8(+) T cell activation both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  32. Varin A, Mukhopadhyay S, Herbein G, Gordon S. Alternative activation of macrophages by IL-4 impairs phagocytosis of pathogens but potentiates microbial-induced signalling and cytokine secretion. Blood. 2010;115:353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are relevant to host defense in mixed infections within a Th2 microenvironment and shed light on immunologic functions associated with alternative priming and full activation of macrophages...
  33. Sullivan B, Liang H, Bando J, WU D, Cheng L, McKerrow J, et al. Genetic analysis of basophil function in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:527-35 pubmed publisher
    Contributions by basophils to allergic and helminth immunity remain incompletely defined. Using sensitive interleukin 4 (Il4) reporter alleles, we demonstrate here that basophil IL-4 production occurs by a CD4(+) T cell-dependent process ..
  34. Reinhardt R, Liang H, Locksley R. Cytokine-secreting follicular T cells shape the antibody repertoire. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an interleukin 4-reporter system, we show here that CD4(+) follicular helper T cells constituted essentially all of the ..
  35. WU D, Molofsky A, Liang H, Ricardo Gonzalez R, Jouihan H, Bando J, et al. Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis. Science. 2011;332:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that eosinophils play an unexpected role in metabolic homeostasis through maintenance of adipose AAMs. ..
  36. Ricardo Gonzalez R, Red Eagle A, Odegaard J, Jouihan H, Morel C, Heredia J, et al. IL-4/STAT6 immune axis regulates peripheral nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22617-22 pubmed publisher
  37. Egawa M, Mukai K, Yoshikawa S, Iki M, Mukaida N, Kawano Y, et al. Inflammatory monocytes recruited to allergic skin acquire an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype via basophil-derived interleukin-4. Immunity. 2013;38:570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inflammatory monocytes can be converted from being proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory under the influence of basophils in allergic reactions...
  38. Price A, Liang H, Sullivan B, Reinhardt R, Eisley C, Erle D, et al. Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Widely dispersed innate type 2 helper cells, which we designate Ih2 cells, play an integral role in type 2 immune responses. ..
  39. Elliott D, Metwali A, Leung J, Setiawan T, Blum A, Ince M, et al. Colonization with Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppresses mucosal IL-17 production. J Immunol. 2008;181:2414-9 pubmed
    ..Ab-mediated blockade of IL-17 improves colitis in IL-10-deficient mice. Thus, helminth-associated inhibition of IL-17 production is most likely an important mechanism mediating protection from inappropriate intestinal inflammation...
  40. Oliver J, Stolberg V, Chensue S, King P. IL-4 acts as a potent stimulator of IFN-? expression in CD8+ T cells through STAT6-dependent and independent induction of Eomesodermin and T-bet. Cytokine. 2012;57:191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings point to a function for IL-4 as a direct regulator of IFN-? expression in CD8+ T cells and reveal the molecular mechanisms involved. ..
  41. Nguyen K, Qiu Y, Cui X, Goh Y, Mwangi J, David T, et al. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis. Nature. 2011;480:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have discovered a role for alternatively activated macrophages in the orchestration of an important mammalian stress response, the response to cold. ..
  42. Perona Wright G, Mohrs K, Taylor J, Zaph C, Artis D, Pearce E, et al. Cutting edge: Helminth infection induces IgE in the absence of mu- or delta-chain expression. J Immunol. 2008;181:6697-701 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal the existence of an evolutionarily conserved, IgM-independent pathway for the production of IgE upon infection with helminth parasites. ..
  43. Denzel A, Maus U, Rodriguez Gomez M, Moll C, Niedermeier M, Winter C, et al. Basophils enhance immunological memory responses. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:733-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These basophil-dependent effects on B cells required interleukins 6 and 4 and increased the capacity of CD4(+) T cells to provide B cell help. Thus, basophils are important contributors to humoral memory immune responses. ..
  44. Kroeger K, Sullivan B, Locksley R. IL-18 and IL-33 elicit Th2 cytokines from basophils via a MyD88- and p38alpha-dependent pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, basophil survival increased in the presence of IL-18 or IL-33 as a result of increased Akt activation. Studies in vivo confirmed the potency of IL-18 and IL-33 in activating cytokine release from mouse basophils. ..
  45. Kurowska Stolarska M, Kewin P, Murphy G, Russo R, Stolarski B, Garcia C, et al. IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4. J Immunol. 2008;181:4780-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate here that, in the presence of Ag, IL-33 induces IL-5-producing T cells and promotes airway inflammation independent of IL-4...
  46. Mukherjee S, Chen L, Papadimos T, Huang S, Zuraw B, Pan Z. Lipopolysaccharide-driven Th2 cytokine production in macrophages is regulated by both MyD88 and TRAM. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29391-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a novel function of LPS and the signaling pathways in the induction of IL-4 gene expression. ..
  47. Oboki K, Ohno T, Kajiwara N, Arae K, Morita H, Ishii A, et al. IL-33 is a crucial amplifier of innate rather than acquired immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that IL-33 is a crucial amplifier of mucosal and systemic innate, rather than acquired, immune responses. ..
  48. Verykokakis M, Boos M, Bendelac A, Kee B. SAP protein-dependent natural killer T-like cells regulate the development of CD8(+) T cells with innate lymphocyte characteristics. Immunity. 2010;33:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that accumulation of NKT-like cells promotes conventional CD8(+) thymocytes to acquire innate lymphocyte characteristics. ..
  49. Balce D, Li B, Allan E, Rybicka J, Krohn R, Yates R. Alternative activation of macrophages by IL-4 enhances the proteolytic capacity of their phagosomes through synergistic mechanisms. Blood. 2011;118:4199-208 pubmed publisher
  50. Heredia J, Mukundan L, Chen F, Mueller A, Deo R, Locksley R, et al. Type 2 innate signals stimulate fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate muscle regeneration. Cell. 2013;153:376-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, type 2 cytokine signaling is also required in FAPs, but not in myeloid cells, for rapid clearance of necrotic debris, a process that is necessary for timely and complete regeneration of tissues. ..
  51. Neill D, Wong S, Bellosi A, Flynn R, Daly M, Langford T, et al. Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity. Nature. 2010;464:1367-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, nuocytes represent a critically important innate effector cell in type-2 immunity...
  52. Zhou Y, Sonobe Y, Akahori T, Jin S, Kawanokuchi J, Noda M, et al. IL-9 promotes Th17 cell migration into the central nervous system via CC chemokine ligand-20 produced by astrocytes. J Immunol. 2011;186:4415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that IL-9 is produced by several Th cell subsets in the presence of IL-4 and induces CCL-20 production by astrocytes to induce the migration of Th17 cells into the CNS. ..
  53. Fallon P, Ballantyne S, Mangan N, Barlow J, Dasvarma A, Hewett D, et al. Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1105-16 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that these IL-25-regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion...
  54. Chen L, Grabowski K, Xin J, Coleman J, Huang Z, Espiritu B, et al. IL-4 induces differentiation and expansion of Th2 cytokine-producing eosinophils. J Immunol. 2004;172:2059-66 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest IL-4 is a potent factor in directing bone marrow progenitor cells to differentiate into Th2 cytokine-producing eosinophils. ..