Gene Symbol: Il33
Description: interleukin 33
Alias: 9230117N10Rik, Il-33, Il1f11, NF-HEV, interleukin-33, nuclear factor from high endothelial venules
Species: mouse
Products:     Il33

Top Publications

  1. Halim T, Steer C, Mathä L, Gold M, Martínez González I, McNagny K, et al. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are critical for the initiation of adaptive T helper 2 cell-mediated allergic lung inflammation. Immunity. 2014;40:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Papain-induced ILC2 activation and Th2 cell differentiation was IL-33-dependent, suggesting a common pathway in the initiation of Th2 cell responses to allergen. ..
  2. Barlow J, Peel S, Fox J, Panova V, Hardman C, Camelo A, et al. IL-33 is more potent than IL-25 in provoking IL-13-producing nuocytes (type 2 innate lymphoid cells) and airway contraction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:933-41 pubmed publisher
    ..However, only polymorphisms in the IL-33 pathway (IL1RL1 and IL33) have been significantly associated with asthma in large-cohort genome-wide association studies.
  3. Yin H, Li X, Hu S, Liu T, Yuan B, Ni Q, et al. IL-33 promotes Staphylococcus aureus-infected wound healing in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;17:432-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, these findings reveal that IL-33 plays an essential effect in maintenance of cutaneous homeostasis and improvement of infectious wound healing. ..
  4. Miller A, Asquith D, Hueber A, Anderson L, Holmes W, McKenzie A, et al. Interleukin-33 induces protective effects in adipose tissue inflammation during obesity in mice. Circ Res. 2010;107:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, IL-33 may play a protective role in the development of adipose tissue inflammation during obesity. ..
  5. Yang Q, Li G, Zhu Y, Liu L, Chen E, Turnquist H, et al. IL-33 synergizes with TCR and IL-12 signaling to promote the effector function of CD8+ T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:3351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The synergistic effect of IL-33 and IL-12 is partly mediated by Gadd45b. Together, these in vitro data establish a novel role of IL-33 in promoting effector type 1 adaptive immune responses. ..
  6. Yasuoka S, Kawanokuchi J, Parajuli B, Jin S, Doi Y, Noda M, et al. Production and functions of IL-33 in the central nervous system. Brain Res. 2011;1385:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..It also enhances chemokines and nitric oxide production and phagocytosis by microglia. Thus, IL-33 produced in the CNS activates microglia and may function as a pro-inflammatory mediator in the pathophysiology of the CNS. ..
  7. Ali S, Huber M, Kollewe C, Bischoff S, Falk W, Martin M. IL-1 receptor accessory protein is essential for IL-33-induced activation of T lymphocytes and mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18660-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that IL-1RAcP is used by more than one alpha-chain of the IL-1 receptor family and thus may resemble a common beta-chain of that family. ..
  8. Humphreys N, Xu D, Hepworth M, Liew F, Grencis R. IL-33, a potent inducer of adaptive immunity to intestinal nematodes. J Immunol. 2008;180:2443-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ability of IL-33 to induce Th2 responses has functional relevance in the context of intestinal helminth infection, particularly during the initiation of the response. ..
  9. Turnquist H, Zhao Z, Rosborough B, Liu Q, Castellaneta A, Isse K, et al. IL-33 expands suppressive CD11b+ Gr-1(int) and regulatory T cells, including ST2L+ Foxp3+ cells, and mediates regulatory T cell-dependent promotion of cardiac allograft survival. J Immunol. 2011;187:4598-610 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, in addition to supporting Th2 responses, IL-33 facilitates regulatory cells, particularly functional CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs that underlie IL-33-mediated cardiac allograft survival. ..

More Information


  1. Zaiss M, Kurowska Stolarska M, Böhm C, Gary R, Scholtysek C, Stolarski B, et al. IL-33 shifts the balance from osteoclast to alternatively activated macrophage differentiation and protects from TNF-alpha-mediated bone loss. J Immunol. 2011;186:6097-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we show in this study that IL-33 is an important bone-protecting cytokine and may be of therapeutic benefit in treating bone resorption. ..
  2. Matsuba Kitamura S, Yoshimoto T, Yasuda K, Futatsugi Yumikura S, Taki Y, Muto T, et al. Contribution of IL-33 to induction and augmentation of experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Int Immunol. 2010;22:479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we showed that conjunctival tissues constitutively express biologically active IL-33, suggesting that IL-33 might play a crucial role in the induction and augmentation of AC...
  3. Volarevic V, Mitrovic M, Milovanovic M, Zelen I, Nikolic I, Mitrović S, et al. Protective role of IL-33/ST2 axis in Con A-induced hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2012;56:26-33 pubmed publisher
    We used Concanavalin A-induced liver injury to study the role of Interleukin 33 and its receptor ST2 in the induction of inflammatory pathology and hepatocellular damage...
  4. Oboki K, Ohno T, Kajiwara N, Arae K, Morita H, Ishii A, et al. IL-33 is a crucial amplifier of innate rather than acquired immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that IL-33 is a crucial amplifier of mucosal and systemic innate, rather than acquired, immune responses. ..
  5. Miller A, Xu D, Asquith D, Denby L, Li Y, Sattar N, et al. IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, IL-33 may play a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis via the induction of IL-5 and ox-LDL antibodies. ..
  6. Hsu C, Neilsen C, Bryce P. IL-33 is produced by mast cells and regulates IgE-dependent inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11944 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that mast cells produce IL-33 after IgE-mediated activation and that the IL-33/ST2 pathway is critical for the progression of IgE-dependent inflammation. ..
  7. Ohno T, Oboki K, Morita H, Kajiwara N, Arae K, Tanaka S, et al. Paracrine IL-33 stimulation enhances lipopolysaccharide-mediated macrophage activation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18404 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that LPS-mediated macrophage activation is accelerated by macrophage-derived paracrine IL-33 stimulation. ..
  8. Kurowska Stolarska M, Stolarski B, Kewin P, Murphy G, Corrigan C, Ying S, et al. IL-33 amplifies the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages that contribute to airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;183:6469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we demonstrate here that IL-33/ST2 plays a significant role in the amplification of AAM polarization and chemokine production which contribute to innate and Ag-induced airway inflammation. ..
  9. Palmer G, Lipsky B, Smithgall M, Meininger D, Siu S, Talabot Ayer D, et al. The IL-1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) is required for IL-33 signaling and soluble AcP enhances the ability of soluble ST2 to inhibit IL-33. Cytokine. 2008;42:358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations identify AcP as a shared co-receptor within the IL-1 family that is essential for IL-33 signaling and suggest a novel role for sAcP in modulating the activity of IL-33. ..
  10. Lefrançais E, Roga S, Gautier V, Gonzalez de Peredo A, Monsarrat B, Girard J, et al. IL-33 is processed into mature bioactive forms by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the inflammatory microenvironment may exacerbate disease-associated functions of IL-33 through the generation of highly active mature forms. ..
  11. Ohno T, Oboki K, Kajiwara N, Morii E, Aozasa K, Flavell R, et al. Caspase-1, caspase-8, and calpain are dispensable for IL-33 release by macrophages. J Immunol. 2009;183:7890-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that caspase-1-, caspase-8-, and calpain-independent IL-33 production by macrophages and/or mast cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of Th2-type allergic inflammation. ..
  12. Kurowska Stolarska M, Kewin P, Murphy G, Russo R, Stolarski B, Garcia C, et al. IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4. J Immunol. 2008;181:4780-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate here that, in the presence of Ag, IL-33 induces IL-5-producing T cells and promotes airway inflammation independent of IL-4...
  13. Bartemes K, Iijima K, Kobayashi T, Kephart G, McKenzie A, Kita H. IL-33-responsive lineage- CD25+ CD44(hi) lymphoid cells mediate innate type 2 immunity and allergic inflammation in the lungs. J Immunol. 2012;188:1503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells may provide a novel mechanism for type 2 immunity in the airways and induction of allergic airway diseases such as asthma...
  14. Kim H, Chang Y, Subramanian S, Lee H, Albacker L, Matangkasombut P, et al. Innate lymphoid cells responding to IL-33 mediate airway hyperreactivity independently of adaptive immunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:216-27.e1-6 pubmed publisher
  15. Xu D, Jiang H, Kewin P, Li Y, Mu R, Fraser A, et al. IL-33 exacerbates antigen-induced arthritis by activating mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this IL-1 superfamily member represents a therapeutic target for RA. ..
  16. Schulze J, Bickert T, Beil F, Zaiss M, Albers J, Wintges K, et al. Interleukin-33 is expressed in differentiated osteoblasts and blocks osteoclast formation from bone marrow precursor cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:704-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings have uncovered a previously unknown function of IL-33 as an inhibitor of bone resorption. ..
  17. Kouzaki H, Iijima K, Kobayashi T, O Grady S, Kita H. The danger signal, extracellular ATP, is a sensor for an airborne allergen and triggers IL-33 release and innate Th2-type responses. J Immunol. 2011;186:4375-87 pubmed publisher
  18. Enoksson M, Lyberg K, Möller Westerberg C, Fallon P, Nilsson G, Lunderius Andersson C. Mast cells as sensors of cell injury through IL-33 recognition. J Immunol. 2011;186:2523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify IL-33 as a key danger signal released by necrotic structural cells capable of activating mast cells, thus providing novel insights concerning the role of mast cells as sensors of cell injury. ..
  19. Chackerian A, Oldham E, Murphy E, Schmitz J, Pflanz S, Kastelein R. IL-1 receptor accessory protein and ST2 comprise the IL-33 receptor complex. J Immunol. 2007;179:2551-5 pubmed
    ..The implications of this shared usage of IL-1RAcP by IL-1(alpha and beta) and IL-33 are discussed. ..
  20. Palmer G, Talabot Ayer D, Lamacchia C, Toy D, Seemayer C, Viatte S, et al. Inhibition of interleukin-33 signaling attenuates the severity of experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:738-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine IL-33 production in human and mouse joints and to investigate the role of IL-33 and T1/ST2 in experimental arthritis...
  21. Le Goffic R, Arshad M, Rauch M, L Helgoualc h A, Delmas B, Piquet Pellorce C, et al. Infection with influenza virus induces IL-33 in murine lungs. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:1125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings evidenced a profound expression of IL-33 in lungs during both in vivo and in vitro IAV infections, suggesting a role for IL-33 in virus-induced lung infections. ..
  22. Schmitz J, Owyang A, Oldham E, Song Y, Murphy E, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines. Immunity. 2005;23:479-90 pubmed
    ..In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. ..
  23. Junttila I, Watson C, Kummola L, Chen X, Hu Li J, Guo L, et al. Efficient cytokine-induced IL-13 production by mast cells requires both IL-33 and IL-3. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:704-712.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Basophils follow the same rule; splenic basophils produce IL-13 in response to IL-18 or IL-33 plus IL-3. Optimal IL-13 production from mast cells and basophils requires 2 cytokine signals. ..
  24. Pichery M, Mirey E, Mercier P, Lefrançais E, Dujardin A, Ortega N, et al. Endogenous IL-33 is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, lymphoid organs, brain, embryos, and inflamed tissues: in situ analysis using a novel Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain. J Immunol. 2012;188:3488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings support the possibility that IL-33 may function as a nuclear alarmin to alert the innate immune system after injury or infection in epithelial barrier tissues. ..
  25. Saidi S, Bouri F, Lencel P, Duplomb L, Baud huin M, Delplace S, et al. IL-33 is expressed in human osteoblasts, but has no direct effect on bone remodeling. Cytokine. 2011;53:347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that IL-33 has no direct effects on normal bone remodeling. ..
  26. Baekkevold E, Roussigne M, Yamanaka T, Johansen F, Jahnsen F, Amalric F, et al. Molecular characterization of NF-HEV, a nuclear factor preferentially expressed in human high endothelial venules. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:69-79 pubmed
  27. Komai Koma M, Gilchrist D, McKenzie A, Goodyear C, Xu D, Liew F. IL-33 activates B1 cells and exacerbates contact sensitivity. J Immunol. 2011;186:2584-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, a hitherto unrecognized mechanism of B1 cell activation and IL-33 function, and suggest that IL-33 may play an important role in delayed-type hypersensitivity. ..
  28. Andrade M, Iwaki S, Ropert C, Gazzinelli R, Cunha Melo J, Beaven M. Amplification of cytokine production through synergistic activation of NFAT and AP-1 following stimulation of mast cells with antigen and IL-33. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:760-72 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33 may retune mast cell responses to Ag toward enhanced cytokine production and thus determine the symptoms and severity of Ag-dependent allergic and autoimmune diseases. ..
  29. Wills Karp M, Rani R, Dienger K, Lewkowich I, Fox J, Perkins C, et al. Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection. J Exp Med. 2012;209:607-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments extend the biological functions of TFF2 from tissue repair to the initiation and maintenance of mucosal T(H)2 responses. ..
  30. Marvie P, Lisbonne M, L Helgoualc h A, Rauch M, Turlin B, Preisser L, et al. Interleukin-33 overexpression is associated with liver fibrosis in mice and humans. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1726-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, IL-33 expression was increased in cultured HSC when stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, IL-33 is strongly associated with fibrosis in chronic liver injury and activated HSC are a source of IL-33. ..
  31. Arshad M, Rauch M, L Helgoualc h A, Julia V, Leite de Moraes M, Lucas Clerc C, et al. NKT cells are required to induce high IL-33 expression in hepatocytes during ConA-induced acute hepatitis. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, invariant NKT (iNKT) cells adoptively transferred into ConA-treated CD1d KO mouse restored IL-33 expression in hepatocytes. This strongly suggests that NKT cells are responsible for the induction of IL-33 in hepatocytes. ..
  32. Talabot Ayer D, Calo N, Vigne S, Lamacchia C, Gabay C, Palmer G. The mouse interleukin (Il)33 gene is expressed in a cell type- and stimulus-dependent manner from two alternative promoters. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91:119-25 pubmed publisher
    GenBank entries for mouse Il33 reveal the existence of two transcripts, Il33a and Il33b, with different 5'UTRs but coding for the same protein...
  33. Chu D, Llop Guevara A, Walker T, Flader K, Goncharova S, Boudreau J, et al. IL-33, but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-25, is central to mite and peanut allergic sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:187-200.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The epithelium-associated cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, and IL-33 are suggested to be important for the initiation of these responses...
  34. Carriere V, Roussel L, Ortega N, Lacorre D, Americh L, Aguilar L, et al. IL-33, the IL-1-like cytokine ligand for ST2 receptor, is a chromatin-associated nuclear factor in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:282-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that, similarly to IL1alpha and HMGB1, IL-33 is a dual function protein that may function as both a proinflammatory cytokine and an intracellular nuclear factor with transcriptional regulatory properties. ..
  35. Luzina I, Kopach P, Lockatell V, Kang P, Nagarsekar A, Burke A, et al. Interleukin-33 potentiates bleomycin-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;49:999-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, flIL-33 is a synergistic proinflammatory and profibrotic regulator that acts by stimulating the expression of several non-Th2 cytokines, and activates the expression of HSP70. ..
  36. Wong S, Walker J, Jolin H, Drynan L, Hams E, Camelo A, et al. Transcription factor ROR? is critical for nuocyte development. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the transcription factor ROR? was critical for the development of nuocytes and their role in the expulsion of parasitic worms...
  37. Bonilla W, Fröhlich A, Senn K, Kallert S, Fernandez M, Johnson S, et al. The alarmin interleukin-33 drives protective antiviral CD8? T cell responses. Science. 2012;335:984-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, alarmin release by radio-resistant cells orchestrates protective antiviral CTL responses. ..
  38. Guo L, Wei G, Zhu J, Liao W, Leonard W, Zhao K, et al. IL-1 family members and STAT activators induce cytokine production by Th2, Th17, and Th1 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13463-8 pubmed publisher
  39. Sakai N, Van Sweringen H, Quillin R, Schuster R, Blanchard J, Burns J, et al. Interleukin-33 is hepatoprotective during liver ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Hepatology. 2012;56:1468-78 pubmed publisher
    ..It appears that IL-33 has direct protective effects on hepatocytes, associated with the activation of NF-?B, p38 MAPK, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2 that limits liver injury and reduces the stimulus for inflammation. ..
  40. Kaieda S, Shin K, Nigrovic P, Seki K, Lee R, Stevens R, et al. Synovial fibroblasts promote the expression and granule accumulation of tryptase via interleukin-33 and its receptor ST-2 (IL1RL1). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore have identified a novel pathway by which mesenchymal cells exposed to inflammatory cytokines modulate the phenotype of local MCs to shape their immune responses. ..
  41. Hayakawa H, Hayakawa M, Kume A, Tominaga S. Soluble ST2 blocks interleukin-33 signaling in allergic airway inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26369-80 pubmed
    ..Our study provides a molecular mechanism wherein soluble ST2 modulates the biological activity of IL-33 in allergic airway inflammation. ..
  42. Hardman C, Panova V, McKenzie A. IL-33 citrine reporter mice reveal the temporal and spatial expression of IL-33 during allergic lung inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:488-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We have generated a fluorescent reporter mouse line, Il33(Cit/+), to define the expression profile of IL-33 in vivo and demonstrate its temporal and spatial expression ..
  43. Price A, Liang H, Sullivan B, Reinhardt R, Eisley C, Erle D, et al. Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Widely dispersed innate type 2 helper cells, which we designate Ih2 cells, play an integral role in type 2 immune responses. ..
  44. Willart M, Deswarte K, Pouliot P, Braun H, Beyaert R, Lambrecht B, et al. Interleukin-1? controls allergic sensitization to inhaled house dust mite via the epithelial release of GM-CSF and IL-33. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings put IL-1? upstream in the cytokine cascade leading to epithelial and DC activation in response to inhaled HDM allergen...
  45. Pastorelli L, Garg R, Hoang S, Spina L, Mattioli B, Scarpa M, et al. Epithelial-derived IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are dysregulated in ulcerative colitis and in experimental Th1/Th2 driven enteritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8017-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the IL-33/ST2 system plays an important role in IBD and experimental colitis, is modulated by anti-TNF therapy, and may represent a specific biomarker for active UC. ..
  46. Lüthi A, Cullen S, McNeela E, Duriez P, Afonina I, Sheridan C, et al. Suppression of interleukin-33 bioactivity through proteolysis by apoptotic caspases. Immunity. 2009;31:84-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, caspase-mediated proteolysis acts as a switch to dampen the proinflammatory properties of IL-33. ..
  47. Ngoi S, St Rose M, Menoret A, Smith D, Tovey M, Adler A, et al. Presensitizing with a Toll-like receptor 3 ligand impairs CD8 T-cell effector differentiation and IL-33 responsiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight that early exposure to double-stranded RNA reverses its role as an adjuvant and, importantly, prevents IL-33R up-regulation on CD8 effector T cells to dampen inflammation. ..
  48. Komai Koma M, Brombacher F, Pushparaj P, Arendse B, McSharry C, Alexander J, et al. Interleukin-33 amplifies IgE synthesis and triggers mast cell degranulation via interleukin-4 in naïve mice. Allergy. 2012;67:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33 amplifies IgE synthesis and triggers anaphylaxis in naïve mice via IL-4, independent of allergen. IL-33 may play an important role in nonatopic allergy and idiopathic anaphylaxis. ..
  49. Ali S, Mohs A, Thomas M, Klare J, Ross R, Schmitz M, et al. The dual function cytokine IL-33 interacts with the transcription factor NF-?B to dampen NF-?B-stimulated gene transcription. J Immunol. 2011;187:1609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that nuclear IL-33 sequesters nuclear NF-?B and reduces NF-?B-triggered gene expression to dampen proinflammatory signaling. ..
  50. Keller J, Catala Lehnen P, Wintges K, Schulze J, Bickert T, Ito W, et al. Transgenic over-expression of interleukin-33 in osteoblasts results in decreased osteoclastogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the generation and bone histomorphometric analysis of a transgenic mouse model (Col1a1-Il33) over-expressing IL-33 specifically in osteoblasts...
  51. Ho L, Ohno T, Oboki K, Kajiwara N, Suto H, Iikura M, et al. IL-33 induces IL-13 production by mouse mast cells independently of IgE-FcepsilonRI signals. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:1481-90 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest potential roles for IL-33 in mast cell- and Th2 cytokine-associated immune responses and disorders. ..
  52. Talabot Ayer D, Lamacchia C, Gabay C, Palmer G. Interleukin-33 is biologically active independently of caspase-1 cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19420-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results clearly show that caspase-1 cleavage is not required for pro-IL-33 secretion and bioactivity, highlighting major differences between IL-1beta and IL-33. ..
  53. Kroeger K, Sullivan B, Locksley R. IL-18 and IL-33 elicit Th2 cytokines from basophils via a MyD88- and p38alpha-dependent pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, basophil survival increased in the presence of IL-18 or IL-33 as a result of increased Akt activation. Studies in vivo confirmed the potency of IL-18 and IL-33 in activating cytokine release from mouse basophils. ..
  54. Moulin D, Donze O, Talabot Ayer D, Mezin F, Palmer G, Gabay C. Interleukin (IL)-33 induces the release of pro-inflammatory mediators by mast cells. Cytokine. 2007;40:216-25 pubmed
    ..These findings open new perspectives for the treatment of inflammatory diseases by targeting IL-33. ..
  55. Besnard A, Togbe D, Guillou N, Erard F, Quesniaux V, Ryffel B. IL-33-activated dendritic cells are critical for allergic airway inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1675-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that IL-33 activates DCs during antigen presentation and thereby drives a Th2-type response in allergic lung inflammation. ..
  56. Choi Y, Choi H, Min J, Pyun B, Maeng Y, Park H, et al. Interleukin-33 induces angiogenesis and vascular permeability through ST2/TRAF6-mediated endothelial nitric oxide production. Blood. 2009;114:3117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings open new perspectives for the role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of angiogenesis-dependent and inflammatory vascular diseases. ..
  57. Louten J, Rankin A, Li Y, Murphy E, Beaumont M, Moon C, et al. Endogenous IL-33 enhances Th2 cytokine production and T-cell responses during allergic airway inflammation. Int Immunol. 2011;23:307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that IL-33 is sufficient and required for severe allergic inflammation in the lung and support the concept of IL-33 as a therapeutic target in allergic lung inflammation. ..
  58. Le H, Tran V, Kim W, Kim J, Cho H, Kwon B. IL-33 priming regulates multiple steps of the neutrophil-mediated anti-Candida albicans response by modulating TLR and dectin-1 signals. J Immunol. 2012;189:287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that IL-33 can regulate the anti-fungal activity of neutrophils by collaborative modulation of the signaling pathways of different classes of innate immune receptors...
  59. Rankin A, Mumm J, Murphy E, Turner S, Yu N, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33 induces IL-13-dependent cutaneous fibrosis. J Immunol. 2010;184:1526-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results identify IL-33 as a previously unrecognized profibrotic mediator in skin and highlight the cellular and molecular pathways by which this pathology develops. ..
  60. Jones L, Roberts F, Nickdel M, Brombacher F, McKenzie A, Henriquez F, et al. IL-33 receptor (T1/ST2) signalling is necessary to prevent the development of encephalitis in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:426-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first evidence of a specific role for IL-33 receptor signalling in the brain as well as highlighting the requirement of this mechanism in limiting infection with an intracellular parasite. ..
  61. Hazlett L, McClellan S, Barrett R, Huang X, Zhang Y, Wu M, et al. IL-33 shifts macrophage polarization, promoting resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1524-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that IL-33 promotes a Th2-type immune response and reduces inflammation by polarizing the Mvarphi production of anti-inflammatory mediators in the cornea. ..
  62. Luzina I, Pickering E, Kopach P, Kang P, Lockatell V, Todd N, et al. Full-length IL-33 promotes inflammation but not Th2 response in vivo in an ST2-independent fashion. J Immunol. 2012;189:403-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The different effects of these isoforms, particularly the pro-Th2 effects of mature IL-33, are due to differential utilization of the IL-33R chain ST2, whereas their similar effects result from regulation of gene expression. ..
  63. Yasuda K, Muto T, Kawagoe T, Matsumoto M, Sasaki Y, Matsushita K, et al. Contribution of IL-33-activated type II innate lymphoid cells to pulmonary eosinophilia in intestinal nematode-infected mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..roles of endogenous IL-33 for Strongyloides venezuelensis infection-induced lung eosinophilic inflammation by using Il33(-/-) mice. Alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII) express IL-33 in their nucleus. Infection with S...
  64. Espinassous Q, Garcia de Paco E, Garcia Verdugo I, Synguelakis M, von Aulock S, Sallenave J, et al. IL-33 enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production from mouse macrophages by regulating lipopolysaccharide receptor complex. J Immunol. 2009;183:1446-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, IL-33 pretreatment of macrophages enhances the cytokine response to TLR-2 but not to TLR-3 ligands. Thus, IL-33 treatment preferentially affects the MyD88-dependent pathway activated by the TLR. ..
  65. Nelson M, Christmann B, Werner J, Metz A, Trevor J, Lowell C, et al. IL-33 and M2a alveolar macrophages promote lung defense against the atypical fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina. J Immunol. 2011;186:2372-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that M2a AMs are potent effector cells against P. murina. Furthermore, enhancing M2a polarization may be an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Pneumocystis...
  66. Zhiguang X, Wei C, Steven R, Wei D, Wei Z, Rong M, et al. Over-expression of IL-33 leads to spontaneous pulmonary inflammation in mIL-33 transgenic mice. Immunol Lett. 2010;131:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest transgenic IL-33 could be cleaved and secreted in an activated form and play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation. ..