Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il33
Description: interleukin 33
Alias: 9230117N10Rik, Il-33, Il1f11, NF-HEV, interleukin-33, nuclear factor from high endothelial venules
- Zaiss M, Kurowska Stolarska M, Böhm C, Gary R, Scholtysek C, Stolarski B, et al. IL-33 shifts the balance from osteoclast to alternatively activated macrophage differentiation and protects from TNF-alpha-mediated bone loss. J Immunol. 2011;186:6097-105 pubmed publisher..Thus, we show in this study that IL-33 is an important bone-protecting cytokine and may be of therapeutic benefit in treating bone resorption. ..
- Matsuba Kitamura S, Yoshimoto T, Yasuda K, Futatsugi Yumikura S, Taki Y, Muto T, et al. Contribution of IL-33 to induction and augmentation of experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Int Immunol. 2010;22:479-89 pubmed publisher..Finally, we showed that conjunctival tissues constitutively express biologically active IL-33, suggesting that IL-33 might play a crucial role in the induction and augmentation of AC...
- Volarevic V, Mitrovic M, Milovanovic M, Zelen I, Nikolic I, Mitrović S, et al. Protective role of IL-33/ST2 axis in Con A-induced hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2012;56:26-33 pubmed publisherWe used Concanavalin A-induced liver injury to study the role of Interleukin 33 and its receptor ST2 in the induction of inflammatory pathology and hepatocellular damage...
- Oboki K, Ohno T, Kajiwara N, Arae K, Morita H, Ishii A, et al. IL-33 is a crucial amplifier of innate rather than acquired immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18581-6 pubmed publisher..These observations indicate that IL-33 is a crucial amplifier of mucosal and systemic innate, rather than acquired, immune responses. ..
- Miller A, Xu D, Asquith D, Denby L, Li Y, Sattar N, et al. IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:339-46 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, IL-33 may play a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis via the induction of IL-5 and ox-LDL antibodies. ..
- Hsu C, Neilsen C, Bryce P. IL-33 is produced by mast cells and regulates IgE-dependent inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11944 pubmed publisher..Our findings demonstrate that mast cells produce IL-33 after IgE-mediated activation and that the IL-33/ST2 pathway is critical for the progression of IgE-dependent inflammation. ..
- Ohno T, Oboki K, Morita H, Kajiwara N, Arae K, Tanaka S, et al. Paracrine IL-33 stimulation enhances lipopolysaccharide-mediated macrophage activation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18404 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that LPS-mediated macrophage activation is accelerated by macrophage-derived paracrine IL-33 stimulation. ..
- Kurowska Stolarska M, Stolarski B, Kewin P, Murphy G, Corrigan C, Ying S, et al. IL-33 amplifies the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages that contribute to airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;183:6469-77 pubmed publisher..Taken together, we demonstrate here that IL-33/ST2 plays a significant role in the amplification of AAM polarization and chemokine production which contribute to innate and Ag-induced airway inflammation. ..
- Palmer G, Lipsky B, Smithgall M, Meininger D, Siu S, Talabot Ayer D, et al. The IL-1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) is required for IL-33 signaling and soluble AcP enhances the ability of soluble ST2 to inhibit IL-33. Cytokine. 2008;42:358-64 pubmed publisher..These observations identify AcP as a shared co-receptor within the IL-1 family that is essential for IL-33 signaling and suggest a novel role for sAcP in modulating the activity of IL-33. ..
- Lefrançais E, Roga S, Gautier V, Gonzalez de Peredo A, Monsarrat B, Girard J, et al. IL-33 is processed into mature bioactive forms by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1673-8 pubmed publisher..We propose that the inflammatory microenvironment may exacerbate disease-associated functions of IL-33 through the generation of highly active mature forms. ..
- Ohno T, Oboki K, Kajiwara N, Morii E, Aozasa K, Flavell R, et al. Caspase-1, caspase-8, and calpain are dispensable for IL-33 release by macrophages. J Immunol. 2009;183:7890-7 pubmed publisher..These observations suggest that caspase-1-, caspase-8-, and calpain-independent IL-33 production by macrophages and/or mast cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of Th2-type allergic inflammation. ..
- Kurowska Stolarska M, Kewin P, Murphy G, Russo R, Stolarski B, Garcia C, et al. IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4. J Immunol. 2008;181:4780-90 pubmed..Thus, we demonstrate here that, in the presence of Ag, IL-33 induces IL-5-producing T cells and promotes airway inflammation independent of IL-4...
- Bartemes K, Iijima K, Kobayashi T, Kephart G, McKenzie A, Kita H. IL-33-responsive lineage- CD25+ CD44(hi) lymphoid cells mediate innate type 2 immunity and allergic inflammation in the lungs. J Immunol. 2012;188:1503-13 pubmed publisher..These cells may provide a novel mechanism for type 2 immunity in the airways and induction of allergic airway diseases such as asthma...
- Xu D, Jiang H, Kewin P, Li Y, Mu R, Fraser A, et al. IL-33 exacerbates antigen-induced arthritis by activating mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10913-8 pubmed publisher..Thus, this IL-1 superfamily member represents a therapeutic target for RA. ..
- Schulze J, Bickert T, Beil F, Zaiss M, Albers J, Wintges K, et al. Interleukin-33 is expressed in differentiated osteoblasts and blocks osteoclast formation from bone marrow precursor cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:704-17 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these findings have uncovered a previously unknown function of IL-33 as an inhibitor of bone resorption. ..
- Enoksson M, Lyberg K, Möller Westerberg C, Fallon P, Nilsson G, Lunderius Andersson C. Mast cells as sensors of cell injury through IL-33 recognition. J Immunol. 2011;186:2523-8 pubmed publisher..Our findings identify IL-33 as a key danger signal released by necrotic structural cells capable of activating mast cells, thus providing novel insights concerning the role of mast cells as sensors of cell injury. ..
- Chackerian A, Oldham E, Murphy E, Schmitz J, Pflanz S, Kastelein R. IL-1 receptor accessory protein and ST2 comprise the IL-33 receptor complex. J Immunol. 2007;179:2551-5 pubmed..The implications of this shared usage of IL-1RAcP by IL-1(alpha and beta) and IL-33 are discussed. ..
- Palmer G, Talabot Ayer D, Lamacchia C, Toy D, Seemayer C, Viatte S, et al. Inhibition of interleukin-33 signaling attenuates the severity of experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:738-49 pubmed publisher..The aim of this study was to examine IL-33 production in human and mouse joints and to investigate the role of IL-33 and T1/ST2 in experimental arthritis...
- Le Goffic R, Arshad M, Rauch M, L Helgoualc h A, Delmas B, Piquet Pellorce C, et al. Infection with influenza virus induces IL-33 in murine lungs. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:1125-32 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, our findings evidenced a profound expression of IL-33 in lungs during both in vivo and in vitro IAV infections, suggesting a role for IL-33 in virus-induced lung infections. ..
- Schmitz J, Owyang A, Oldham E, Song Y, Murphy E, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines. Immunity. 2005;23:479-90 pubmed..In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. ..
- Junttila I, Watson C, Kummola L, Chen X, Hu Li J, Guo L, et al. Efficient cytokine-induced IL-13 production by mast cells requires both IL-33 and IL-3. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:704-712.e10 pubmed publisher..Basophils follow the same rule; splenic basophils produce IL-13 in response to IL-18 or IL-33 plus IL-3. Optimal IL-13 production from mast cells and basophils requires 2 cytokine signals. ..
- Pichery M, Mirey E, Mercier P, Lefrançais E, Dujardin A, Ortega N, et al. Endogenous IL-33 is highly expressed in mouse epithelial barrier tissues, lymphoid organs, brain, embryos, and inflamed tissues: in situ analysis using a novel Il-33-LacZ gene trap reporter strain. J Immunol. 2012;188:3488-95 pubmed publisher..Together, our findings support the possibility that IL-33 may function as a nuclear alarmin to alert the innate immune system after injury or infection in epithelial barrier tissues. ..
- Saidi S, Bouri F, Lencel P, Duplomb L, Baud huin M, Delplace S, et al. IL-33 is expressed in human osteoblasts, but has no direct effect on bone remodeling. Cytokine. 2011;53:347-54 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, our results suggest that IL-33 has no direct effects on normal bone remodeling. ..
- Baekkevold E, Roussigne M, Yamanaka T, Johansen F, Jahnsen F, Amalric F, et al. Molecular characterization of NF-HEV, a nuclear factor preferentially expressed in human high endothelial venules. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:69-79 pubmed
- Komai Koma M, Gilchrist D, McKenzie A, Goodyear C, Xu D, Liew F. IL-33 activates B1 cells and exacerbates contact sensitivity. J Immunol. 2011;186:2584-91 pubmed publisher..Thus, we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, a hitherto unrecognized mechanism of B1 cell activation and IL-33 function, and suggest that IL-33 may play an important role in delayed-type hypersensitivity. ..
- Andrade M, Iwaki S, Ropert C, Gazzinelli R, Cunha Melo J, Beaven M. Amplification of cytokine production through synergistic activation of NFAT and AP-1 following stimulation of mast cells with antigen and IL-33. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:760-72 pubmed publisher..IL-33 may retune mast cell responses to Ag toward enhanced cytokine production and thus determine the symptoms and severity of Ag-dependent allergic and autoimmune diseases. ..
- Wills Karp M, Rani R, Dienger K, Lewkowich I, Fox J, Perkins C, et al. Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection. J Exp Med. 2012;209:607-22 pubmed publisher..These experiments extend the biological functions of TFF2 from tissue repair to the initiation and maintenance of mucosal T(H)2 responses. ..
- Marvie P, Lisbonne M, L Helgoualc h A, Rauch M, Turlin B, Preisser L, et al. Interleukin-33 overexpression is associated with liver fibrosis in mice and humans. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1726-39 pubmed publisher..Moreover, IL-33 expression was increased in cultured HSC when stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, IL-33 is strongly associated with fibrosis in chronic liver injury and activated HSC are a source of IL-33. ..
- Arshad M, Rauch M, L Helgoualc h A, Julia V, Leite de Moraes M, Lucas Clerc C, et al. NKT cells are required to induce high IL-33 expression in hepatocytes during ConA-induced acute hepatitis. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2341-8 pubmed publisher..Interestingly, invariant NKT (iNKT) cells adoptively transferred into ConA-treated CD1d KO mouse restored IL-33 expression in hepatocytes. This strongly suggests that NKT cells are responsible for the induction of IL-33 in hepatocytes. ..
- Talabot Ayer D, Calo N, Vigne S, Lamacchia C, Gabay C, Palmer G. The mouse interleukin (Il)33 gene is expressed in a cell type- and stimulus-dependent manner from two alternative promoters. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91:119-25 pubmed publisherGenBank entries for mouse Il33 reveal the existence of two transcripts, Il33a and Il33b, with different 5'UTRs but coding for the same protein...
- Chu D, Llop Guevara A, Walker T, Flader K, Goncharova S, Boudreau J, et al. IL-33, but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-25, is central to mite and peanut allergic sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:187-200.e1-8 pubmed publisher..The epithelium-associated cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, and IL-33 are suggested to be important for the initiation of these responses...
- Carriere V, Roussel L, Ortega N, Lacorre D, Americh L, Aguilar L, et al. IL-33, the IL-1-like cytokine ligand for ST2 receptor, is a chromatin-associated nuclear factor in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:282-7 pubmed..Together, these data suggest that, similarly to IL1alpha and HMGB1, IL-33 is a dual function protein that may function as both a proinflammatory cytokine and an intracellular nuclear factor with transcriptional regulatory properties. ..
- Luzina I, Kopach P, Lockatell V, Kang P, Nagarsekar A, Burke A, et al. Interleukin-33 potentiates bleomycin-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;49:999-1008 pubmed publisher..Thus, flIL-33 is a synergistic proinflammatory and profibrotic regulator that acts by stimulating the expression of several non-Th2 cytokines, and activates the expression of HSP70. ..
- Wong S, Walker J, Jolin H, Drynan L, Hams E, Camelo A, et al. Transcription factor ROR? is critical for nuocyte development. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:229-36 pubmed publisher..Notably, the transcription factor ROR? was critical for the development of nuocytes and their role in the expulsion of parasitic worms...
- Bonilla W, Fröhlich A, Senn K, Kallert S, Fernandez M, Johnson S, et al. The alarmin interleukin-33 drives protective antiviral CD8? T cell responses. Science. 2012;335:984-9 pubmed publisher..Thus, alarmin release by radio-resistant cells orchestrates protective antiviral CTL responses. ..
- Sakai N, Van Sweringen H, Quillin R, Schuster R, Blanchard J, Burns J, et al. Interleukin-33 is hepatoprotective during liver ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Hepatology. 2012;56:1468-78 pubmed publisher..It appears that IL-33 has direct protective effects on hepatocytes, associated with the activation of NF-?B, p38 MAPK, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2 that limits liver injury and reduces the stimulus for inflammation. ..
- Kaieda S, Shin K, Nigrovic P, Seki K, Lee R, Stevens R, et al. Synovial fibroblasts promote the expression and granule accumulation of tryptase via interleukin-33 and its receptor ST-2 (IL1RL1). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21478-86 pubmed publisher..We therefore have identified a novel pathway by which mesenchymal cells exposed to inflammatory cytokines modulate the phenotype of local MCs to shape their immune responses. ..
- Hayakawa H, Hayakawa M, Kume A, Tominaga S. Soluble ST2 blocks interleukin-33 signaling in allergic airway inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26369-80 pubmed..Our study provides a molecular mechanism wherein soluble ST2 modulates the biological activity of IL-33 in allergic airway inflammation. ..
- Hardman C, Panova V, McKenzie A. IL-33 citrine reporter mice reveal the temporal and spatial expression of IL-33 during allergic lung inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:488-98 pubmed publisher..We have generated a fluorescent reporter mouse line, Il33(Cit/+), to define the expression profile of IL-33 in vivo and demonstrate its temporal and spatial expression ..
- Price A, Liang H, Sullivan B, Reinhardt R, Eisley C, Erle D, et al. Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11489-94 pubmed publisher..Widely dispersed innate type 2 helper cells, which we designate Ih2 cells, play an integral role in type 2 immune responses. ..
- Willart M, Deswarte K, Pouliot P, Braun H, Beyaert R, Lambrecht B, et al. Interleukin-1? controls allergic sensitization to inhaled house dust mite via the epithelial release of GM-CSF and IL-33. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1505-17 pubmed publisher..These findings put IL-1? upstream in the cytokine cascade leading to epithelial and DC activation in response to inhaled HDM allergen...
- Pastorelli L, Garg R, Hoang S, Spina L, Mattioli B, Scarpa M, et al. Epithelial-derived IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are dysregulated in ulcerative colitis and in experimental Th1/Th2 driven enteritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8017-22 pubmed publisher..Taken together, the IL-33/ST2 system plays an important role in IBD and experimental colitis, is modulated by anti-TNF therapy, and may represent a specific biomarker for active UC. ..
- Lüthi A, Cullen S, McNeela E, Duriez P, Afonina I, Sheridan C, et al. Suppression of interleukin-33 bioactivity through proteolysis by apoptotic caspases. Immunity. 2009;31:84-98 pubmed publisher..Thus, caspase-mediated proteolysis acts as a switch to dampen the proinflammatory properties of IL-33. ..
- Ngoi S, St Rose M, Menoret A, Smith D, Tovey M, Adler A, et al. Presensitizing with a Toll-like receptor 3 ligand impairs CD8 T-cell effector differentiation and IL-33 responsiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10486-91 pubmed publisher..These findings highlight that early exposure to double-stranded RNA reverses its role as an adjuvant and, importantly, prevents IL-33R up-regulation on CD8 effector T cells to dampen inflammation. ..
- Komai Koma M, Brombacher F, Pushparaj P, Arendse B, McSharry C, Alexander J, et al. Interleukin-33 amplifies IgE synthesis and triggers mast cell degranulation via interleukin-4 in naïve mice. Allergy. 2012;67:1118-26 pubmed publisher..IL-33 amplifies IgE synthesis and triggers anaphylaxis in naïve mice via IL-4, independent of allergen. IL-33 may play an important role in nonatopic allergy and idiopathic anaphylaxis. ..
- Ali S, Mohs A, Thomas M, Klare J, Ross R, Schmitz M, et al. The dual function cytokine IL-33 interacts with the transcription factor NF-?B to dampen NF-?B-stimulated gene transcription. J Immunol. 2011;187:1609-16 pubmed publisher..We suggest that nuclear IL-33 sequesters nuclear NF-?B and reduces NF-?B-triggered gene expression to dampen proinflammatory signaling. ..
- Keller J, Catala Lehnen P, Wintges K, Schulze J, Bickert T, Ito W, et al. Transgenic over-expression of interleukin-33 in osteoblasts results in decreased osteoclastogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:217-22 pubmed publisher..Here we describe the generation and bone histomorphometric analysis of a transgenic mouse model (Col1a1-Il33) over-expressing IL-33 specifically in osteoblasts...
- Ho L, Ohno T, Oboki K, Kajiwara N, Suto H, Iikura M, et al. IL-33 induces IL-13 production by mouse mast cells independently of IgE-FcepsilonRI signals. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:1481-90 pubmed..These observations suggest potential roles for IL-33 in mast cell- and Th2 cytokine-associated immune responses and disorders. ..
- Talabot Ayer D, Lamacchia C, Gabay C, Palmer G. Interleukin-33 is biologically active independently of caspase-1 cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19420-6 pubmed publisher..In addition, our results clearly show that caspase-1 cleavage is not required for pro-IL-33 secretion and bioactivity, highlighting major differences between IL-1beta and IL-33. ..
- Kroeger K, Sullivan B, Locksley R. IL-18 and IL-33 elicit Th2 cytokines from basophils via a MyD88- and p38alpha-dependent pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:769-78 pubmed publisher..In addition, basophil survival increased in the presence of IL-18 or IL-33 as a result of increased Akt activation. Studies in vivo confirmed the potency of IL-18 and IL-33 in activating cytokine release from mouse basophils. ..
- Moulin D, Donze O, Talabot Ayer D, Mezin F, Palmer G, Gabay C. Interleukin (IL)-33 induces the release of pro-inflammatory mediators by mast cells. Cytokine. 2007;40:216-25 pubmed..These findings open new perspectives for the treatment of inflammatory diseases by targeting IL-33. ..
- Besnard A, Togbe D, Guillou N, Erard F, Quesniaux V, Ryffel B. IL-33-activated dendritic cells are critical for allergic airway inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1675-86 pubmed publisher..These data demonstrate for the first time that IL-33 activates DCs during antigen presentation and thereby drives a Th2-type response in allergic lung inflammation. ..
- Choi Y, Choi H, Min J, Pyun B, Maeng Y, Park H, et al. Interleukin-33 induces angiogenesis and vascular permeability through ST2/TRAF6-mediated endothelial nitric oxide production. Blood. 2009;114:3117-26 pubmed publisher..These findings open new perspectives for the role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of angiogenesis-dependent and inflammatory vascular diseases. ..
- Louten J, Rankin A, Li Y, Murphy E, Beaumont M, Moon C, et al. Endogenous IL-33 enhances Th2 cytokine production and T-cell responses during allergic airway inflammation. Int Immunol. 2011;23:307-15 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that IL-33 is sufficient and required for severe allergic inflammation in the lung and support the concept of IL-33 as a therapeutic target in allergic lung inflammation. ..
- Le H, Tran V, Kim W, Kim J, Cho H, Kwon B. IL-33 priming regulates multiple steps of the neutrophil-mediated anti-Candida albicans response by modulating TLR and dectin-1 signals. J Immunol. 2012;189:287-95 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results suggest that IL-33 can regulate the anti-fungal activity of neutrophils by collaborative modulation of the signaling pathways of different classes of innate immune receptors...
- Rankin A, Mumm J, Murphy E, Turner S, Yu N, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33 induces IL-13-dependent cutaneous fibrosis. J Immunol. 2010;184:1526-35 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our results identify IL-33 as a previously unrecognized profibrotic mediator in skin and highlight the cellular and molecular pathways by which this pathology develops. ..
- Jones L, Roberts F, Nickdel M, Brombacher F, McKenzie A, Henriquez F, et al. IL-33 receptor (T1/ST2) signalling is necessary to prevent the development of encephalitis in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:426-36 pubmed publisher..This study provides the first evidence of a specific role for IL-33 receptor signalling in the brain as well as highlighting the requirement of this mechanism in limiting infection with an intracellular parasite. ..
- Hazlett L, McClellan S, Barrett R, Huang X, Zhang Y, Wu M, et al. IL-33 shifts macrophage polarization, promoting resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1524-32 pubmed publisher..These data provide evidence that IL-33 promotes a Th2-type immune response and reduces inflammation by polarizing the Mvarphi production of anti-inflammatory mediators in the cornea. ..
- Luzina I, Pickering E, Kopach P, Kang P, Lockatell V, Todd N, et al. Full-length IL-33 promotes inflammation but not Th2 response in vivo in an ST2-independent fashion. J Immunol. 2012;189:403-10 pubmed publisher..The different effects of these isoforms, particularly the pro-Th2 effects of mature IL-33, are due to differential utilization of the IL-33R chain ST2, whereas their similar effects result from regulation of gene expression. ..
- Yasuda K, Muto T, Kawagoe T, Matsumoto M, Sasaki Y, Matsushita K, et al. Contribution of IL-33-activated type II innate lymphoid cells to pulmonary eosinophilia in intestinal nematode-infected mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3451-6 pubmed publisher..roles of endogenous IL-33 for Strongyloides venezuelensis infection-induced lung eosinophilic inflammation by using Il33(-/-) mice. Alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII) express IL-33 in their nucleus. Infection with S...
- Espinassous Q, Garcia de Paco E, Garcia Verdugo I, Synguelakis M, von Aulock S, Sallenave J, et al. IL-33 enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production from mouse macrophages by regulating lipopolysaccharide receptor complex. J Immunol. 2009;183:1446-55 pubmed publisher..In addition, IL-33 pretreatment of macrophages enhances the cytokine response to TLR-2 but not to TLR-3 ligands. Thus, IL-33 treatment preferentially affects the MyD88-dependent pathway activated by the TLR. ..
- Nelson M, Christmann B, Werner J, Metz A, Trevor J, Lowell C, et al. IL-33 and M2a alveolar macrophages promote lung defense against the atypical fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina. J Immunol. 2011;186:2372-81 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these results indicate that M2a AMs are potent effector cells against P. murina. Furthermore, enhancing M2a polarization may be an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Pneumocystis...
- Zhiguang X, Wei C, Steven R, Wei D, Wei Z, Rong M, et al. Over-expression of IL-33 leads to spontaneous pulmonary inflammation in mIL-33 transgenic mice. Immunol Lett. 2010;131:159-65 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest transgenic IL-33 could be cleaved and secreted in an activated form and play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation. ..