Gene Symbol: Il3
Description: interleukin 3
Alias: BPA, Csfmu, HCGF, Il-3, MCGF, PSF, interleukin-3, P-cell-stimulating factor, hematopoietic growth factor, mast cell growth factor, multipotential colony-stimulating factor
Species: mouse
Products:     Il3

Top Publications

  1. Metcalf D. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors. Science. 1985;229:16-22 pubmed
    ..The proliferation of myeloid leukemia cells remains dependent on stimulation by colony-stimulating factors, although one of them also has the ability to suppress leukemic populations by inducing terminal differentiation. ..
  2. Leite de Moraes M, Lisbonne M, Arnould A, Machavoine F, Herbelin A, Dy M, et al. Ligand-activated natural killer T lymphocytes promptly produce IL-3 and GM-CSF in vivo: relevance to peripheral myeloid recruitment. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:1897-904 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data support the notion that activated NKT cells influence innate immune responses by recruiting myeloid progenitors and granulocytes to the periphery through their production of hematopoietic growth factors. ..
  3. Konishi Y, Kamegai M, Takahashi K, Kunishita T, Tabira T. Production of interleukin-3 by murine central nervous system neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1994;182:271-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, endogenous IL-3 might be produced by certain neurons in situ. ..
  4. Lantz C, Boesiger J, Song C, Mach N, Kobayashi T, Mulligan R, et al. Role for interleukin-3 in mast-cell and basophil development and in immunity to parasites. Nature. 1998;392:90-3 pubmed
    ..These findings establish a role for IL-3 in immunity to parasites and indicate that one of the functions of IL-3 in host defence against infection is to expand populations of haematopoietic effector cells. ..
  5. Willinger T, Rongvaux A, Takizawa H, Yancopoulos G, Valenzuela D, Murphy A, et al. Human IL-3/GM-CSF knock-in mice support human alveolar macrophage development and human immune responses in the lung. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The hIL-3/GM-CSF KI mice represent a unique mouse model that permits the study of human mucosal immune responses to lung pathogens. ..
  6. Khapli S, Mangashetti L, Yogesha S, Wani M. IL-3 acts directly on osteoclast precursors and irreversibly inhibits receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation by diverting the cells to macrophage lineage. J Immunol. 2003;171:142-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results reveal for the first time that IL-3 acts directly on early osteoclast precursors and irreversibly blocks RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by diverting the cells to macrophage lineage. ..
  7. Ekert P, Jabbour A, Manoharan A, Heraud J, Yu J, Pakusch M, et al. Cell death provoked by loss of interleukin-3 signaling is independent of Bad, Bim, and PI3 kinase, but depends in part on Puma. Blood. 2006;108:1461-8 pubmed
    Growth and survival of hematopoietic cells is regulated by growth factors and cytokines, such as interleukin 3 (IL-3)...
  8. Jabbour A, Daunt C, Green B, Vogel S, Gordon L, Lee R, et al. Myeloid progenitor cells lacking p53 exhibit delayed up-regulation of Puma and prolonged survival after cytokine deprivation. Blood. 2010;115:344-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conclude that p53 protein is activated after IL-3 deprivation by loss of MDM2. Activated p53 transcriptionally up-regulates Puma, which initiates apoptosis...
  9. Sugiyama D, Kulkeaw K, Mizuochi C, Horio Y, Okayama S. Hepatoblasts comprise a niche for fetal liver erythropoiesis through cytokine production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;410:301-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations demonstrate that hepatoblasts comprise a niche for erythropoiesis through cytokine secretion. ..

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gillessen S, Mach N, Small C, Mihm M, Dranoff G. Overlapping roles for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 in eosinophil homeostasis and contact hypersensitivity. Blood. 2001;97:922-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings delineate overlapping roles for GM-CSF and IL-3 in hematopoiesis and immunity. (Blood. 2001;97:922-928) ..
  2. Robin C, Ottersbach K, Durand C, Peeters M, Vanes L, Tybulewicz V, et al. An unexpected role for IL-3 in the embryonic development of hematopoietic stem cells. Dev Cell. 2006;11:171-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies support an unexpected role for IL-3 during development and strongly suggest that IL-3 functions as a proliferation and/or survival factor for the earliest HSCs in the embryo...
  3. Shen T, Kim S, Do J, Wang L, Lantz C, Urban J, et al. T cell-derived IL-3 plays key role in parasite infection-induced basophil production but is dispensable for in vivo basophil survival. Int Immunol. 2008;20:1201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results highlight a novel mechanism by which activation of adaptive immune components induces basophil production but not basophil survival via IL-3 production. ..
  4. Hurskainen T, Hirohata S, Seldin M, Apte S. ADAM-TS5, ADAM-TS6, and ADAM-TS7, novel members of a new family of zinc metalloproteases. General features and genomic distribution of the ADAM-TS family. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25555-63 pubmed
    ..Individual ADAM-TS members differ in the number of COOH-terminal TS modules, and some have unique COOH-terminal domains. The ADAM-TS genes are dispersed in human and mouse genomes. ..
  5. Lee J, Young I. Fine-structure mapping of the murine IL-3 and GM-CSF genes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and molecular cloning. Genomics. 1989;5:359-62 pubmed
    ..The proximity of the two genes, together with similarities in their structure, function, and regulation, suggests that they may have arisen by ancient gene duplication. ..
  6. Todokoro K, Yamamoto A, Amanuma H, Ikawa Y. Isolation and characterization of a genomic DDD mouse interleukin-3 gene. Gene. 1985;39:103-7 pubmed
    ..No IL-3 gene transcript was detected in the mouse erythroleukemia cells by Northern blot analysis. ..
  7. Sornson M, Wu W, Dasen J, Flynn S, Norman D, O Connell S, et al. Pituitary lineage determination by the Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor defective in Ames dwarfism. Nature. 1996;384:327-33 pubmed
    ..These results imply that a cascade of tissue-specific regulators is responsible for the determination and differentiation of specific cell lineages in pituitary organogenesis. ..
  8. Zhang X, Ren R. Bcr-Abl efficiently induces a myeloproliferative disease and production of excess interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in mice: a novel model for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood. 1998;92:3829-40 pubmed
    ..Our first use of this model for analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in CML raises the possibility that excess expression of hematopoietic growth factors such as IL-3 and GM-CSF may contribute to the clinical phenotype of CML. ..
  9. Blalock W, Weinstein Oppenheimer C, Chang F, Hoyle P, Wang X, Algate P, et al. Signal transduction, cell cycle regulatory, and anti-apoptotic pathways regulated by IL-3 in hematopoietic cells: possible sites for intervention with anti-neoplastic drugs. Leukemia. 1999;13:1109-66 pubmed
    ..Finally, anti-neoplastic drugs that target crucial constituents in these pathways are evaluated. ..
  10. Shelburne C, McCoy M, Piekorz R, Sexl V, Roh K, Jacobs Helber S, et al. Stat5 expression is critical for mast cell development and survival. Blood. 2003;102:1290-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Stat5A and Stat5B are critical regulators of in vitro and in vivo mast cell development and survival. ..
  11. Chiang C, Kanies C, Kim K, Fang W, Parkhurst C, Xie M, et al. Protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylation of phosphoserine 112 plays the gatekeeper role for BAD-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6350-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, PP2A dephosphorylation of pSer112 is the key initiating event regulating the activation of BAD during interleukin-3 withdrawal-induced apoptosis. ..
  12. Yan B, Zemskova M, Holder S, Chin V, Kraft A, Koskinen P, et al. The PIM-2 kinase phosphorylates BAD on serine 112 and reverses BAD-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45358-67 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that pim-2 functions similarly to pim-1 as a pro-survival kinase and suggest that BAD is a legitimate PIM-2 substrate. ..
  13. Tanaka I, Ishihara H. Unusual long target duplication by insertion of intracisternal A-particle element in radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia cells in mouse. FEBS Lett. 1995;376:146-50 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possibility of a radiation-induced integration mechanism which is distinct from normal retrotransmission...
  14. Miyazaki T, Liu Z, Kawahara A, Minami Y, Yamada K, Tsujimoto Y, et al. Three distinct IL-2 signaling pathways mediated by bcl-2, c-myc, and lck cooperate in hematopoietic cell proliferation. Cell. 1995;81:223-31 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate a novel approach to dissecting signaling pathways regulating cellular proliferation. ..
  15. Packham G, Cleveland J. Induction of ornithine decarboxylase by IL-3 is mediated by sequential c-Myc-independent and c-Myc-dependent pathways. Oncogene. 1997;15:1219-32 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest a model whereby c-Myc's role in regulating its targets may be to convert a transient, immediate-early, activation event into the persistent induction of gene expression. ..
  16. Antoku K, Maser R, Scully W, Delach S, Johnson D. Isolation of Bcl-2 binding proteins that exhibit homology with BAG-1 and suppressor of death domains protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;286:1003-10 pubmed
  17. Yogesha S, Khapli S, Srivastava R, Mangashetti L, Pote S, Mishra G, et al. IL-3 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced bone resorption and prevents inflammatory arthritis. J Immunol. 2009;182:361-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, we provide the first evidence that IL-3, a strong regulator of hematopoiesis, also plays an important role in inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced bone resorption and prevention of inflammatory arthritis in mice. ..
  18. Yao S, Young I, Norton R, Murphy J. Murine interleukin-3: structure, dynamics, and conformational heterogeneity in solution. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2464-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Such conformational heterogeneity may facilitate the interaction of mIL-3 with each of two naturally occurring mIL-3R? isoforms, leading to structurally distinct high-affinity complexes. ..
  19. Mekori Y, Metcalfe D. Transforming growth factor-beta prevents stem cell factor-mediated rescue of mast cells from apoptosis after IL-3 deprivation. J Immunol. 1994;153:2194-203 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate how SCF and TGF-beta may act in concert to regulate mast cell numbers under physiologic or pathologic conditions. ..
  20. Joseph D, Adamson M, Kozak C. Genetic mapping of the gene for androgen-binding protein/sex hormone-binding globulin to mouse chromosome 11. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1991;56:122-4 pubmed
    ..The recent finding that ABP-SHBG is found throughout the rat brain raises the possibility that one of these mutations may be due to a defect in Shbg. ..
  21. Taverne J. Transgenic mice in the study of cytokine function. Int J Exp Pathol. 1993;74:525-46 pubmed
  22. Lengeling A, Zimmer W, Goodman S, Ma Y, Bloom M, Bruneau G, et al. Exclusion of two candidate genes, Spnb-2 and Dcd, for the wobbler spinal muscular atrophy gene on proximal mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:163-6 pubmed
  23. Yamada M, Kondo T, Ashizawa S, Takebayashi T, Higashi H, Hatakeyama M. Role of pRB-family/E2F complex in the inhibition of IL-3-dependent lymphoid cell proliferation. Cytokine. 2002;17:91-7 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent proliferation of haematopoietic cells is specifically inhibited by p130, a member of the pRB-family proteins...
  24. Xu J, Liu D, Songyang Z. The role of Asp-462 in regulating Akt activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35561-6 pubmed
    ..In particular, caspases are able to render Akt inactive and dominantly inhibit the Akt pathway by cleaving off the C-terminal hydrophobic motif. Consequently, the survival signal is quickly down-regulated to allow apoptosis to occur. ..
  25. Danciger M, Kozak C, Adamson M, Farber D. Chromosomal localization of the murine genes for the alpha- and beta-subunits of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:122-5 pubmed
  26. Buckwalter M, Katz R, Camper S. Localization of the panhypopituitary dwarf mutation (df) on mouse chromosome 11 in an intersubspecific backcross. Genomics. 1991;10:515-26 pubmed
    ..The localization of the alpha 1 adrenergic receptor, Adra-1, extends a known region of synteny conservation between mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 5, and suggests that a human counterpart to df would map to human chromosome 5. ..
  27. Mueller D, Chen Z, Schwartz R, Gorman D, Kennedy M. Subset of CD4+ T cell clones expressing IL-3 receptor alpha-chains uses IL-3 as a cofactor in autocrine growth. J Immunol. 1994;153:3014-27 pubmed
  28. McClanahan T, Dalrymple S, Barkett M, Lee F. Hematopoietic growth factor receptor genes as markers of lineage commitment during in vitro development of hematopoietic cells. Blood. 1993;81:2903-15 pubmed
    ..We have focused our analysis on the expression of mRNAs for 15 hematopoietic growth factor receptor genes and other genes expressed in a hematopoietic lineage-specific manner...
  29. Vu T, Austin R, Kuhn C, Bruedigam C, Song A, Guignes S, et al. Jak2V617F driven myeloproliferative neoplasm occurs independently of interleukin-3 receptor beta common signaling. Haematologica. 2016;101:e77-80 pubmed publisher
  30. Li W, Xu H, Qian C. c-Kit-Positive Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote the Growth and Angiogenesis of Breast Cancer. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7407168 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that c-Kit+ subpopulations of ASCs should be eliminated in fat grafts for breast reconstruction of cancer patients following mastectomy. ..
  31. Oakey R, Caron M, Lefkowitz R, Seldin M. Genomic organization of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the mouse: linkage mapping of sequence-related genes provides a method for examining mammalian chromosome evolution. Genomics. 1991;10:338-44 pubmed
    ..We have identified a region that may have been translocated during evolution and suggest that the human genomic organization of adrenergic receptors more closely resembles that of a putative primordial ancestor. ..
  32. Lord E, Yeh K, Moran J, Storozynsky E, Frelinger J. IL-3-mediated enhancement of particulate antigen presentation by macrophages. J Immunother. 1998;21:205-10 pubmed
    ..These cells are susceptible to lysis by antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which may contribute to limiting the effectiveness of antitumor responses. ..
  33. Hoshino A, Hirst J, Fujii H. Regulation of cell proliferation by interleukin-3-induced nuclear translocation of pyruvate kinase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17706-11 pubmed
  34. Zeoli A, Dentelli P, Rosso A, Togliatto G, Trombetta A, Damiano L, et al. Interleukin-3 promotes expansion of hemopoietic-derived CD45+ angiogenic cells and their arterial commitment via STAT5 activation. Blood. 2008;112:350-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the characterization of the signaling pathway regulating these events provides the rationale for therapeutically targeting STAT5 in these pathologic settings. ..
  35. Hitchcock I, Chen M, King J, Kaushansky K. YRRL motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the thrombopoietin receptor regulate receptor internalization and degradation. Blood. 2008;112:2222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data establishes that c-Mpl cytoplasmic YRRL motifs are responsible for both Tpo-mediated internalization via interactions with AP2 and lysosomal targeting after endocytosis. ..
  36. Gurish M, Ghildyal N, McNeil H, Austen K, Gillis S, Stevens R. Differential expression of secretory granule proteases in mouse mast cells exposed to interleukin 3 and c-kit ligand. J Exp Med. 1992;175:1003-12 pubmed
    ..When bone marrow-derived MC (BMMC) were developed with recombinant interleukin 3 (rIL-3) and maintained with this cytokine in the absence or presence of recombinant c-kit ligand (rKL), they ..
  37. Kingsmore S, Watson M, Seldin M. Genetic mapping of the T lymphocyte-specific transcription factor 7 gene on mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:378 pubmed
  38. Hirohata S, Seldin M, Apte S. Chromosomal assignment of two ADAM genes, TACE (ADAM17) and MLTNB (ADAM19), to human chromosomes 2 and 5, respectively, and of Mltnb to mouse chromosome 11. Genomics. 1998;54:178-9 pubmed
  39. Kojima T, Yoshikawa Y, Takada S, Sato M, Nakamura T, Takahashi N, et al. Genomic organization of the Shc-related phosphotyrosine adapters and characterization of the full-length Sck/ShcB: specific association of p68-Sck/ShcB with pp135. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:1039-47 pubmed
    ..The Sck-pp135 interaction was reduced by Src kinase inhibitors. These results suggest that Sck, but not N-Shc nor Shc, transmit signals in conjunction with pp135 following Src activation and/or calcium entry in the cell. ..
  40. Lum J, Bui T, Gruber M, Gordan J, DeBerardinis R, Covello K, et al. The transcription factor HIF-1alpha plays a critical role in the growth factor-dependent regulation of both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1037-49 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that HIF-1alpha contributes to the regulation of growth factor-stimulated glucose metabolism even in the absence of hypoxia...
  41. Auclair S, Roth K, Saunders B, Ogborn K, Sheikh A, Naples J, et al. Interleukin-3-deficient mice have increased resistance to blood-stage malaria. Infect Immun. 2014;82:1308-14 pubmed publisher
    The contribution of interleukin-3 (IL-3), a hematopoietic growth factor and immunoregulatory cytokine, to resistance to blood-stage malaria was investigated by infecting IL-3-deficient (knockout [KO]) mice with Plasmodium berghei NK65...
  42. Abud E, Ramirez R, Martinez E, Healy L, Nguyen C, Newman S, et al. iPSC-Derived Human Microglia-like Cells to Study Neurological Diseases. Neuron. 2017;94:278-293.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that iMGLs can be used to study microglial function, providing important new insight into human neurological disease. ..
  43. Pownall S, Kozak C, Schappert K, Sarkar M, Hull E, Schachter H, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-3-D-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I gene. Genomics. 1992;12:699-704 pubmed
    ..RNA analyses of Mgat-1 expression levels revealed significant variation among normal tissues and cells. ..
  44. Takahashi M, Yoshida M, Satoh H, Hilgers J, Yaoita Y, Honjo T. Chromosomal mapping of the mouse IL-4 and human IL-5 genes. Genomics. 1989;4:47-52 pubmed
  45. Barlow D, Bucan M, Lehrach H, Hogan B, Gough N. Close genetic and physical linkage between the murine haemopoietic growth factor genes GM-CSF and Multi-CSF (IL3). EMBO J. 1987;6:617-23 pubmed
    ..murine haemopoietic growth factors, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and Multi-CSF (interleukin 3) stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of an overlapping set of haemopoietic progenitor cells and ..
  46. Liu L, Damen J, Ware M, Krystal G. Interleukin-3 induces the association of the inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP with SHP2. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10998-1001 pubmed
    ..We further show that the association of SHIP with SHP2 occurs through the direct interaction of the SH2 domain of SHIP with a pYXN(I/V) sequence within SHP2. ..
  47. Hoshino A, Fujii H. Temporal regulation of Stat5 activity in determination of cell differentiation program. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;358:914-9 pubmed
    ..The acidic region of the IL-2 receptor beta-chain was essential for this inhibition. These results underscore the importance of temporal regulation of Stat activity for regulation of cytokine-specific cell differentiation. ..
  48. Yoshimoto T, Yasuda K, Tanaka H, Nakahira M, Imai Y, Fujimori Y, et al. Basophils contribute to T(H)2-IgE responses in vivo via IL-4 production and presentation of peptide-MHC class II complexes to CD4+ T cells. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:706-12 pubmed publisher
  49. Buchberg A, Bedigian H, Taylor B, Brownell E, Ihle J, Nagata S, et al. Localization of Evi-2 to chromosome 11: linkage to other proto-oncogene and growth factor loci using interspecific backcross mice. Oncogene Res. 1988;2:149-65 pubmed
    ..This study revealed a number of interesting conserved linkage groups common to mouse and man. ..
  50. Tsujimura T, Hashimoto K, Morii E, Tunio G, Tsujino K, Kondo T, et al. Involvement of transcription factor encoded by the mouse mi locus (MITF) in apoptosis of cultured mast cells induced by removal of interleukin-3. Am J Pathol. 1997;151:1043-51 pubmed
    ..However, the overexpression of (+)-MITF did not accelerate the apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells. The (+)-MITF appeared to play some roles for the acceleration of the apoptosis specifically in the mast cell lineage. ..
  51. Mirza S, Chen J, Murphy J, Young I. The role of interchain heterodisulfide formation in activation of the human common beta and mouse betaIL-3 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24759-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are most consistent with a role for the domain 1 D-E loop disulfide of hbetac and beta(IL-3) in maintaining the precise positions of ligand-binding residues necessary for normal high affinity binding and signaling. ..
  52. Spasic M, Friedel C, Schott J, Kreth J, Leppek K, Hofmann S, et al. Genome-wide assessment of AU-rich elements by the AREScore algorithm. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002433 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study introduces AREScore as a simple tool to identify ARE-containing mRNAs and provides compelling evidence that AREs are widespread regulatory elements in Drosophila. ..
  53. Ogasawara T, Hatano M, Satake H, Ikari J, Taniguchi T, Tsuruoka N, et al. Development of chronic allergic responses by dampening Bcl6-mediated suppressor activity in memory T helper 2 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E741-E750 pubmed publisher
  54. D EUSTACHIO P, Brown M, Watson C, Paul W. The IL-4 gene maps to chromosome 11, near the gene encoding IL-3. J Immunol. 1988;141:3067-71 pubmed
    ..The identification of a strain-specific Bgl II restriction enzyme polymorphism in the IL-4 gene was used to map the IL-4 gene to a position on mouse chromosome 11 within 1 centimorgan of the gene encoding IL-3. ..
  55. Nishinakamura R, Miyajima A, Mee P, Tybulewicz V, Murray R. Hematopoiesis in mice lacking the entire granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3/interleukin-5 functions. Blood. 1996;88:2458-64 pubmed
    ..cells do respond to IL-3 normally, probably through an additional beta subunit of the IL-3 receptor (beta IL3) that is present in the mouse...
  56. Kimura K, Song C, Rastogi A, Dranoff G, Galli S, Lantz C. Interleukin-3 and c-Kit/stem cell factor are required for normal eosinophil responses in mice infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. Lab Invest. 2006;86:987-96 pubmed
    ..b.). However, in mice with markedly impaired SCF/c-Kit signaling, IL-3 contributed significantly to the increased numbers of eosinophils that were observed in multiple tissues during S.v. infection, but not during infection with N.b. ..
  57. Okada S, Nakauchi H, Nagayoshi K, Nakamura M, Miura Y, Suda T. Synergistic effect of IL-3 and IL-6 on highly enriched murine hemopoietic progenitors. Exp Hematol. 1992;20:546-51 pubmed
    It has been reported that interleukin 6 (IL-6) acts on hemopoietic stem cells in synergism with interleukin 3 (IL-3), but it has not yet been clarified whether IL-6 acts directly on the stem cells or not...
  58. Zou T, Caton A, Koretzky G, Kambayashi T. Dendritic cells induce regulatory T cell proliferation through antigen-dependent and -independent interactions. J Immunol. 2010;185:2790-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that DCs coordinate the interactions that are necessary to initiate polyclonal Treg proliferation. ..
  59. Morris D, Robinson T. Thymidine kinase (Tk-1) maps below the T42H breakpoint on mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1991;1:263-4 pubmed
  60. Hong H, Shi Z, Qiao P, Li H, McCoy E, Mao P, et al. Interleukin-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the osteoclastogenic process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;440:545-50 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin (IL)-3, a multilineage hematopoietic growth factor, is implicated in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis...
  61. Tan K, Inoue T, Kulkeaw K, Tanaka Y, Lai M, Sugiyama D. Localized SCF and IGF-1 secretion enhances erythropoiesis in the spleen of murine embryos. Biol Open. 2015;4:596-607 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that fetal spleen is a major erythropoietic site where endothelial and mesenchymal-like cells primarily accelerate erythropoietic activity through SCF and IGF-1 secretion. ..
  62. Webb G, Lee J, Campbell H, Young I. The genes for interleukins 3 and 5 map to the same locus on mouse chromosome 11. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1989;50:107-10 pubmed
    ..The in situ hybridization results therefore indicate that all four cytokine genes are clustered on chromosome 11 raising the possibility that they arose by ancient gene duplication. ..
  63. Chang Y, Albright S, Lee F. Cytokines in the central nervous system: expression of macrophage colony stimulating factor and its receptor during development. J Neuroimmunol. 1994;52:9-17 pubmed
  64. Saavedra H, Wang T, Hoyt P, Popp D, Yang W, Stambrook P. Interleukin-3 increases the incidence of 5-azacytidine-induced thymic lymphomas in pBOR-Il-3 mice. Cell Immunol. 1996;173:116-23 pubmed
    ..Flow cytometric analyses also revealed that in pBOR-Il-3 mice the thymic lymphomas are mostly of a CD8+CD4- origin, whereas in the FVB/N group, the predominant type of thymic lymphoma is of a CD4+CD8- origin. ..
  65. Srivastava R, Tomar G, Barhanpurkar A, Gupta N, Pote S, Mishra G, et al. IL-3 attenuates collagen-induced arthritis by modulating the development of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:2262-72 pubmed publisher
  66. Kurata M, Yamazaki Y, Kanno Y, Ishibashi S, Takahara T, Kitagawa M, et al. Anti-apoptotic function of Xbp1 as an IL-3 signaling molecule in hematopoietic cells. Cell Death Dis. 2011;2:e118 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the proper transcriptional and splicing regulation of Xbp1 by IL-3 signaling is important in homeostasis of hematopoietic cells. ..
  67. Ellegast J, Rauch P, Kovtonyuk L, Müller R, Wagner U, Saito Y, et al. inv(16) and NPM1mut AMLs engraft human cytokine knock-in mice. Blood. 2016;128:2130-2134 pubmed
    ..This study thus provides a first xenotransplantation mouse model for and informs on the disease biology of inv(16) AML. ..
  68. Laneuville P, Sun G, Timm M, Vekemans M. Clonal evolution in a myeloid cell line transformed to interleukin-3 independent growth by retroviral transduction and expression of p210bcr/abl. Blood. 1992;80:1788-97 pubmed
  69. Zambrano A, Otth C, Mujica L, Concha I, Maccioni R. Interleukin-3 prevents neuronal death induced by amyloid peptide. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:82 pubmed
    ..In addition, IL-3 induced an increase of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Altogether these data strongly suggest that IL-3 neuroprotects neuronal cells against neurodegenerative agents like Abeta. ..
  70. Chen J, Olsen J, Ford S, Mirza S, Walker A, Murphy J, et al. A new isoform of interleukin-3 receptor {alpha} with novel differentiation activity and high affinity binding mode. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5763-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the SP1 and SP2 isoforms activated the Jak2/STAT5, Akt, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways in M1 cells, although the activation was more prolonged for the SP2 isoform. ..
  71. Ernst J, Ghanem L, Bar Joseph Z, McNamara M, Brown J, Steinman R. IL-3 and oncogenic Abl regulate the myeloblast transcriptome by altering mRNA stability. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7469 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a model of IL-3 action through mRNA stability control and suggest that aberrant stabilization of an mRNA network linked to IL-3 contributes to leukemic cell growth. ..
  72. Kim S, Prout M, Ramshaw H, Lopez A, LeGros G, Min B. Cutting edge: basophils are transiently recruited into the draining lymph nodes during helminth infection via IL-3, but infection-induced Th2 immunity can develop without basophil lymph node recruitment or IL-3. J Immunol. 2010;184:1143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a previously unknown role of IL-3 in recruiting basophils to the LN and demonstrate that basophils are not necessarily associated with the development of Th2 immunity during parasite infection...
  73. Jabbour A, Gordon L, Daunt C, Green B, Kok C, D ANDREA R, et al. p53-Dependent transcriptional responses to interleukin-3 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31428 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrastingly, we find that p53(-/-) cells are independent on AKT for their survival. Thus, loss of p53 in myeloid cells results in an altered transcriptional and kinase signaling environment that favors enhanced cytokine signaling. ..
  74. Mock B, Hilgers J, Huppi K, D Hoostelaere L. A TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism at the Hox-2.1 locus cosegregates with the Dlb-1 locus on mouse chromosome 11. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:2397 pubmed
  75. Azam M, Erdjument Bromage H, Kreider B, Xia M, Quelle F, Basu R, et al. Interleukin-3 signals through multiple isoforms of Stat5. EMBO J. 1995;14:1402-11 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that the IL-3 family of ligands is able to activate multiple isoforms of the signal transducing protein Stat5. ..
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