Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il2
Description: interleukin 2
Alias: Il-2, T-cell growth factor, TCGF, interleukin-2
Publications132 found, 100 shown here
- Helper requirements for generation of effector CTL to islet beta cell antigensGeorg M N Behrens
Immunology Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
J Immunol 172:5420-6. 2004..This provides insight into the helper requirements for adoptive transfer immunotherapy of tumors and suggests key points for inhibition of CTL-mediated autoimmunity...
- Interleukin-2 and inflammation induce distinct transcriptional programs that promote the differentiation of effector cytolytic T cellsMatthew E Pipkin
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA Immune Disease Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Immunity 32:79-90. 2010..Thus, inflammation influences both effector and memory CTL differentiation, whereas persistent IL-2 stimulation promotes effector at the expense of memory CTL development...
- Interleukin-2 signals during priming are required for secondary expansion of CD8+ memory T cellsMatthew A Williams
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Nature 441:890-3. 2006..These results have important implications for the development of vaccination or immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at boosting memory T-cell function...
- Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartmentD M Willerford
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Immunity 3:521-30. 1995..Thus, IL-2R alpha is essential for regulation of both the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment, probably by influencing the balance between clonal expansion and cell death following lymphocyte activation...
- CD4 regulatory T cells prevent lethal autoimmunity in IL-2Rbeta-deficient mice. Implications for the nonredundant function of IL-2Thomas R Malek
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, USA
Immunity 17:167-78. 2002..These observations indicate that the essential function of the IL-2/IL-2R system primarily lies at the level of the production of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells...
- Interleukin-2 signaling via STAT5 constrains T helper 17 cell generationArian Laurence
Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Immunity 26:371-81. 2007..We conclude that in addition to the promotion of activation-induced cell death of lymphocytes and the generation of Treg cells, inhibition of Th17 polarization appears to be an important function of IL-2...
- Homeostasis of peripheral CD4+ T cells: IL-2R alpha and IL-2 shape a population of regulatory cells that controls CD4+ T cell numbersAfonso R M Almeida
Lymphocyte Population Biology, Unité de Recherche Associée Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 1961, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
J Immunol 169:4850-60. 2002....
- Immune responses in interleukin-2-deficient miceT M Kundig
Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Science 262:1059-61. 1993..Natural killer cell activity was markedly reduced but inducible. These normal in vivo immune responses in IL-2-deficient mice question the importance of IL-2 as defined by in vitro studies...
- PD-1:PD-L inhibitory pathway affects both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and is overcome by IL-2LauraL Carter
Wyeth Genetics Institute, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
Eur J Immunol 32:634-43. 2002..However, CD8(+) T cells may be more sensitive to modulation by the PD-1:PD-L pathway because of their intrinsic inability to produce significant levels of IL-2...
- Homeostatic maintenance of natural Foxp3(+) CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells by interleukin (IL)-2 and induction of autoimmune disease by IL-2 neutralizationRuka Setoguchi
Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
J Exp Med 201:723-35. 2005..Furthermore, impairment of this negative feedback loop via IL-2 can be a cause and a predisposing factor for autoimmune disease...
- Stat5 is required for IL-2-induced cell cycle progression of peripheral T cellsR Moriggl
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Biochemistry, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
Immunity 10:249-59. 1999..These phenotypes are not seen in mice lacking Stat5a or Stat5b alone. The results demonstrate that the Stat5 proteins, redundantly, are essential mediators of IL-2 signaling in T cells...
- A function for interleukin 2 in Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cellsJason D Fontenot
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Nat Immunol 6:1142-51. 2005..Most T(reg) cells constitutively express the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor alpha-chain (CD25); however, the precise function of IL-2 in T(reg) cell biology has remained ..
- Development and function of T cells in mice rendered interleukin-2 deficient by gene targetingH Schorle
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
Nature 352:621-4. 1991....
- Th cells act via two synergistic pathways to promote antiviral CD8+ T cell responsesMelanie Wiesel
Institute for Microbiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
J Immunol 185:5188-97. 2010..Second, Th cells provide CD8(+) T cells with IL-2, thereby enhancing their survival. Thus, Th cells are at the center of an important communication loop with a central role for IL-2/IL-2R and bioactive IL-12...
- A critical function for TGF-beta signaling in the development of natural CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cellsYongzhong Liu
Mucosal Immunology Unit, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Immunol 9:632-40. 2008..recovery of Foxp3+ thymocytes was attributable mainly to overproduction of and heightened responsiveness to interleukin 2, as genetic ablation of interleukin 2 in TbetaRI-mutant mice resulted in a complete absence of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ ..
- Development and function of agonist-induced CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the absence of interleukin 2 signalingLouise M D'Cruz
Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 1030 Vienna, Austria
Nat Immunol 6:1152-9. 2005b>Interleukin 2 signaling is believed to be critically involved in several aspects of CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cell biology, such as intrathymic development, peripheral survival and suppressive function...
- Ulcerative colitis-like disease in mice with a disrupted interleukin-2 geneB Sadlack
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Federal Republic of Germany
Cell 75:253-61. 1993..The data provide evidence for a primary role of the immune system in the etiology of ulcerative colitis and strongly suggest that the disease results from an abnormal immune response to a normal antigenic stimulus...
- Interleukin-2 promotes angiogenesis by activation of Akt and increase of ROSJinhee Bae
College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200 701, Korea
J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:377-82. 2008..IL-2 increased angiogenesis in an animal model and tube formation in HUVECs. The effect of IL-2 on angiogenesis and tube formation was mediated by ROS and Akt. This is the first report that IL-2 promotes angiogenesis...
- Phospholipase Cgamma2 is critical for Dectin-1-mediated Ca2+ flux and cytokine production in dendritic cellsShengli Xu
Laboratory of Immunology, Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138668
J Biol Chem 284:7038-46. 2009..PLCgamma2-deficient DCs have drastic impairment of Ca2+ signaling and are defective in their secretion of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor alpha...
- A heat shock protein gene (Hsp70.1) is critically involved in the generation of the immune response to myelin antigenMarcin P Mycko
Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Medical University of Lodz, 22 Kopcinskiego Street, Lodz, Poland
Eur J Immunol 38:1999-2013. 2008....
- Regulatory CD4 T cells: expression of IL-2R alpha chain, resistance to clonal deletion and IL-2 dependencyM Papiernik
INSERM U345, Institut Necker, Paris France
Int Immunol 10:371-8. 1998..The absence of this population and/or an inability to produce IL-10 may be the missing link between IL-2R alpha KO, IL-2 KO and IL-10 KO mice, which all die of inflammatory bowel disease...
- IL-2 is not required for the initiation of CD8 T cell cycling but sustains expansionWarren N D'Souza
Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
J Immunol 171:5727-35. 2003..Thus, activated CD8 T cells initially undergo IL-2-independent proliferation, but reach a critical juncture where the requirement for IL-2 as a growth factor gains prominence...
- IL-2, regulatory T cells, and toleranceBrad H Nelson
Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
J Immunol 172:3983-8. 2004IL-2 is a potent T cell growth factor that for many years was assumed to amplify lymphocyte responses in vivo...
- Interleukin-1 and its biologically related cytokinesC A Dinarello
Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111
Adv Immunol 44:153-205. 1989
- Sequential development of interleukin 2-dependent effector and regulatory T cells in response to endogenous systemic antigenBirgit Knoechel
Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, CA 94143, USA
J Exp Med 202:1375-86. 2005..Thus, a peripheral T cell reaction to a systemic antigen goes through a phase of effector cell-mediated pathology followed by T reg cell-mediated recovery, and both require the growth factor IL-2...
- IL-2 regulates perforin and granzyme gene expression in CD8+ T cells independently of its effects on survival and proliferationMichelle L Janas
Cooperative Research Center for Vaccine Technology and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
J Immunol 175:8003-10. 2005..Together, these findings indicate that IL-2 can directly regulate perforin and granzyme gene expression in CD8+ T cells independently of its effects on cell survival and proliferation...
- Interleukin-2 signaling and the maintenance of self-toleranceBrad H Nelson
Virginia Mason Research Center, Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Wash, USA
Curr Dir Autoimmun 5:92-112. 2002..In this regard, perhaps new insights into this important issue can be gained by better defining when and where IL-2 signaling normally occurs in wild-type animals and the functional status of the T cells involved...
- Protein kinase C theta plays a fundamental role in different types of chronic colitisKiyotaka Nagahama
Department of Pathology, Experimental Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Gastroenterology 134:459-69. 2008..A key molecule associated with the IS is protein kinase C (PKC) theta. However, the role of PKCtheta in the pathogenesis of colitis has not fully been defined...
- Perlecan: a major IL-2-binding proteoglycan in murine spleenJohn D Miller
Division of Transplantation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 7690, USA
Immunol Cell Biol 86:192-9. 2008..Identification of perlecan as a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan that binds IL-2 has implications for both the localization and regulation of IL-2 in vivo...
- Bacteroides vulgatus protects against Escherichia coli-induced colitis in gnotobiotic interleukin-2-deficient miceMarc Waidmann
Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Krankenhaushygiene, Eberhard Karls Universitat, Tubingen, Germany
Gastroenterology 125:162-77. 2003..Specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not germ-free, interleukin (IL)-2-deficient (IL-2-/-) mice develop colitis. The colitogenicity of commensal bacteria was determined...
- Cutting edge: CD4+ T cell-derived IL-2 is essential for help-dependent primary CD8+ T cell responsesElizabeth B Wilson
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, David H Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, Aab Institute of Biomedical Sciences and University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
J Immunol 181:7445-8. 2008..We suggest that it is also a critical component of help for CD8(+) T cell responses to pathogens, because protective memory also requires CD8(+) T cell stimulation by IL-2 during priming...
- Roles for common cytokine receptor gamma-chain-dependent cytokines in the generation, differentiation, and maturation of NK cell precursors and peripheral NK cells in vivoChristian A J Vosshenrich
Unité des Cytokines et Développement Lymphoide, Institut Nationale de la Santé et Recherche Médicale Equipe 101, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
J Immunol 174:1213-21. 2005..Surprisingly, the few residual NK cells generated in absence of IL-15 appear relatively mature, expressing a variety of Ly49 receptors and demonstrating lytic and cytokine production capacity...
- Interleukin-2 gene deletion produces a robust reduction in susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 miceJ M Petitto
Department of Psychiatry, UF Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0256, USA
Neurosci Lett 285:66-70. 2000Dysregulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the prototypical T cell growth factor and immunoregulatory cytokine, may modify self-tolerance and predisposition to autoimmunity...
- The role of Stat5a and Stat5b in signaling by IL-2 family cytokinesJ X Lin
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10 Rm 7N252, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland MD 20892 1674, USA
Oncogene 19:2566-76. 2000..Here, we mainly focus on the IL2-/IL-2 receptor system, as it is one of the best-studied systems that depend on Stat5-mediated signals...
- Stat5 activation is uniquely associated with cytokine signaling in peripheral T cellsR Moriggl
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
Immunity 11:225-30. 1999..Here we demonstrate that activation of the Stat5 proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation is uniquely contributed by cytokine receptor signaling and specifically does not occur through the T cell receptor complex...
- Control of T cell hyperactivation in IL-2-deficient mice by CD4(+)CD25(-) and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells: evidence for two distinct regulatory mechanismsM Wolf
Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
Eur J Immunol 31:1637-45. 2001..IL-2 deficiency therefore may upset T cell homeostasis by two distinct mechanisms: the failure to program expanding T cells for apoptosis, and the failure to generate functional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells...
- GABP factors bind to a distal interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancer and contribute to c-Raf-mediated increase in IL-2 inductionA Avots
Department of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
Mol Cell Biol 17:4381-9. 1997..Both signal cascades contribute to the induction of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) gene during T-cell activation...
- Mice lacking the c-rel proto-oncogene exhibit defects in lymphocyte proliferation, humoral immunity, and interleukin-2 expressionF Kontgen
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
Genes Dev 9:1965-77. 1995..The ability of exogenous interleukin-2 to restore T Cell, but not B cell, proliferation indicates that Rel regulates the expression of different genes in B and T cells that are crucial for cell division and immune function...
- Normal clonal expansion but impaired Fas-mediated cell death and anergy induction in interleukin-2-deficient miceB Kneitz
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, Wurzburg, Germany
Eur J Immunol 25:2572-7. 1995....
- Priming for T helper type 2 differentiation by interleukin 2-mediated induction of interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain expressionWei Liao
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Immunol 9:1288-96. 2008..expression, T cell receptor-induced IL-4Ralpha expression was normal in Il4(-/-) cells but was much lower in Il2(-/-) cells. Notably, forced IL-4Ralpha expression restored the T(H)2 differentiation of Il2(-/-) cells...
- Role of costimulation in the induction of the IL-12/IL-12 receptor pathway and the development of autoimmunityJ T Chang
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Immunol 164:100-6. 2000..These findings suggest that targeting IL-2 and IL-12 simultaneously may be effective in the treatment of Th1-mediated autoimmunity...
- Essential role for STAT5 signaling in CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cell homeostasis and the maintenance of self-toleranceAndrey Antov
Center for Cancer Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
J Immunol 171:3435-41. 2003..Furthermore, transient activation of STAT5 is sufficient to increase CD25(+)CD4(+) T reg numbers in IL-2-deficient mice. Our study uncovers an essential role for STAT5 in maintaining CD25(+)CD4(+) T reg homeostasis and self-tolerance...
- Gfi-1 plays an important role in IL-2-mediated Th2 cell expansionJinfang Zhu
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18214-9. 2006..Reduced Th2 cell expansion in the absence of Gfi-1 was confirmed by the diminished frequency of IL-4-producing cells when these mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni...
- Interleukin-2 is essential for CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell functionMaurus de la Rosa
Deutsches Rheuma ForschungsZentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Eur J Immunol 34:2480-8. 2004..We propose the parakrine uptake of soluble mediators as a flexible mechanism to adapt Treg activity to the strength of the responder T cell reaction...
- Commonality in the genetic control of Type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice: variants of genes in the IL-2 pathway are associated with autoimmune diabetes in both speciesDan B Rainbow
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust JDRF WT Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, UK
Biochem Soc Trans 36:312-5. 2008Variants within the IL-2 (interleukin 2) and CD25 genes are associated with T1DM (Type 1 diabetes mellitus) in mice and humans respectively...
- Blimp-1 directly represses Il2 and the Il2 activator Fos, attenuating T cell proliferation and survivalGislaine A Martins
Department of Microbiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
J Exp Med 205:1959-65. 2008..that one critical activity of Blimp-1 in T cells is to repress IL-2, and that it does so by direct repression of Il2 transcription, and also by repression of Fos transcription...
- Congenic mapping and candidate sequencing of susceptibility genes for Type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouseHiroshi Ikegami
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1005:196-204. 2003..Phenotypes of NOD. IIS-Idd3 congenic mice, which share the same alleles at both Il2 and Il21 as the NOD mouse, were indistinguishable from the NOD parental strain, indicating that both Il2 and Il21 ..
- Defective induction of CTLA-4 in the NOD mouse is controlled by the NOD allele of Idd3/IL-2 and a novel locus (Ctex) telomeric on chromosome 1Marie Lundholm
Department of Medical Biosciences, Division of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Umea University, Sweden
Diabetes 55:538-44. 2006..Instead, as previously shown, higher ICOS levels in NOD mice appear to be controlled by gene(s) in the Idd5.1 region, possibly a polymorphism in the Icos gene itself...
- Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 renders lymphocytes responsive to IL-2 but not IL-15 for survivalPenelope Tsimbouri
Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NU, UK
J Gen Virol 89:2821-32. 2008..IL-2 is normally produced by activated T cells in vivo; thus, chronic immune activation or modulation could elicit this unique mode of virus-infected cell survival...
- Cutting edge: Enhanced IL-2 signaling can convert self-specific T cell response from tolerance to autoimmunityJason Waithman
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia
J Immunol 180:5789-93. 2008..Therefore, enhanced IL-2 signaling can act as a major selector between tolerance and autoimmunity...
- Ets-1 is a negative regulator of Th17 differentiationJacques Moisan
Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Exp Med 204:2825-35. 2007..Based on these observations, we report that Ets-1 is a negative regulator of Th17 differentiation...
- Idd1 and Idd3 are necessary but not sufficient for development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mouseHiroshi Ikegami
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 66:S85-90. 2004..One of the strongest non-MHC genes is Idd3, and Il2 which encodes interleukin 2, is a candidate gene for Idd3...
- Role of toll-like receptors in spontaneous commensal-dependent colitisSeth Rakoff-Nahoum
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
Immunity 25:319-29. 2006..We report that colitis was dependent on TLR signaling in Il10(-/-) mice. In contrast, Il2(-/-) mice developed intestinal inflammation in the absence of TLR signaling pathways...
- Effects of cyclosporine on transplant tolerance: the role of IL-2H G Kang
Harvard Medical School, Transplant Research Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
Am J Transplant 7:1907-16. 2007..The combination of IL-2/Fc and cyclosporine treatment may provide a new clinical strategy to promote transplant tolerance...
- Cytokine-dependent Blimp-1 expression in activated T cells inhibits IL-2 productionDapeng Gong
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA
J Immunol 178:242-52. 2007..Collectively, these findings indicate that there is a negative feedback regulatory loop in activated T cells such that IL-2 inhibits its own production through induction of Blimp-1 while promoting an effector cell phenotype...
- FcRL6, a new ITIM-bearing receptor on cytolytic cells, is broadly expressed by lymphocytes following HIV-1 infectionTimothy J Wilson
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
Blood 109:3786-93. 2007....
- Helper T cell IL-2 production is limited by negative feedback and STAT-dependent cytokine signalsAlejandro V Villarino
Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Exp Med 204:65-71. 2007....
- Coordinate analysis of murine immune cell surface markers and intracellular phosphoproteins by flow cytometryPeter O Krutzik
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Baxter Laboratory of Genetic Pharmacology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
J Immunol 175:2357-65. 2005....
- Homeostatic role of interferons conferred by inhibition of IL-1-mediated inflammation and tissue destructionXiaoyu Hu
Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University New York, NY 10021, USA
J Immunol 175:131-8. 2005..These results identify cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the homeostatic role of IFNs in limiting inflammation and associated tissue destruction...
- Cell-type-specific epigenetic marking of the IL2 gene at a distal cis-regulatory region in competent, nontranscribing T-cellsSatoko Adachi
Division of Biology 156 29, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 33:3200-10. 2005..heritably for activation, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation to map histone modifications across the murine IL2 locus, from -10.2 through +0.25 kb, in induction-competent and incompetent cells...
- Cutting edge: opposite effects of IL-1 and IL-2 on the regulation of IL-17+ T cell pool IL-1 subverts IL-2-mediated suppressionIlona Kryczek
Department of Surgery, University of Mechigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
J Immunol 179:1423-6. 2007..Thus, the IL-17(+) T cell pool may be controlled by the local cytokine profile in the microenvironment...
- An intense form of homeostatic proliferation of naive CD8+ cells driven by IL-2Jae Ho Cho
Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Exp Med 204:1787-801. 2007..IL-2/IL-15) concerned. The relevance of the data to the gradual transition of naive T cells into memory-phenotype (MP) cells with age is discussed...
- The role of the IL-2 pathway in costimulation blockade-resistant rejection of allograftsThomas R Jones
The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
J Immunol 168:1123-30. 2002..Interestingly, depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ cells, prevents prolongation in allograft survival, suggesting an IL-2-independent role for regulation in extended survival...
- Cytokine mRNA expression in intestinal tissue of interleukin-2 deficient mice with bowel inflammationI B Autenrieth
Max v Pettenkofer Institut für Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munchen, Germany
Gut 41:793-800. 1997..Recent studies provided evidence that alpha beta T cells, particularly CD4 T cells, rather than B cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of bowel inflammation of IL-2 deficient mice...
- Impaired alloantigen-mediated T cell apoptosis and failure to induce long-term allograft survival in IL-2-deficient miceZ Dai
The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Emory University and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
J Immunol 161:1659-63. 1998..These findings indicate that endogenous IL-2 is required for the induction of long-term allograft survival, and that IL-2 regulates alloimmune responses by preparing activated T lymphocytes for alloantigen-induced apoptosis...
- Mice with a fluorescent marker for interleukin 2 gene activationM Naramura
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
Immunity 9:209-16. 1998..These mice allow noninvasive detection of IL-2 production by single cells and analysis of the subsequent differentiative fate of these cells as an immune response develops...
- IL-2-deficient mice raised under germfree conditions develop delayed mild focal intestinal inflammationM Schultz
Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Am J Physiol 276:G1461-72. 1999..In contrast to other genetically engineered rodents, IL-2 -/- mice develop mild focal gastrointestinal and active portal tract inflammation in the absence of viable bacteria...
- Congenic mapping of the type 1 diabetes locus, Idd3, to a 780-kb region of mouse chromosome 3: identification of a candidate segment of ancestral DNA by haplotype mappingP A Lyons
Department of Medical Genetics, Wellcome Trust Centre for the Study of Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, University of Cambridge, UK
Genome Res 10:446-53. 2000..The Il2 gene, which encodes the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2), maps to this interval and is a strong candidate for Idd3...
- Differential glycosylation of interleukin 2, the molecular basis for the NOD Idd3 type 1 diabetes gene?P L Podolin
Department of Autoimmune Diseases Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA
Cytokine 12:477-82. 2000..35 cM region of chromosome 3 containing the structural gene for the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2)...
- The dual role of IL-2 in the generation and maintenance of CD8+ memory T cellsZ Dai
The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Emory University and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
J Immunol 165:3031-6. 2000..Thus, IL-2-based vaccine strategies or immunosuppressive regimens that target IL-2 should take into account the divergent roles of IL-2 in CD8+ T cell immunity...
- Genetic analysis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus in miceJ A Todd
Nuffield Department of Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
Nature 351:542-7. 1991..On the basis of comparative maps of the mouse and human genomes, the homologue of Idd-3 may reside on human chromosomes 1 or 4 and Idd-4 on chromosome 17...
- Overexpression of interleukin-2 by a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 attenuates pathogenicity and enhances antiviral immunityHomayon Ghiasi
Ophthalmology Research, Cedars Sinai Burns and Allen Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
J Virol 76:9069-78. 2002..These results suggest that IL-2 expression by recombinant HSV-1 reduces virulence and that depletion of IL-2 or T cells increases virulence in HSV-1-infected mice...
- Enhanced clearance of herpes simplex virus type 1 and reduced herpetic eye disease in STAT6 knockout mice is associated with increased IL-2Homayon Ghiasi
Ophthalmology Research, Cedars Sinai Burns and Allen Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
Virology 302:286-93. 2002..Our results suggest that in the absence of the STAT6 pathway, IL-2-mediated immune responses are up-regulated. This, in turn, leads to faster viral clearance and, consequently, lower levels of eye disease...
- Regulated expression and function of CD122 (interleukin-2/interleukin-15R-beta) during lymphoid developmentT Reya
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104 6076, USA
Blood 87:190-201. 1996..Together, these observations suggest that CD122 plays a role in regulating normal lymphocyte development in vivo...
- QTL influencing autoimmune diabetes and encephalomyelitis map to a 0.15-cM region containing Il2J A Encinas
Nat Genet 21:158-60. 1999
- Defective transcription of the IL-2 gene is associated with impaired expression of c-Fos, FosB, and JunB in anergic T helper 1 cellsA Mondino
Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA
J Immunol 157:2048-57. 1996..Thus, defective IL-2 gene transcription appears to be due, at least in part, to a selective block in the expression of the AP-1 Fos and Jun family members in anergic T cells...
- Interleukin-2 deficient mice: a new model to study autoimmunity and self-toleranceI Horak
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
Immunol Rev 148:35-44. 1995
- IL-15 and IL-2: a matter of life and death for T cells in vivoX C Li
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Nat Med 7:114-8. 2001..Our study provides data that IL-2 and IL-15 regulate distinct aspects of primary T-cell expansion in vivo...
- High mobility group protein I(Y) is required for function and for c-Rel binding to CD28 response elements within the GM-CSF and IL-2 promotersS R Himes
Hanson Centre for Cancer Research, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, South Australia
Immunity 5:479-89. 1996..Expression of HMG I or c-Rel antisense RNA inhibited CD28 activation of the IL-2 and GM-CSF promoters, implying that HMG I(Y) enhancement of c-Rel binding plays an important role in the activity of the CD28REs...
- Antiviral immune responses in mice deficient for both interleukin-2 and interleukin-4M F Bachmann
Department of Pathology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
J Virol 69:4842-6. 1995....
- IL-2 induces a competitive survival advantage in T lymphocytesHans Dooms
Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
J Immunol 172:5973-9. 2004..Therefore, IL-2 enhances competitiveness for survival in CD4(+) T cells, thereby facilitating the development of a memory population...
- Suppression of early IL-4 production underlies the failure of CD4 T cells activated by TLR-stimulated dendritic cells to differentiate into Th2 cellsJie Sun
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Immunol 178:1635-44. 2007..Our findings suggest that DCs provide instructional signals for T cell differentiation before cytokine-mediated Th cell selection and outgrowth...
- CD44 plays a co-stimulatory role in murine T cell activation: ligation of CD44 selectively co-stimulates IL-2 production, but not proliferation in TCR-stimulated murine Th1 cellsF Sommer
Institute of Clinical Microbiology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
Int Immunol 7:1779-86. 1995..These data lead us to propose a model of Th1 cell activation which includes two functionally different types of co-signals: one for IL-2 production and a separate one for proliferation...
- IL-2 signaling and CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cellsLaurence A Turka
Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Front Biosci 13:1440-6. 2008Although originally described as a potent T cell growth factor in vitro, the main non redundant role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in vivo is now known to be the maintenance of peripheral T cell tolerance...
- Induction and prevention of colonic inflammation in IL-2-deficient miceR O Ehrhardt
Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Immunol 158:566-73. 1997..These findings suggest that in the absence of IL-2 systemic administration of Ag induces primarily Th1 cells driven by overexpression of heterodimeric IL-12...
- Characterization of a family of novel cysteine- serine-rich nuclear proteins (CSRNP)Sebastien Gingras
Department of Biochemistry, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America
PLoS ONE 2:e808. 2007..However, combined deficiencies cause partial neonatal lethality suggesting that the genes have redundant functions...
- The IL-4 gene maps to chromosome 11, near the gene encoding IL-3P D'Eustachio
Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine 10016
J Immunol 141:3067-71. 1988..The identification of a strain-specific Bgl II restriction enzyme polymorphism in the IL-4 gene was used to map the IL-4 gene to a position on mouse chromosome 11 within 1 centimorgan of the gene encoding IL-3...
- Induction of autoimmune myocarditis in interleukin-2-deficient miceG Grassl
Department of Pediatrics, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Circulation 95:1773-6. 1997..Because it is conceivable that the lack of IL-2 either promotes or ameliorates the disease, we selected mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to cardiac myosin-induced myocarditis...
- IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes show strong biological activity by avoiding interaction with IL-2 receptor alpha subunit CD25Sven Létourneau
Division of Immunology and Allergy, University Hospital of Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2171-6. 2010..These data suggest an unpredicted role for CD25 in IL-2 homeostasis...
- Activation of the mouse IL-2 gene by okadaic acid: synergy with interleukin-1W Falk
Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, Germany
Lymphokine Cytokine Res 13:167-74. 1994..We conclude from the data that phosphatases play an important role for IL-2 expression and that IL-1 can use additional pathways of activation that are different from events induced by PMA or OA...
- IL-27 inhibits the development of regulatory T cells via STAT3Magdalena Huber
Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Marburg, Hans Meerwein Strasse 2, 35043 Marburg, Germany
Int Immunol 20:223-34. 2008..Thus, IL-27 and TGFbeta mutually control their effects on CD4+ T-cell differentiation, whereby IL-27 favours inflammatory conditions through a STAT3-dependent inhibition of Treg generation...
- Analysis of CAG trinucleotide repeats from mouse cDNA sequencesC Abbott
MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
Ann Hum Genet 58:87-94. 1994..Sinh1b maps very distally on the X chromosome, and Chat maps to chromosome 14...
- Differential cytokine expression in maternal blood and placenta during murine gestationS Delassus
Unité de Biologie Moléculaire du Gène, U 277 INSERM, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
J Immunol 152:2411-20. 1994..We discuss these results in the context of the placenta as a privileged immune site, where IL-4, being the main cytokine, may play a major regulatory role...
- Immunological mechanisms and clinical implications of regulatory T cell deficiency in a systemic autoimmune disorder: roles of IL-2 versus IL-15Cui Hong Yang
Department of Pathology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Eur J Immunol 38:1664-76. 2008..These findings thus provide a clear causal relationship and immunological mechanism underlying Treg deficiency and systemic autoimmunity...
- Distribution and kinetics of superantigen-induced cytokine gene expression in mouse spleenM Bette
First Department of Medicine, University of Mainz, Germany
J Exp Med 178:1531-9. 1993..Messenger RNAs for interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factors (TNF) alpha and beta were not expressed at detectable ..
- Polygenic control of autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic miceS Ghosh
Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, UK
Nat Genet 4:404-9. 1993....
- AlphaPIX Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor regulates lymphocyte functions and antigen receptor signalingKarine Missy
Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Mol Cell Biol 28:3776-89. 2008..These results reveal specific roles for alphaPIX in the immune system and suggest that redundancy with betaPIX precludes a more severe immune phenotype...
- Anti-tumor effects of paeonol in a HepA-hepatoma bearing mouse model via induction of tumor cell apoptosis and stimulation of IL-2 and TNF-alpha productionGuo ping Sun
Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Hefei, 230032, China
Eur J Pharmacol 584:246-52. 2008..Paeonol could be a promising drug to treat hepatocellular carcinoma...
- T cells, but not B cells, are required for bowel inflammation in interleukin 2-deficient miceA Ma
Center for Blood Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Exp Med 182:1567-72. 1995..IL-2-/-, JH-/- mice do not, however, succumb to anemia. Thus, spontaneous intestinal inflammation in IL-2-/- mice requires mature T cells, not B cells, while anemia is dependent on B cells...
- Development and proliferation of lymphocytes in mice deficient for both interleukins-2 and -4B Sadlack
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, FRG
Eur J Immunol 24:281-4. 1994..Paradoxically, proliferation of T cells was increased in both IL-2 and IL-4-deficient homozygous mice...
- Transgenic mice in the study of cytokine functionJ Taverne
University College London Medical School, Department of Immunology, UK
Int J Exp Pathol 74:525-46. 1993
- Ocular HSV: Role of virus and IL-2 in Optic neuritisHomayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2009..3. Determine if a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-4 (HSV-IL-4) can protect against HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination, while a similarly made recombinant virus expressing IFN-gamma is not beneficial. ..
- Innate & adaptive immunities in control of ocular HSVHomayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- The IL-2 receptor in T regulatory cell developmentTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- The Role of gK in HSV-1 Induced Corneal ScarringHomayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- T cell immunity and cytokine receptor redundancyTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 2005..Our goal here is to relate molecular targets of IL-2R signaling with specific biological responses. ..
- Immunobiology of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cellsTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Ocular HSV: Role of virus and IL-2 in Optic neuritisHomayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2010..3. Determine if a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-4 (HSV-IL-4) can protect against HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination, while a similarly made recombinant virus expressing IFN-gamma is not beneficial. ..
- The Role of gK in HSV-1 Induced Corneal ScarringHomayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2010..We now plan to determine the mechanism of gK induced corneal scarring mice. These studies should reveal the type or combination of types of immune response that induces eye disease. ..
- The IL-2 receptor in T regulatory cell developmentThomas R Malek; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- The Role of gK in HSV-1 Induced Corneal ScarringHomayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2009..We now plan to determine the mechanism of gK induced corneal scarring mice. These studies should reveal the type or combination of types of immune response that induces eye disease. ..
- The IL-2 receptor in T regulatory cell developmentTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- The immunobiology of CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cellsThomas R Malek; Fiscal Year: 2011..Understanding the factors that reverse autoimmunity in the IL-2Rb- deficient model may also provide new information concerning the etiology and potential therapy that may be generally common to several human autoimmune diseases. ..
- CYTOKINE RECEPTOR FUNCTION IN T CELL DEVELOPOMENTTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 2004..3) To distinguish whether thymic IL-2Rbeta controls autoimmunity at the level of positive/negative selection or by promoting the differentiation of a critical regulatory T-cell subset. ..
- INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR AND T LYMPHOCYTE GROWTHTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 1999b>Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a key growth factor for the clonal expansion of antigen activated T lymphocytes whose biological activity is mediated by binding to the high affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), comprised of 3 subunits, alpha, beta and ..
- THE INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR & T LYMPHOCYTE GROWTHTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 1993b>Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is the major growth factor for T lymphocytes and plays a critical role in the regulation of specific immune responses...
- MOLECULAR BASIS OF CYTOKINE RECEPTOR REDUNDANCYTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 2000..3) To distinguish the relative roles of gamma-c, IL-2R beta, IL-4R alpha and IL-7R alpha in the function of mature T lymphocytes in vivo. ..
- INNATE IMMUNE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY ORTHOPOXVIRUS PROTEINSAnthony R French; Fiscal Year: 2010..This work will also provide immunologic insight into the function of these receptors insight that likely is extensible to other infections. ..
- Immunodeficiency and Neuronal FunctionJOHN PETITTO; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- IL2 RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN T LYMPHOCYTESBrad Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2002..These studies should establish connections between IL-2 signaling and the control of cell cycle and will further understanding of the molecular regulation of T cell expansion during normal and pathological processes. ..