Gene Symbol: Il1rl1
Description: interleukin 1 receptor-like 1
Alias: DER4, Fit-1, Ly84, ST2L, St2, St2-rs1, T1/ST2, interleukin-1 receptor-like 1, interleukin-33 receptor alpha chain, lymphocyte antigen 84
Species: mouse
Products:     Il1rl1

Top Publications

  1. Schmitz J, Owyang A, Oldham E, Song Y, Murphy E, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines. Immunity. 2005;23:479-90 pubmed
    ..In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. ..
  2. Yanagisawa K, Tsukamoto T, Takagi T, Tominaga S. Murine ST2 gene is a member of the primary response gene family induced by growth factors. FEBS Lett. 1992;302:51-3 pubmed
    The murine ST2 gene, which encodes a protein remarkably similar to the extracellular portion of murine interleukin 1 receptor types 1 and 2, is expressed in growth-stimulated BALB/c-3T3 cells in the presence of 50 micrograms/ml of ..
  3. Tominaga S, Inazawa J, Tsuji S. Assignment of the human ST2 gene to chromosome 2 at q11.2. Hum Genet. 1996;97:561-3 pubmed
    The human St2 locus has been assigned to chromosome 2, using a human ST2 cDNA clone, by a human/rodent somatic cel hybrid mapping panel. The St2 locus has also been mapped to chromosome 2q11...
  4. Townsend M, Fallon P, Matthews D, Jolin H, McKenzie A. T1/ST2-deficient mice demonstrate the importance of T1/ST2 in developing primary T helper cell type 2 responses. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1069-76 pubmed
    We have generated mice with a deficiency in T1/ST2 expression to clarify the roles of T1/ST2 in T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses...
  5. Alves Filho J, Sonego F, Souto F, Freitas A, Verri W, Auxiliadora Martins M, et al. Interleukin-33 attenuates sepsis by enhancing neutrophil influx to the site of infection. Nat Med. 2010;16:708-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we find that individuals who did not recover from sepsis had significantly more soluble ST2 (sST2, the decoy receptor of IL-33) than those who did recover...
  6. Klemenz R, Hoffmann S, Werenskiold A. Serum- and oncoprotein-mediated induction of a gene with sequence similarity to the gene encoding carcinoembryonic antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:5708-12 pubmed
    ..Considerable sequence similarity has also been observed to the short conserved region of other proteins which, like carcinoembryonic antigen, are encoded by members of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. ..
  7. Tominaga S. A putative protein of a growth specific cDNA from BALB/c-3T3 cells is highly similar to the extracellular portion of mouse interleukin 1 receptor. FEBS Lett. 1989;258:301-4 pubmed
    ..The immunoglobulin superfamily is believed to be involved in cell adhesion and cell-to-cell interaction. The evidence that a member of this family is induced in the course of the initiation of cell proliferation is intriguing. ..
  8. Jones L, Roberts F, Nickdel M, Brombacher F, McKenzie A, Henriquez F, et al. IL-33 receptor (T1/ST2) signalling is necessary to prevent the development of encephalitis in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:426-36 pubmed publisher
    T1/ST2 is an immunoregulatory protein of the IL-1 receptor family that has recently been reported as being a component of the IL-33 receptor...
  9. Sanada S, Hakuno D, Higgins L, Schreiter E, McKenzie A, Lee R. IL-33 and ST2 comprise a critical biomechanically induced and cardioprotective signaling system. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1538-49 pubmed
    ST2 is an IL-1 receptor family member with transmembrane (ST2L) and soluble (sST2) isoforms...

More Information


  1. Ali S, Huber M, Kollewe C, Bischoff S, Falk W, Martin M. IL-1 receptor accessory protein is essential for IL-33-induced activation of T lymphocytes and mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18660-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that IL-1RAcP is used by more than one alpha-chain of the IL-1 receptor family and thus may resemble a common beta-chain of that family. ..
  2. Neill D, Wong S, Bellosi A, Flynn R, Daly M, Langford T, et al. Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity. Nature. 2010;464:1367-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, nuocytes represent a critically important innate effector cell in type-2 immunity...
  3. Palmer G, Lipsky B, Smithgall M, Meininger D, Siu S, Talabot Ayer D, et al. The IL-1 receptor accessory protein (AcP) is required for IL-33 signaling and soluble AcP enhances the ability of soluble ST2 to inhibit IL-33. Cytokine. 2008;42:358-64 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin (IL)-33 (or IL-1F11) was recently identified as a ligand for the orphan IL-1 receptor family member T1/ST2 (ST2)...
  4. Kurowska Stolarska M, Stolarski B, Kewin P, Murphy G, Corrigan C, Ying S, et al. IL-33 amplifies the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages that contribute to airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;183:6469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-13/IL-4Ralpha signaling was crucial for IL-33-driven AAM amplification by inducing the expression of ST2L. Finally, we showed that IL-33 was more abundantly expressed in the lung epithelial cells of asthma patients than ..
  5. Enoksson M, Lyberg K, Möller Westerberg C, Fallon P, Nilsson G, Lunderius Andersson C. Mast cells as sensors of cell injury through IL-33 recognition. J Immunol. 2011;186:2523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In an in vitro model of cell injury, this recognition was shown to involve the T1/ST2 receptor and result in the secretion of proinflammatory leukotrienes and cytokines by mouse mast cells...
  6. Hoogerwerf J, Leendertse M, Wieland C, de Vos A, de Boer J, Florquin S, et al. Loss of suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) gene reverses sepsis-induced inhibition of lung host defense in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:932-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling implicated in endotoxin tolerance...
  7. Schulze J, Bickert T, Beil F, Zaiss M, Albers J, Wintges K, et al. Interleukin-33 is expressed in differentiated osteoblasts and blocks osteoclast formation from bone marrow precursor cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:704-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding led us to analyze the skeletal phenotype of Il1rl1-deficient mice, which lack the IL-33 receptor ST2...
  8. Hsu C, Neilsen C, Bryce P. IL-33 is produced by mast cells and regulates IgE-dependent inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11944 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, a mast cell-dependent model, that deficiency in ST2 or antibody blockage of ST2 or IL-33 ablated the late phase inflammatory response but that the immediate phase ..
  9. Luzina I, Kopach P, Lockatell V, Kang P, Nagarsekar A, Burke A, et al. Interleukin-33 potentiates bleomycin-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;49:999-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..Bleomycin-induced changes were not affected by gene deficiency of the IL-33 receptor T1/ST2. Combined flIL-33 expression and bleomycin injury exerted a synergistic effect on pulmonary lymphocyte and collagen ..
  10. Molofsky A, Nussbaum J, Liang H, Van Dyken S, Cheng L, Mohapatra A, et al. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. J Exp Med. 2013;210:535-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation. ..
  11. Zaiss M, Maslowski K, Mosconi I, Guenat N, Marsland B, Harris N. IL-1? suppresses innate IL-25 and IL-33 production and maintains helminth chronicity. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003531 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1? that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity. ..
  12. Hoshino K, Kashiwamura S, Kuribayashi K, Kodama T, Tsujimura T, Nakanishi K, et al. The absence of interleukin 1 receptor-related T1/ST2 does not affect T helper cell type 2 development and its effector function. J Exp Med. 1999;190:1541-8 pubmed
    T1/ST2, an orphan receptor with homology with the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family, is expressed constitutively and stably on the surface of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, but not on Th1 cells...
  13. Guo L, Wei G, Zhu J, Liao W, Leonard W, Zhao K, et al. IL-1 family members and STAT activators induce cytokine production by Th2, Th17, and Th1 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13463-8 pubmed publisher
  14. Espinassous Q, Garcia de Paco E, Garcia Verdugo I, Synguelakis M, von Aulock S, Sallenave J, et al. IL-33 enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production from mouse macrophages by regulating lipopolysaccharide receptor complex. J Immunol. 2009;183:1446-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, it has been shown that the IL-1R-related protein ST2 could be implicated in LPS tolerance...
  15. Besnard A, Togbe D, Guillou N, Erard F, Quesniaux V, Ryffel B. IL-33-activated dendritic cells are critical for allergic airway inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1675-86 pubmed publisher
    ..of the IL-1 family cytokine, is involved in Th2-type responses in a wide range of diseases and signals through the ST2 receptor expressed on many immune cells...
  16. Yanagisawa K, Takagi T, Tsukamoto T, Tetsuka T, Tominaga S. Presence of a novel primary response gene ST2L, encoding a product highly similar to the interleukin 1 receptor type 1. FEBS Lett. 1993;318:83-7 pubmed BALB/c-3T3 cells and was one of the primary response genes, we found another ST2-related mRNA, designated as ST2L, in serum-stimulated BALB/c-3T3 cells in the presence of cycloheximide...
  17. Zaiss M, Kurowska Stolarska M, Böhm C, Gary R, Scholtysek C, Stolarski B, et al. IL-33 shifts the balance from osteoclast to alternatively activated macrophage differentiation and protects from TNF-alpha-mediated bone loss. J Immunol. 2011;186:6097-105 pubmed publisher
    ..spontaneous joint inflammation and cartilage destruction, we show that administration of IL-33 or an IL-33R (ST2L) agonistic Ab inhibited cartilage destruction, systemic bone loss, and osteoclast differentiation...
  18. Zdravkovic N, Shahin A, Arsenijevic N, Lukic M, Mensah Brown E. Regulatory T cells and ST2 signaling control diabetes induction with multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in BALB/c mice, deletion of ST2, an orphan member of the IL-1R family responsible for Th2 cell signaling leads to enhanced susceptibility to ..
  19. Miller A, Xu D, Asquith D, Denby L, Li Y, Sattar N, et al. IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that IL-33, which is a novel IL-1-like cytokine that signals via ST2, can reduce atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/-) mice on a high-fat diet...
  20. Hueber A, Alves Filho J, Asquith D, Michels C, Millar N, Reilly J, et al. IL-33 induces skin inflammation with mast cell and neutrophil activation. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33 is a new member of the IL-1 superfamily that signals through the ST2 receptor and was originally defined as an inducer of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines...
  21. Hayakawa H, Hayakawa M, Kume A, Tominaga S. Soluble ST2 blocks interleukin-33 signaling in allergic airway inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26369-80 pubmed
    The ST2 gene produces a soluble secreted form and a transmembrane form, referred to as soluble ST2 and ST2L, respectively...
  22. Kurowska Stolarska M, Kewin P, Murphy G, Russo R, Stolarski B, Garcia C, et al. IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4. J Immunol. 2008;181:4780-90 pubmed
    ..In vivo, ST2(-/-) mice developed attenuated airway inflammation and IL-5 production in a murine model of asthma...
  23. Xu D, Jiang H, Kewin P, Li Y, Mu R, Fraser A, et al. IL-33 exacerbates antigen-induced arthritis by activating mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression was markedly elevated in vitro by inflammatory cytokines. Mice lacking ST2, the IL-33 receptor alpha-chain, developed attenuated collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and reduced ex vivo collagen-..
  24. Brint E, Xu D, Liu H, Dunne A, McKenzie A, O Neill L, et al. ST2 is an inhibitor of interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and maintains endotoxin tolerance. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:373-9 pubmed
    ..b>ST2 is a member of the TIR family that does not activate NF-kappa B and has been suggested as an important effector ..
  25. Piehler D, Grahnert A, Eschke M, Richter T, Kohler G, Stenzel W, et al. T1/ST2 promotes T helper 2 cell activation and polyfunctionality in bronchopulmonary mycosis. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:405-14 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin (IL)-33 enhances T helper (Th)2 immunity via its receptor T1/ST2. Infection with the yeast-like pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is usually controlled by a Th1-mediated immune response...
  26. Miller A, Asquith D, Hueber A, Anderson L, Holmes W, McKenzie A, et al. Interleukin-33 induces protective effects in adipose tissue inflammation during obesity in mice. Circ Res. 2010;107:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokine interleukin (IL)-33 and its receptor ST2 are expressed in adipose tissue, but their role in adipose tissue inflammation during obesity is unclear...
  27. Volarevic V, Mitrovic M, Milovanovic M, Zelen I, Nikolic I, Mitrović S, et al. Protective role of IL-33/ST2 axis in Con A-induced hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2012;56:26-33 pubmed publisher
    We used Concanavalin A-induced liver injury to study the role of Interleukin 33 and its receptor ST2 in the induction of inflammatory pathology and hepatocellular damage...
  28. Rössler U, Thomassen E, Hültner L, Baier S, Danescu J, Werenskiold A. Secreted and membrane-bound isoforms of T1, an orphan receptor related to IL-1-binding proteins, are differently expressed in vivo. Dev Biol. 1995;168:86-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, T1-M likely represents a novel orphan receptor of selected hemopoietic cells. The matrix-associated T1-S variant might act to create a reservoir of the putative T1 ligand in some differentiating tissues. ..
  29. Hardman C, Panova V, McKenzie A. IL-33 citrine reporter mice reveal the temporal and spatial expression of IL-33 during allergic lung inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:488-98 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an IL-1 family cytokine that signals via its receptor T1/ST2, and is a key regulator of inflammation, notably the type-2 response implicated in allergic asthma...
  30. Luzina I, Pickering E, Kopach P, Kang P, Lockatell V, Todd N, et al. Full-length IL-33 promotes inflammation but not Th2 response in vivo in an ST2-independent fashion. J Immunol. 2012;189:403-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Germline deficiency of the cell surface receptor chain ST2 abrogated the mm IL-33-induced Th2-associated effects (pulmonary eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, and ..
  31. Xu D, Jiang H, Li Y, Pushparaj P, Kurowska Stolarska M, Leung B, et al. IL-33 exacerbates autoantibody-induced arthritis. J Immunol. 2010;184:2620-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking ST2 (ST2(-/-)), the IL-33 receptor alpha-chain, developed attenuated AIA and reduced expression of articular ..
  32. Bergers G, Reikerstorfer A, Braselmann S, Graninger P, Busslinger M. Alternative promoter usage of the Fos-responsive gene Fit-1 generates mRNA isoforms coding for either secreted or membrane-bound proteins related to the IL-1 receptor. EMBO J. 1994;13:1176-88 pubmed
    ..The orthologous gene of the mouse (known as T1 or ST2) is expressed during ontogeny first in the fetal liver of the embryo and then in lung and hematopoietic tissues of ..
  33. Jiang H, Milovanovic M, Allan D, Niedbala W, Besnard A, Fukada S, et al. IL-33 attenuates EAE by suppressing IL-17 and IFN-? production and inducing alternatively activated macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:1804-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that IL-33 and its receptor ST2 (IL-33R?) are highly expressed in spinal cord tissue, and ST2 expression is markedly increased in the spinal cords ..
  34. Chang Y, Kim H, Albacker L, Baumgarth N, McKenzie A, Smith D, et al. Innate lymphoid cells mediate influenza-induced airway hyper-reactivity independently of adaptive immunity. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection with influenza A virus, which activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulted in much more production of IL-33 by alveolar macrophages, which in turn activated natural helper cells producing substantial IL-13. ..
  35. Bonilla W, Fröhlich A, Senn K, Kallert S, Fernandez M, Johnson S, et al. The alarmin interleukin-33 drives protective antiviral CD8? T cell responses. Science. 2012;335:984-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, alarmin release by radio-resistant cells orchestrates protective antiviral CTL responses. ..
  36. Kropf P, Herath S, Klemenz R, Muller I. Signaling through the T1/ST2 molecule is not necessary for Th2 differentiation but is important for the regulation of type 1 responses in nonhealing Leishmania major infection. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1961-71 pubmed
    T1/ST2 is a stable cell surface marker selectively expressed on type 2 T helper (Th2) effector cells...
  37. Rankin A, Mumm J, Murphy E, Turner S, Yu N, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33 induces IL-13-dependent cutaneous fibrosis. J Immunol. 2010;184:1526-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results identify IL-33 as a previously unrecognized profibrotic mediator in skin and highlight the cellular and molecular pathways by which this pathology develops. ..
  38. Bartemes K, Iijima K, Kobayashi T, Kephart G, McKenzie A, Kita H. IL-33-responsive lineage- CD25+ CD44(hi) lymphoid cells mediate innate type 2 immunity and allergic inflammation in the lungs. J Immunol. 2012;188:1503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This innate type 2 response to the allergen is nearly abolished in mice deficient in IL-33R (i.e., ST2), and the Lin(-)CD25(+)CD44(hi) lymphoid cells in the lungs are required and sufficient to mediate the response...
  39. Chackerian A, Oldham E, Murphy E, Schmitz J, Pflanz S, Kastelein R. IL-1 receptor accessory protein and ST2 comprise the IL-33 receptor complex. J Immunol. 2007;179:2551-5 pubmed
    ..IL-33 mediates signal transduction through ST2, a receptor expressed on Th2 and mast cells...
  40. Tominaga S, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Tetsuka T. Molecular cloning of the murine ST2 gene. Characterization and chromosomal mapping. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1090:1-8 pubmed
    The genomic locus of the murine ST2 gene was isolated based on homology with a murine ST2 complementary DNA sequence and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined...
  41. Turnquist H, Zhao Z, Rosborough B, Liu Q, Castellaneta A, Isse K, et al. IL-33 expands suppressive CD11b+ Gr-1(int) and regulatory T cells, including ST2L+ Foxp3+ cells, and mediates regulatory T cell-dependent promotion of cardiac allograft survival. J Immunol. 2011;187:4598-610 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in heart transplantation, the mechanism by which IL-33, signaling through ST2L (the membrane-bound form of ST2), promotes transplant survival is unclear...
  42. Ohno T, Oboki K, Morita H, Kajiwara N, Arae K, Tanaka S, et al. Paracrine IL-33 stimulation enhances lipopolysaccharide-mediated macrophage activation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18404 pubmed publisher
    ..provokes Th2-type inflammation accompanied by accumulation of eosinophils through IL-33R, which consists of ST2 and IL-1RAcP. We previously demonstrated that macrophages produce IL-33 in response to LPS...
  43. Stolarski B, Kurowska Stolarska M, Kewin P, Xu D, Liew F. IL-33 exacerbates eosinophil-mediated airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2010;185:3472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Although resting eosinophils expressed moderate levels of the IL-33R alpha-chain (ST2L), eosinophils that accumulated in the airways of mice with OVA-induced asthma expressed increased amounts of ST2L...
  44. Kondo Y, Yoshimoto T, Yasuda K, Futatsugi Yumikura S, Morimoto M, Hayashi N, et al. Administration of IL-33 induces airway hyperresponsiveness and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lungs in the absence of adaptive immune system. Int Immunol. 2008;20:791-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Effect of IL-33 is dependent on ST2 binding, and its signal is transduced via MyD88 in vitro...
  45. Lohning M, Stroehmann A, Coyle A, Grogan J, Lin S, Gutierrez Ramos J, et al. T1/ST2 is preferentially expressed on murine Th2 cells, independent of interleukin 4, interleukin 5, and interleukin 10, and important for Th2 effector function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6930-5 pubmed
    ..One such gene, T1/ST2, is expressed stably on both Th2 clones and Th2-polarized cells activated in vivo or in vitro...
  46. Ohto Ozaki H, Kuroiwa K, Mato N, Matsuyama Y, Hayakawa M, Tamemoto H, et al. Characterization of ST2 transgenic mice with resistance to IL-33. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2632-42 pubmed publisher
    IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family, activates MAPK and NF-kappaB through its receptor ST2L and IL-1RAcP...
  47. Kaieda S, Shin K, Nigrovic P, Seki K, Lee R, Stevens R, et al. Synovial fibroblasts promote the expression and granule accumulation of tryptase via interleukin-33 and its receptor ST-2 (IL1RL1). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..a sought after fibroblast-derived factor that promotes tryptase expression and granule maturation via its receptor IL1RL1/ST2...
  48. Liu J, Buckley J, Redmond H, Wang J. ST2 negatively regulates TLR2 signaling, but is not required for bacterial lipoprotein-induced tolerance. J Immunol. 2010;184:5802-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies reported that the ST2 receptor, a member of the Toll/IL-1 receptor superfamily, functions as a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling and ..
  49. Mangan N, Dasvarma A, McKenzie A, Fallon P. T1/ST2 expression on Th2 cells negatively regulates allergic pulmonary inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1302-12 pubmed
    The transmembrane form of T1/ST2 (ST2) is a specific marker on murine Th2 cells that have been generated in vitro, or isolated from sites of allergic type 2 inflammation...
  50. Seki K, Sanada S, Kudinova A, Steinhauser M, Handa V, Gannon J, et al. Interleukin-33 prevents apoptosis and improves survival after experimental myocardial infarction through ST2 signaling. Circ Heart Fail. 2009;2:684-91 pubmed publisher
    ST2 is an interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member with membrane-bound (ST2L) and soluble (sST2) isoforms, and sST2 is a biomarker for poor outcome in patients with myocardial infarction (MI)...
  51. Siede J, Fröhlich A, Datsi A, Hegazy A, Varga D, Holecska V, et al. IL-33 Receptor-Expressing Regulatory T Cells Are Highly Activated, Th2 Biased and Suppress CD4 T Cell Proliferation through IL-10 and TGF? Release. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161507 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, expression of the IL-33 receptor ST2 was shown on Tregs in inflammatory settings...
  52. Johnston L, Hsu C, Krier Burris R, Chhiba K, Chien K, McKenzie A, et al. IL-33 Precedes IL-5 in Regulating Eosinophil Commitment and Is Required for Eosinophil Homeostasis. J Immunol. 2016;197:3445-3453 pubmed
    ..The IL-33R, ST2, is expressed on several inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, and is best characterized for its role during ..