Gene Symbol: Il1r1
Description: interleukin 1 receptor, type I
Alias: CD121a, CD121b, IL-1R1, IL-iR, Il1r-1, interleukin-1 receptor type 1, CD121 antigen-like family member A, IL-1 receptor alpha chain, IL-1R-1, IL-1R-alpha, IL-1RT-1, IL-1RT1, interleukin-1 receptor alpha, p80
Species: mouse
Products:     Il1r1

Top Publications

  1. Brydges S, Mueller J, McGeough M, Pena C, Misaghi A, Gandhi C, et al. Inflammasome-mediated disease animal models reveal roles for innate but not adaptive immunity. Immunity. 2009;30:875-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that CAPS are true inflammasome-mediated diseases and provide insight for more common inflammatory disorders. ..
  2. Miao E, Leaf I, Treuting P, Mao D, Dors M, Sarkar A, et al. Caspase-1-induced pyroptosis is an innate immune effector mechanism against intracellular bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:1136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that activation of caspase-1 clears intracellular bacteria in vivo independently of IL-1? and IL-18 and establishes pyroptosis as an efficient mechanism of bacterial clearance by the innate immune system...
  3. Chamberlain J, Francis S, Brookes Z, Shaw G, Graham D, Alp N, et al. Interleukin-1 regulates multiple atherogenic mechanisms in response to fat feeding. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5073 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration that inhibition of a single cytokine can block the rise in blood pressure in response to an environmental stimulus. IL-1 inhibition may have profound beneficial effects on atherogenesis in man. ..
  4. Hultgren O, Svensson L, Tarkowski A. Critical role of signaling through IL-1 receptor for development of arthritis and sepsis during Staphylococcus aureus infection. J Immunol. 2002;168:5207-12 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, IL-1R signaling plays a crucial role in host protection during systemic S. aureus infection as seen by the fatal outcome of S. aureus sepsis and arthritis in IL-1R-deficient mice. ..
  5. Lebeis S, Powell K, Merlin D, Sherman M, Kalman D. Interleukin-1 receptor signaling protects mice from lethal intestinal damage caused by the attaching and effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Infect Immun. 2009;77:604-14 pubmed publisher
    ..rodentium but not to that caused by chemical irritants, such as dextran sodium sulfate. Together, these data suggest that IL-1R signaling regulates the susceptibility of the intestinal epithelia to damage caused by C. rodentium...
  6. Koo J, Duman R. IL-1beta is an essential mediator of the antineurogenic and anhedonic effects of stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:751-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that IL-1beta is a critical mediator of the antineurogenic and depressive-like behavior caused by acute and chronic stress. ..
  7. Chamberlain J, Evans D, King A, Dewberry R, Dower S, Crossman D, et al. Interleukin-1beta and signaling of interleukin-1 in vascular wall and circulating cells modulates the extent of neointima formation in mice. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:1396-403 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, receptor antagonism may be a better therapeutic target than interruption of IL-1beta processing or release. ..
  8. Mayer Barber K, Barber D, Shenderov K, White S, Wilson M, Cheever A, et al. Caspase-1 independent IL-1beta production is critical for host resistance to mycobacterium tuberculosis and does not require TLR signaling in vivo. J Immunol. 2010;184:3326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our findings reveal a major role for IL-1beta in host resistance to M. tuberculosis and indicate that during this infection the cytokine can be generated by a mechanism that does not require TLR signaling or caspase-1. ..
  9. Sutton C, Brereton C, Keogh B, Mills K, Lavelle E. A crucial role for interleukin (IL)-1 in the induction of IL-17-producing T cells that mediate autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1685-91 pubmed
    ..Tumor necrosis factor alpha also synergized with IL-23 to enhance IL-17 production, and this was IL-1 dependent. Our findings demonstrate that IL-1 functions upstream of IL-17 to promote pathogenic ThIL-17 cells in EAE. ..

More Information


  1. Leal S, Cowden S, Hsia Y, Ghannoum M, Momany M, Pearlman E. Distinct roles for Dectin-1 and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000976 pubmed publisher
  2. Eriksson U, Kurrer M, Sonderegger I, Iezzi G, Tafuri A, Hunziker L, et al. Activation of dendritic cells through the interleukin 1 receptor 1 is critical for the induction of autoimmune myocarditis. J Exp Med. 2003;197:323-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-1R1 triggering is required for efficient activation of dendritic cells, which is in turn a prerequisite for induction of autoreactive CD4(+) T cells and autoimmunity. ..
  3. Goshen I, Kreisel T, Ounallah Saad H, Renbaum P, Zalzstein Y, Ben Hur T, et al. A dual role for interleukin-1 in hippocampal-dependent memory processes. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007;32:1106-15 pubmed
    ..e., a slight increase in brain IL-1 levels can improve memory, whereas any deviation from the physiological range, either by excess elevation in IL-1 levels or by blockade of IL-1 signaling, results in impaired memory. ..
  4. Dostert C, Guarda G, Romero J, Menu P, Gross O, Tardivel A, et al. Malarial hemozoin is a Nalp3 inflammasome activating danger signal. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6510 pubmed publisher
    ..The potent pro-inflammatory effect of hemozoin through inflammasome activation may possibly be implicated in plasmodium-associated pathologies such as cerebral malaria. ..
  5. Salio M, Chimenti S, De Angelis N, Molla F, Maina V, Nebuloni M, et al. Cardioprotective function of the long pentraxin PTX3 in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2008;117:1055-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PTX3 plays a nonredundant, regulatory, cardioprotective role in acute myocardial infarction in mice. Our results suggest that modulation of the complement cascade contributes to the cardioprotective function of PTX3. ..
  6. Kool M, Willart M, van Nimwegen M, Bergen I, Pouliot P, Virchow J, et al. An unexpected role for uric acid as an inducer of T helper 2 cell immunity to inhaled antigens and inflammatory mediator of allergic asthma. Immunity. 2011;34:527-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide further molecular insight into Th2 cell development and identify UA as an essential initiator and amplifier of allergic inflammation...
  7. LeibundGut Landmann S, Weidner K, Hilbi H, Oxenius A. Nonhematopoietic cells are key players in innate control of bacterial airway infection. J Immunol. 2011;186:3130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data add a new level of complexity to the coordination of the innate immune response to L. pneumophila and illustrate how the cross talk between leukocytes and nonhematopoietic cells contributes to efficient host protection...
  8. Matsuki T, Nakae S, Sudo K, Horai R, Iwakura Y. Abnormal T cell activation caused by the imbalance of the IL-1/IL-1R antagonist system is responsible for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Int Immunol. 2006;18:399-407 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the IL-1/IL-1Ra system is crucial for auto-antigen-specific T cell induction and contributes to the development of EAE. ..
  9. Shaftel S, Carlson T, Olschowka J, Kyrkanides S, Matousek S, O Banion M. Chronic interleukin-1beta expression in mouse brain leads to leukocyte infiltration and neutrophil-independent blood brain barrier permeability without overt neurodegeneration. J Neurosci. 2007;27:9301-9 pubmed
    ..Knock-out of their sole receptor CXCR2 abrogated neutrophil infiltration but failed to reduce leakage of the blood-brain barrier. ..
  10. Vonarbourg C, Mortha A, Bui V, Hernandez P, Kiss E, Hoyler T, et al. Regulated expression of nuclear receptor ROR?t confers distinct functional fates to NK cell receptor-expressing ROR?t(+) innate lymphocytes. Immunity. 2010;33:736-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also define a previously unappreciated role of ROR?t? NKR-LTi cells for the onset or maintenance of inflammatory bowel diseases...
  11. Lucey E, Keane J, Kuang P, Snider G, Goldstein R. Severity of elastase-induced emphysema is decreased in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta receptor-deficient mice. Lab Invest. 2002;82:79-85 pubmed
  12. Zhang X, Hester S, Kennett M, Karanikas A, Bendor L, Place D, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor signaling is required to overcome the effects of pertussis toxin and for efficient infection- or vaccination-induced immunity against Bordetella pertussis. Infect Immun. 2011;79:527-41 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-10 treatment reduced B. pertussis numbers in IL-1R(-/-) mice, suggesting that the lower IL-10 responses partially account for the uncontrolled inflammation and bacterial growth in these mice. ..
  13. Nambu A, Nakae S, Iwakura Y. IL-1beta, but not IL-1alpha, is required for antigen-specific T cell activation and the induction of local inflammation in the delayed-type hypersensitivity responses. Int Immunol. 2006;18:701-12 pubmed
    ..In addition, CD4+ T cell-derived IL-1 plays an important role in the activation of DCs during the elicitation phase, resulting in the production of TNF, that activate allergen-specific T cells. ..
  14. Koo J, Duman R. Interleukin-1 receptor null mutant mice show decreased anxiety-like behavior and enhanced fear memory. Neurosci Lett. 2009;456:39-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results indicate that the IL-1beta/IL-1RI signaling pathway induces anxiety-related behaviors and impairs fear memory. ..
  15. Gasse P, Mary C, Guenon I, Noulin N, Charron S, Schnyder Candrian S, et al. IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling and the inflammasome are essential in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3786-99 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, bleomycin-induced lung pathology required the inflammasome and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling, and IL-1 represented a critical effector of pathology and therapeutic target of chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis. ..
  16. Beynon A, Coogan A. Diurnal, age, and immune regulation of interleukin-1? and interleukin-1 type 1 receptor in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:1546-63 pubmed publisher
  17. Hruz P, Zinkernagel A, Jenikova G, Botwin G, Hugot J, Karin M, et al. NOD2 contributes to cutaneous defense against Staphylococcus aureus through alpha-toxin-dependent innate immune activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12873-8 pubmed publisher
  18. Szretter K, Gangappa S, Lu X, Smith C, Shieh W, Zaki S, et al. Role of host cytokine responses in the pathogenesis of avian H5N1 influenza viruses in mice. J Virol. 2007;81:2736-44 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TNF-alpha may contribute to morbidity during H5N1 influenza virus infection, while IL-1 may be important for effective virus clearance in nonlethal H5N1 disease. ..
  19. Miller L, Pietras E, Uricchio L, Hirano K, Rao S, Lin H, et al. Inflammasome-mediated production of IL-1beta is required for neutrophil recruitment against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo. J Immunol. 2007;179:6933-42 pubmed
    ..aureus in vivo. ..
  20. Tarabishy A, Aldabagh B, Sun Y, Imamura Y, Mukherjee P, Lass J, et al. MyD88 regulation of Fusarium keratitis is dependent on TLR4 and IL-1R1 but not TLR2. J Immunol. 2008;181:593-600 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings indicate that IL-1R1 and MyD88 regulate CXC chemokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the cornea, and that TLR4 has an important role in controlling growth and replication of these pathogenic fungi. ..
  21. Garcia M, Wernstedt I, Berndtsson A, Enge M, Bell M, Hultgren O, et al. Mature-onset obesity in interleukin-1 receptor I knockout mice. Diabetes. 2006;55:1205-13 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, lack of IL-1RI-mediated biological activity causes mature-onset obesity. This obese phenotype is preceded by decreased leptin sensitivity, fat utilization, and locomotor activity. ..
  22. Doisne J, Soulard V, Becourt C, Amniai L, Henrot P, Havenar Daughton C, et al. Cutting edge: crucial role of IL-1 and IL-23 in the innate IL-17 response of peripheral lymph node NK1.1- invariant NKT cells to bacteria. J Immunol. 2011;186:662-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1(-) iNKT cells could be a source of innate Th17-related cytokines during bacterial infections and supports the hypothesis that they are able to provide an efficient first line of defense against bacterial invasion. ..
  23. Matsuki T, Horai R, Sudo K, Iwakura Y. IL-1 plays an important role in lipid metabolism by regulating insulin levels under physiological conditions. J Exp Med. 2003;198:877-88 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that IL-1 plays an important role in lipid metabolism by regulating insulin levels and lipase activity under physiological conditions. ..
  24. Di Paolo N, Miao E, Iwakura Y, Murali Krishna K, Aderem A, Flavell R, et al. Virus binding to a plasma membrane receptor triggers interleukin-1 alpha-mediated proinflammatory macrophage response in vivo. Immunity. 2009;31:110-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data identify IL-1 alpha-IL-1RI as a key pathway allowing for the activation of proinflammatory responses to the virus, independently of its genomic nucleic acid recognition. ..
  25. Cho J, Pietras E, Garcia N, Ramos R, Farzam D, Monroe H, et al. IL-17 is essential for host defense against cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study defines what we believe to be a novel role for IL-17-producing epidermal gammadelta T cells in innate immunity against S. aureus cutaneous infection. ..
  26. Carmi Y, Rinott G, Dotan S, Elkabets M, Rider P, Voronov E, et al. Microenvironment-derived IL-1 and IL-17 interact in the control of lung metastasis. J Immunol. 2011;186:3462-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, we suggest that intervention in IL-1/IL-17 production could be therapeutically used to tilt this balance toward enhanced antitumor immunity. ..
  27. Deepe G, McGuinness M. Interleukin-1 and host control of pulmonary histoplasmosis. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:855-64 pubmed
    ..Conversely, interferon- gamma levels were decreased. Thus, IL-1 contributes to host resistance to infection with H. capsulatum. ..
  28. Botelho F, Bauer C, Finch D, Nikota J, Zavitz C, Kelly A, et al. IL-1?/IL-1R1 expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mechanistic relevance to smoke-induced neutrophilia in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28457 pubmed publisher
  29. Haq M, Norman J, Saba S, Ramirez G, Rabb H. Role of IL-1 in renal ischemic reperfusion injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9:614-9 pubmed
    ..05) h. Recovery in the IL-1Ra group was similar to that in the control animals. These data demonstrate that IL-1 is unlikely to be beneficial in the recovery of renal function after ischemia and may play a deleterious role...
  30. Satoskar A, Okano M, Connaughton S, Raisanen Sokolwski A, David J, Labow M. Enhanced Th2-like responses in IL-1 type 1 receptor-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:2066-74 pubmed
  31. Willart M, Deswarte K, Pouliot P, Braun H, Beyaert R, Lambrecht B, et al. Interleukin-1? controls allergic sensitization to inhaled house dust mite via the epithelial release of GM-CSF and IL-33. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings put IL-1? upstream in the cytokine cascade leading to epithelial and DC activation in response to inhaled HDM allergen...
  32. Hudock K, Liu Y, Mei J, Marino R, Hale J, Dai N, et al. Delayed resolution of lung inflammation in Il-1rn-/- mice reflects elevated IL-17A/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Il-1rn(-/-) mice exhibit delayed resolution in acute lung inflammation after exposure to LPS, a process that appears to be mediated via the G-CSF/IL-17A axis. ..
  33. Chen Y, Nikulina K, Lazarev S, Bahrami A, Noble L, Gallup M, et al. Interleukin-1 as a phenotypic immunomodulator in keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the ocular surface in Sjögren's syndrome. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:1333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate a phenotypic modulation role for IL-1 in the pathogenesis of squamous metaplasia and suggest that IL-1 receptor 1-targeted therapies may be beneficial for treating ocular surface disease associated with SS. ..
  34. Doz E, Noulin N, Boichot E, Guenon I, Fick L, Le Bert M, et al. Cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is TLR4/MyD88 and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling dependent. J Immunol. 2008;180:1169-78 pubmed
  35. Churg A, Zhou S, Wang X, Wang R, Wright J. The role of interleukin-1beta in murine cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and small airway remodeling. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;40:482-90 pubmed publisher
  36. Goshen I, Avital A, Kreisel T, Licht T, Segal M, Yirmiya R. Environmental enrichment restores memory functioning in mice with impaired IL-1 signaling via reinstatement of long-term potentiation and spine size enlargement. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3395-403 pubmed publisher
  37. Arwert E, Lal R, Quist S, Rosewell I, Van Rooijen N, Watt F. Tumor formation initiated by nondividing epidermal cells via an inflammatory infiltrate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19903-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, our studies show that differentiated epidermal cells can initiate tumor formation without reacquiring the ability to divide and that they do so by triggering an inflammatory infiltrate. ..
  38. Kono H, Karmarkar D, Iwakura Y, Rock K. Identification of the cellular sensor that stimulates the inflammatory response to sterile cell death. J Immunol. 2010;184:4470-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One key way they accomplish this important task is by producing IL-1alpha that is needed to initiate the inflammatory response...
  39. Peschon J, Torrance D, Stocking K, Glaccum M, Otten C, Willis C, et al. TNF receptor-deficient mice reveal divergent roles for p55 and p75 in several models of inflammation. J Immunol. 1998;160:943-52 pubmed
    ..In summary, these data help clarify the biologic roles of p55 and p75 in mediating and modulating the biologic activity of TNF and provide genetic evidence for an antagonistic role of p75 in vivo. ..
  40. Wuthrich M, Gern B, Hung C, Ersland K, Rocco N, Pick Jacobs J, et al. Vaccine-induced protection against 3 systemic mycoses endemic to North America requires Th17 cells in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:554-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that human vaccines against systemic fungal infections should be designed to induce Th17 cells if they are to be effective. ..
  41. Henao Mejia J, Elinav E, Jin C, Hao L, Mehal W, Strowig T, et al. Inflammasome-mediated dysbiosis regulates progression of NAFLD and obesity. Nature. 2012;482:179-85 pubmed publisher
  42. Meng G, Zhang F, Fuss I, Kitani A, Strober W. A mutation in the Nlrp3 gene causing inflammasome hyperactivation potentiates Th17 cell-dominant immune responses. Immunity. 2009;30:860-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the NLRP3 mutation leads to inflammasome hyperactivation and consequently Th17 cell-dominant immunopathology in autoinflammation. ..
  43. Bellocchio S, Montagnoli C, Bozza S, Gaziano R, Rossi G, Mambula S, et al. The contribution of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily to innate and adaptive immunity to fungal pathogens in vivo. J Immunol. 2004;172:3059-69 pubmed
    ..albicans and A. fumigatus require the coordinated action of distinct members of the IL-1R/TLR superfamily acting through MyD88 makes TLR manipulation amenable to the induction of host resistance to fungi. ..
  44. Thomas H, Irawaty W, Darwiche R, Brodnicki T, Santamaria P, Allison J, et al. IL-1 receptor deficiency slows progression to diabetes in the NOD mouse. Diabetes. 2004;53:113-21 pubmed
    ..3 TCR transgenic NOD mice but prolonged the time to diabetes in BDC2.5 TCR transgenic NOD mice. We conclude that IL-1R deficiency slows progression to diabetes in NOD mice but on its own does not prevent diabetes. ..
  45. Klekotka P, Yang L, Yokoyama W. Contrasting roles of the IL-1 and IL-18 receptors in MyD88-dependent contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the IL-1R and IL-18R/MyD88 pathways are required in distinctly different cells during the sensitization phase of CHS. ..
  46. Miller L, O Connell R, Gutierrez M, Pietras E, Shahangian A, Gross C, et al. MyD88 mediates neutrophil recruitment initiated by IL-1R but not TLR2 activation in immunity against Staphylococcus aureus. Immunity. 2006;24:79-91 pubmed
    ..This neutrophil recruitment was not dependent upon IL-1R/MyD88 signaling by recruited bone marrow-derived cells, suggesting that resident skin cells utilize IL-1R/MyD88 signaling to promote neutrophil recruitment. ..
  47. McGillicuddy F, Harford K, Reynolds C, Oliver E, Claessens M, Mills K, et al. Lack of interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) protects mice from high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation coincident with improved glucose homeostasis. Diabetes. 2011;60:1688-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Lack of IL-1RI protects against HFD-induced IR coincident with reduced local adipose tissue inflammation, despite equivalent immune cell recruitment. ..
  48. Bauer C, Kielian T, Wyatt T, Romberger D, West W, Gleason A, et al. Myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent signaling is critical for acute organic dust-induced airway inflammation in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;48:781-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the acute organic dust-induced airway inflammatory response is highly dependent on MyD88 signaling, and is dictated, in part, by important contributions from upstream TLRs and IL-18R. ..
  49. Elinav E, Strowig T, Kau A, Henao Mejia J, Thaiss C, Booth C, et al. NLRP6 inflammasome regulates colonic microbial ecology and risk for colitis. Cell. 2011;145:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, perturbations in this inflammasome pathway, including NLRP6, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-18, may constitute a predisposing or initiating event in some cases of human IBD. ..
  50. Gasse P, Riteau N, Charron S, Girre S, Fick L, Petrilli V, et al. Uric acid is a danger signal activating NALP3 inflammasome in lung injury inflammation and fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:903-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing uric acid tissue levels represents a novel therapeutic approach to control IL-1beta production and chronic inflammatory lung pathology. ..
  51. Wei S, Kitaura H, Zhou P, Ross F, Teitelbaum S. IL-1 mediates TNF-induced osteoclastogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:282-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-1 mediates the osteoclastogenic effect of TNF by enhancing stromal cell expression of RANKL and directly stimulating differentiation of osteoclast precursors. ..
  52. Chen C, Kono H, Golenbock D, Reed G, Akira S, Rock K. Identification of a key pathway required for the sterile inflammatory response triggered by dying cells. Nat Med. 2007;13:851-6 pubmed
  53. McKenzie M, Dudek N, Mariana L, Chong M, Trapani J, Kay T, et al. Perforin and Fas induced by IFNgamma and TNFalpha mediate beta cell death by OT-I CTL. Int Immunol. 2006;18:837-46 pubmed
    ..However, in the absence of perforin, the Fas/FasL pathway provides an alternative mechanism dependent on islet cell Fas upregulation by cytokines IFNgamma and TNFalpha. ..
  54. Chi H, Messas E, Levine R, Graves D, Amar S. Interleukin-1 receptor signaling mediates atherosclerosis associated with bacterial exposure and/or a high-fat diet in a murine apolipoprotein E heterozygote model: pharmacotherapeutic implications. Circulation. 2004;110:1678-85 pubmed
    ..05). Ablation of IL-1R1 under P gingivalis challenge and/or an HFD reduced the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. These results indicate that IL-1 plays a crucial role in bacteria- and/or HFD-enhanced atherogenesis. ..
  55. Couillin I, Vasseur V, Charron S, Gasse P, Tavernier M, Guillet J, et al. IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling is critical for elastase-induced lung inflammation and emphysema. J Immunol. 2009;183:8195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, elastase-mediated lung pathology depends on inflammasome activation with IL-1beta production. IL-1beta therefore represents a critical mediator and a possible therapeutic target of lung inflammation leading to emphysema. ..
  56. Zheng Y, Humphry M, Maguire J, Bennett M, Clarke M. Intracellular interleukin-1 receptor 2 binding prevents cleavage and activity of interleukin-1?, controlling necrosis-induced sterile inflammation. Immunity. 2013;38:285-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we report a cell type-dependent process that fundamentally governs IL-1? activity postnecrosis and the mechanism allowing conditional release of this blockade. ..
  57. Chung Y, Chang S, Martinez G, Yang X, Nurieva R, Kang H, et al. Critical regulation of early Th17 cell differentiation by interleukin-1 signaling. Immunity. 2009;30:576-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus indicate a critical role of IL-1 in Th17 cell differentiation and this pathway may serve as a unique target for Th17 cell-mediated immunopathology. ..
  58. Blumberg H, Dinh H, Trueblood E, Pretorius J, Kugler D, Weng N, et al. Opposing activities of two novel members of the IL-1 ligand family regulate skin inflammation. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2603-14 pubmed
    ..In summary, dysregulated expression of novel agonistic and antagonistic IL-1 family member ligands can promote cutaneous inflammation, revealing potential novel targets for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. ..
  59. Martinon F, Petrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature. 2006;440:237-41 pubmed
    ..These findings provide insight into the molecular processes underlying the inflammatory conditions of gout and pseudogout, and further support a pivotal role of the inflammasome in several autoinflammatory diseases. ..
  60. Schmitz N, Kurrer M, Kopf M. The IL-1 receptor 1 is critical for Th2 cell type airway immune responses in a mild but not in a more severe asthma model. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:991-1000 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a critical role of IL-1/IL-1R1 for development of allergic Th2 responses, but its requirement can be overcome by using alum as adjuvant for sensitization. ..
  61. Guarda G, Braun M, Staehli F, Tardivel A, Mattmann C, Forster I, et al. Type I interferon inhibits interleukin-1 production and inflammasome activation. Immunity. 2011;34:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may thus explain the effectiveness of type I IFN in the treatment of inflammatory diseases but also the observed "weakening" of the immune system after viral infection. ..
  62. Humphreys N, Grencis R. IL-1-dependent, IL-1R1-independent resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1036-45 pubmed publisher
  63. Labow M, Shuster D, Zetterstrom M, Nunes P, Terry R, Cullinan E, et al. Absence of IL-1 signaling and reduced inflammatory response in IL-1 type I receptor-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1997;159:2452-61 pubmed
    ..These data also demonstrate that IL-1 function is not required for normal development or homeostasis. ..
  64. Kawai T, Adachi O, Ogawa T, Takeda K, Akira S. Unresponsiveness of MyD88-deficient mice to endotoxin. Immunity. 1999;11:115-22 pubmed
  65. Fremond C, Togbe D, Doz E, Rose S, Vasseur V, Maillet I, et al. IL-1 receptor-mediated signal is an essential component of MyD88-dependent innate response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 2007;179:1178-89 pubmed
  66. McCandless E, Budde M, Lees J, Dorsey D, Lyng E, Klein R. IL-1R signaling within the central nervous system regulates CXCL12 expression at the blood-brain barrier and disease severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2009;183:613-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that T cell-derived IL-1beta contributes to loss of immune privilege during CNS autoimmunity via pathologic alteration in the expression of CXCL12 at the BBB. ..
  67. Qian J, Zhu L, Li Q, Belevych N, Chen Q, Zhao F, et al. Interleukin-1R3 mediates interleukin-1-induced potassium current increase through fast activation of Akt kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that IL-1R3/IL-1RAcPb complex mediates a unique subset of IL-1 activity that accounts for many previously unexplained IL-1 effects in the central nervous system. ..
  68. Orelio C, Peeters M, Haak E, van der Horn K, Dzierzak E. Interleukin-1 regulates hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in the midgestation mouse fetal liver. Haematologica. 2009;94:462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses of fetal liver explants, and in vivo effects on hematopoietic stem cell and progenitors were studied in Il1r1(-/-) embryos...
  69. Li Q, Powell N, Zhang H, Belevych N, Ching S, Chen Q, et al. Endothelial IL-1R1 is a critical mediator of EAE pathogenesis. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:160-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a critical role for endothelial IL-1R1 in mediating the pathogenesis of EAE, and describe a new model that can be used to study endothelial IL-1R1. ..
  70. Schmitz N, Kurrer M, Bachmann M, Kopf M. Interleukin-1 is responsible for acute lung immunopathology but increases survival of respiratory influenza virus infection. J Virol. 2005;79:6441-8 pubmed
    ..IL-1alpha/beta appear not to influence killing of virus-infected cells but to enhance IgM antibody responses and recruitment of CD4(+) T cells to the site of infection. ..
  71. Brinster C, Shevach E. Costimulatory effects of IL-1 on the expansion/differentiation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD4+CD25+Foxp3- T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for the design of protocols for the expansion of CD4+CD25+ T cells for cellular biotherapy. ..
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    ..Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response. ..