Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il1b
Description: interleukin 1 beta
Alias: IL-1beta, Il-1b, interleukin-1 beta, IL-1 beta
- Elinav E, Strowig T, Kau A, Henao Mejia J, Thaiss C, Booth C, et al. NLRP6 inflammasome regulates colonic microbial ecology and risk for colitis. Cell. 2011;145:745-57 pubmed publisher..Altogether, perturbations in this inflammasome pathway, including NLRP6, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-18, may constitute a predisposing or initiating event in some cases of human IBD. ..
- Gross O, Yazdi A, Thomas C, Masin M, Heinz L, Guarda G, et al. Inflammasome activators induce interleukin-1? secretion via distinct pathways with differential requirement for the protease function of caspase-1. Immunity. 2012;36:388-400 pubmed publisher..Because inflammasomes contribute to the pathology of numerous chronic inflammatory diseases such as gout and diabetes, IL-1? antagonists may be beneficial in the treatment of these disorders. ..
- Ceballos Olvera I, Sahoo M, Miller M, del Barrio L, Re F. Inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis and IL-18 protect against Burkholderia pseudomallei lung infection while IL-1? is deleterious. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002452 pubmed publisher..Thus, the NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes have non-redundant protective roles in melioidosis: NLRC4 regulates pyroptosis while NLRP3 regulates production of protective IL-18 and deleterious IL-1?. ..
- Luheshi N, Giles J, Lopez Castejon G, Brough D. Sphingosine regulates the NLRP3-inflammasome and IL-1? release from macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:716-25 pubmed publisher..Thus, we propose Sph as a new DAMP, and that a serine/threonine phosphatase (PP1/PP2A)-dependent signal is central to the endogenous host mechanism through which diverse stimuli regulate inflammasome activation. ..
- Sato A, Ohtaki H, Tsumuraya T, Song D, Ohara K, Asano M, et al. Interleukin-1 participates in the classical and alternative activation of microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:65 pubmed publisher..Moreover, we suggest that IL-1 participates in both the classical and alternative activation of MG in in vivo and in vitro systems. ..
- Allen C, Thornton P, Denes A, McColl B, Pierozynski A, Monestier M, et al. Neutrophil cerebrovascular transmigration triggers rapid neurotoxicity through release of proteases associated with decondensed DNA. J Immunol. 2012;189:381-92 pubmed publisher..Such mechanisms have important implications for neuroinflammatory disorders, notably in the development of antileukocyte therapies. ..
- Lopez Castejon G, Luheshi N, Compan V, High S, Whitehead R, Flitsch S, et al. Deubiquitinases regulate the activity of caspase-1 and interleukin-1? secretion via assembly of the inflammasome. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:2721-33 pubmed publisher..These data reveal the requirement for DUB activity in a key reaction of the innate immune response and highlight the therapeutic potential of DUB inhibitors for chronic auto-inflammatory diseases. ..
- Tsay T, Yang M, Chen P, Lai K, Huang H, Hsu C, et al. Blocking TNF-Î± enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced mortality in burn mice through induction of IL-1Î². Cytokine. 2013;63:58-66 pubmed publisher..Using an IL-1 receptor antagonist combined with the neutralization of TNF-Î± could be a useful strategy for decreasing P. aeruginosa infection-induced mortality in burn patients. ..
- Bossaller L, Chiang P, Schmidt Lauber C, Ganesan S, Kaiser W, Rathinam V, et al. Cutting edge: FAS (CD95) mediates noncanonical IL-1? and IL-18 maturation via caspase-8 in an RIP3-independent manner. J Immunol. 2012;189:5508-12 pubmed publisher..Hence, Fas controls a novel noncanonical IL-1? activation pathway in myeloid cells, which could play an essential role in inflammatory processes, tumor surveillance, and control of infectious diseases. ..
- Miao E, Leaf I, Treuting P, Mao D, Dors M, Sarkar A, et al. Caspase-1-induced pyroptosis is an innate immune effector mechanism against intracellular bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:1136-42 pubmed publisher..This demonstrates that activation of caspase-1 clears intracellular bacteria in vivo independently of IL-1? and IL-18 and establishes pyroptosis as an efficient mechanism of bacterial clearance by the innate immune system...
- Rider P, Carmi Y, Guttman O, Braiman A, Cohen I, Voronov E, et al. IL-1? and IL-1? recruit different myeloid cells and promote different stages of sterile inflammation. J Immunol. 2011;187:4835-43 pubmed publisher..Overall, our data provide new insight into the biology of IL-1 molecules as well as on the regulation of sterile inflammation. ..
- Wen H, Gris D, Lei Y, JHA S, Zhang L, Huang M, et al. Fatty acid-induced NLRP3-ASC inflammasome activation interferes with insulin signaling. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:408-15 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, IL-1? affects insulin sensitivity through tumor necrosis factor-independent and dependent pathways. These findings provide insights into the association of inflammation, diet and T2D. ..
- Dunne A, Ross P, Pospisilova E, Masin J, Meaney A, Sutton C, et al. Inflammasome activation by adenylate cyclase toxin directs Th17 responses and protection against Bordetella pertussis. J Immunol. 2010;185:1711-9 pubmed publisher..In addition to its known role in subverting host immunity, our findings suggest that CyaA can promote IL-1beta-mediated Th17 cells, which promote clearance of the bacteria from the respiratory tract...
- Tannahill G, Curtis A, Adamik J, Palsson McDermott E, McGettrick A, Goel G, et al. Succinate is an inflammatory signal that induces IL-1Î² through HIF-1Î±. Nature. 2013;496:238-42 pubmed publisher..Lipopolysaccharide also increases succinylation of several proteins. We therefore identify succinate as a metabolite in innate immune signalling, which enhances interleukin-1Î² production during inflammation. ..
- Pazár B, Ea H, Narayan S, Kolly L, Bagnoud N, Chobaz V, et al. Basic calcium phosphate crystals induce monocyte/macrophage IL-1? secretion through the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro. J Immunol. 2011;186:2495-502 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, we speculate that IL-1 blockade could be a novel strategy to inhibit BCP-induced inflammation in human disease...
- Provoost S, Maes T, Pauwels N, Vanden Berghe T, Vandenabeele P, Lambrecht B, et al. NLRP3/caspase-1-independent IL-1beta production mediates diesel exhaust particle-induced pulmonary inflammation. J Immunol. 2011;187:3331-7 pubmed publisher..In addition, DEP initiates inflammation independent of the classical NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway, suggesting that other proteases might be involved. ..
- Liu Z, Zaki M, Vogel P, Gurung P, Finlay B, Deng W, et al. Role of inflammasomes in host defense against Citrobacter rodentium infection. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16955-64 pubmed publisher..Thus, production of IL-1? and IL-18 downstream of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasomes plays a critical role in host defense against enteric infections caused by C. rodentium...
- Karmakar M, Sun Y, Hise A, Rietsch A, Pearlman E. Cutting edge: IL-1? processing during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is mediated by neutrophil serine proteases and is independent of NLRC4 and caspase-1. J Immunol. 2012;189:4231-5 pubmed publisher..Together, these results demonstrate that during P. aeruginosa infection, neutrophils are the primary source of mature IL-1? and that IL-1? processing is dependent on serine proteases and not NLRC4 or caspase-1...
- Barry K, Fontana M, Portman J, Dugan A, Vance R. IL-1? signaling initiates the inflammatory response to virulent Legionella pneumophila in vivo. J Immunol. 2013;190:6329-39 pubmed publisher..Our results establish IL-1? as a critical initiator of the inflammatory response to L. pneumophila in vivo and point to an important role for IL-1? in providing an alternative to inflammasome-mediated immune responses in vivo. ..
- Mankan A, Dau T, Jenne D, Hornung V. The NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 axis regulates IL-1? processing in neutrophils. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:710-5 pubmed publisher..Our findings establish the NLRP3 inflammasome as a key step in the secretion of matured IL-1? by neutrophils. ..
- Lee Y, Fujikado N, Manaka H, Yasuda H, Iwakura Y. IL-1 plays an important role in the bone metabolism under physiological conditions. Int Immunol. 2010;22:805-16 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results indicate that IL-1 directly activates RANK signaling other than inducing RANKL to promote osteoclastogenesis and plays an important role in physiological bone metabolism. ..
- Luheshi N, Kovacs K, Lopez Castejon G, Brough D, Denes A. Interleukin-1? expression precedes IL-1? after ischemic brain injury and is localised to areas of focal neuronal loss and penumbral tissues. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:186 pubmed publisher..This adds to the growing body of evidence that IL-1? is a key mediator of the sterile inflammatory response. ..
- Carmi Y, Rinott G, Dotan S, Elkabets M, Rider P, Voronov E, et al. Microenvironment-derived IL-1 and IL-17 interact in the control of lung metastasis. J Immunol. 2011;186:3462-71 pubmed publisher..Also, we suggest that intervention in IL-1/IL-17 production could be therapeutically used to tilt this balance toward enhanced antitumor immunity. ..
- Harris J, Hartman M, Roche C, Zeng S, O Shea A, Sharp F, et al. Autophagy controls IL-1beta secretion by targeting pro-IL-1beta for degradation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9587-97 pubmed publisher..These data demonstrate that autophagy controls the production of IL-1? through at least two separate mechanisms: by targeting pro-IL-1? for lysosomal degradation and by regulating activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. ..
- Dupont N, Jiang S, Pilli M, Ornatowski W, Bhattacharya D, Deretic V. Autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway for extracellular delivery of IL-1?. EMBO J. 2011;30:4701-11 pubmed publisher..It enables a subset of cytosolic proteins devoid of signal peptide sequences, and thus unable to access the conventional pathway through the ER, to enter an autophagy-based secretory pathway facilitating their exit from the cytoplasm. ..
- D EUSTACHIO P, Jadidi S, Fuhlbrigge R, Gray P, Chaplin D. Interleukin-1 alpha and beta genes: linkage on chromosome 2 in the mouse. Immunogenetics. 1987;26:339-43 pubmed..7 centimorgans distal to B2m (beta-2 microglobulin). We have named the locus encoding IL-1 alpha Il-1 alpha and the locus encoding IL-1 beta Il-1b. ..
- Mingam R, De Smedt V, Amédée T, Bluthé R, Kelley K, Dantzer R, et al. In vitro and in vivo evidence for a role of the P2X7 receptor in the release of IL-1 beta in the murine brain. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:234-44 pubmed..These results show that P2X7R plays a key role in the brain cytokine response to immune stimuli, which certainly applies also to cytokine-dependent alterations in brain functions including sickness behavior...
- Zhang R, Sun L, Hayashi Y, Liu X, Koyama S, Wu Z, et al. Acute p38-mediated inhibition of NMDA-induced outward currents in hippocampal CA1 neurons by interleukin-1beta. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;38:68-77 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that IL-1beta increases the excitability of hippocampal CA1 neurons in the p38-dependent inhibition of I(NMDA-OUT). ..
- Vonk A, Netea M, van Krieken J, Iwakura Y, Van der Meer J, Kullberg B. Endogenous interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are crucial for host defense against disseminated candidiasis. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1419-26 pubmed..albicans. Although IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta have differential effects on the various arms of host defense, both cytokines are essential for mounting a protective host response against invasive C. albicans infection. ..
- Hurgin V, Novick D, Werman A, Dinarello C, Rubinstein M. Antiviral and immunoregulatory activities of IFN-gamma depend on constitutively expressed IL-1alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5044-9 pubmed..Furthermore, IFN-gamma induced serum IL-18 binding protein in wild-type mice but not in IL-1alpha/beta double-deficient mice. Thus, constitutively expressed IL-1alpha is critical for numerous IFN-gamma activities. ..
- Godambe S, Chaplin D, Takova T, Read L, Bellone C. A novel cis-acting element required for lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of the murine interleukin-1 beta gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:112-9 pubmed..UV cross-linking and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis identified an IL1 beta -UNF1-specific binding factor approximately 85 to 90 kDa in size. ..
- Kono H, Karmarkar D, Iwakura Y, Rock K. Identification of the cellular sensor that stimulates the inflammatory response to sterile cell death. J Immunol. 2010;184:4470-8 pubmed publisher..One key way they accomplish this important task is by producing IL-1alpha that is needed to initiate the inflammatory response...
- Fantuzzi G, Ku G, Harding M, Livingston D, Sipe J, Kuida K, et al. Response to local inflammation of IL-1 beta-converting enzyme- deficient mice. J Immunol. 1997;158:1818-24 pubmed..Our results demonstrate that in turpentine-induced tissue necrosis, precursor IL-1 beta is processed by non-ICE proteases, but in complement-mediated inflammation, ICE participates in the processing of the IL-1 beta precursor. ..
- Prow N, Irani D. The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta, mediates loss of astroglial glutamate transport and drives excitotoxic motor neuron injury in the spinal cord during acute viral encephalomyelitis. J Neurochem. 2008;105:1276-86 pubmed publisher..They provide one of the strongest in vivo links between innate immune responses and the development of excitotoxicity demonstrated to date. ..
- Shio M, Tiemi Shio M, Eisenbarth S, Savaria M, Vinet A, Bellemare M, et al. Malarial hemozoin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome through Lyn and Syk kinases. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000559 pubmed publisher..These findings not only identify one way by which the immune system is alerted to malarial infection but also are one of the first to suggest a role for tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. ..
- van de Veerdonk F, Joosten L, Devesa I, Mora Montes H, Kanneganti T, Dinarello C, et al. Bypassing pathogen-induced inflammasome activation for the regulation of interleukin-1beta production by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1087-96 pubmed publisher..Transcription through mannan/chitin/MR and beta-glucan/dectin-1/TLR2 induces production of IL-1beta by C. albicans in human monocytes, whereas processing of IL-1beta is mediated by constitutively active caspase-1. ..
- Luheshi N, Rothwell N, Brough D. The dynamics and mechanisms of interleukin-1alpha and beta nuclear import. Traffic. 2009;10:16-25 pubmed publisher..These data provide valuable insights into the dynamic regulation of intracellular cytokine trafficking. ..
- Ganter M, Roux J, Miyazawa B, Howard M, Frank J, Su G, et al. Interleukin-1beta causes acute lung injury via alphavbeta5 and alphavbeta6 integrin-dependent mechanisms. Circ Res. 2008;102:804-12 pubmed publisher..In summary, these results demonstrate a critical role for the alphavbeta5/beta6 integrins in mediating the IL-1beta-induced ALI and indicate that these integrins could be a potentially attractive therapeutic target in ALI. ..
- Lagathu C, Yvan Charvet L, Bastard J, Maachi M, Quignard Boulange A, Capeau J, et al. Long-term treatment with interleukin-1beta induces insulin resistance in murine and human adipocytes. Diabetologia. 2006;49:2162-73 pubmed..b>IL1B, a proinflammatory cytokine, may participate in this alteration...
- Qu Y, Franchi L, Nunez G, Dubyak G. Nonclassical IL-1 beta secretion stimulated by P2X7 receptors is dependent on inflammasome activation and correlated with exosome release in murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2007;179:1913-25 pubmed..Our findings suggest an alternative model of IL-1 beta release that may involve the P2X7R-induced formation of multivesicular bodies that contain exosomes with entrapped IL-1 beta, caspase-1, and other inflammasome components. ..
- Laflamme N, Lacroix S, Rivest S. An essential role of interleukin-1beta in mediating NF-kappaB activity and COX-2 transcription in cells of the blood-brain barrier in response to a systemic and localized inflammation but not during endotoxemia. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10923-30 pubmed
- Schielke G, Yang G, Shivers B, Betz A. Reduced ischemic brain injury in interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme-deficient mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1998;18:180-5 pubmed..Although the mechanism of this effect is uncertain, our results suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of ICE may be a useful treatment for stroke. ..
- Pelegrin P, Barroso Gutierrez C, Surprenant A. P2X7 receptor differentially couples to distinct release pathways for IL-1beta in mouse macrophage. J Immunol. 2008;180:7147-57 pubmed..None of these release responses were associated with cell damage or cytolytic effects. This provides the first direct demonstration of a distinct signaling mechanism responsible for ATP-induced release of pro-IL-1beta. ..
- Timoshanko J, Kitching A, Iwakura Y, Holdsworth S, Tipping P. Leukocyte-derived interleukin-1beta interacts with renal interleukin-1 receptor I to promote renal tumor necrosis factor and glomerular injury in murine crescentic glomerulonephritis. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1967-77 pubmed..These studies demonstrate that leukocytes are the major cellular source of IL-1beta, and that IL-1beta acts principally via the IL-1RI on intrinsic renal cells to induce TNF expression and crescentic glomerular injury. ..
- Matsuki T, Horai R, Sudo K, Iwakura Y. IL-1 plays an important role in lipid metabolism by regulating insulin levels under physiological conditions. J Exp Med. 2003;198:877-88 pubmed..These observations suggest that IL-1 plays an important role in lipid metabolism by regulating insulin levels and lipase activity under physiological conditions. ..
- Hein A, Stasko M, Matousek S, Scott McKean J, Maier S, Olschowka J, et al. Sustained hippocampal IL-1beta overexpression impairs contextual and spatial memory in transgenic mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:243-53 pubmed publisher..Sustained neuroinflammation also reduced basal and conditioning-induced levels of the plasticity-related gene Arc. ..
- Hsu L, Ali S, McGillivray S, Tseng P, Mariathasan S, Humke E, et al. A NOD2-NALP1 complex mediates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta secretion in response to Bacillus anthracis infection and muramyl dipeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7803-8 pubmed publisher..Thus, NOD2 plays a key role in the B. anthracis-induced inflammatory response by being a critical mediator of IL-1beta secretion. ..
- Shchors K, Shchors E, Rostker F, Lawlor E, Brown Swigart L, Evan G. The Myc-dependent angiogenic switch in tumors is mediated by interleukin 1beta. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2527-38 pubmed..Together, our data delineate a complete pathway in vivo by which the highly pleiotropic Myc oncoproteins elicits coexpansion of the vascular compartment during tumorigenic progression. ..
- Nambu A, Nakae S, Iwakura Y. IL-1beta, but not IL-1alpha, is required for antigen-specific T cell activation and the induction of local inflammation in the delayed-type hypersensitivity responses. Int Immunol. 2006;18:701-12 pubmed..In addition, CD4+ T cell-derived IL-1 plays an important role in the activation of DCs during the elicitation phase, resulting in the production of TNF, that activate allergen-specific T cells. ..
- Prantner D, Darville T, Sikes J, Andrews C, Brade H, Rank R, et al. Critical role for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection and bacterial replication-independent secretion of IL-1beta in mouse macrophages. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5334-46 pubmed publisher..Additionally, prestimulation of macrophages by chlamydial TLR ligands may account for the elevated levels of pro-IL-1beta mRNA observed in vivo in this cell type...
- Raupach B, Peuschel S, Monack D, Zychlinsky A. Caspase-1-mediated activation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18 contributes to innate immune defenses against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4922-6 pubmed..Thus, we show that Casp-1 is essential for host innate immune defense against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and that Casp-1 substrates are required at distinct times and anatomical sites. ..
- Poeck H, Bscheider M, Gross O, Finger K, Roth S, Rebsamen M, et al. Recognition of RNA virus by RIG-I results in activation of CARD9 and inflammasome signaling for interleukin 1 beta production. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:63-9 pubmed publisherb>Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a potent proinflammatory factor during viral infection...
- Mason J, Suzuki K, Chaplin D, Matsushima G. Interleukin-1beta promotes repair of the CNS. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7046-52 pubmed..Thus, IL-1beta may be crucial to the repair of the CNS, presumably through the induction of astrocyte and microglia-macrophage-derived IGF-1. ..
- Lu J, Sadri N, Schneider R. Endotoxic shock in AUF1 knockout mice mediated by failure to degrade proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3174-84 pubmed..Defects in the AUF1 post-transcriptionally controlled pathway may be involved in human inflammatory disease. ..
- Matsuki T, Nakae S, Sudo K, Horai R, Iwakura Y. Abnormal T cell activation caused by the imbalance of the IL-1/IL-1R antagonist system is responsible for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Int Immunol. 2006;18:399-407 pubmed..These observations suggest that the IL-1/IL-1Ra system is crucial for auto-antigen-specific T cell induction and contributes to the development of EAE. ..
- Zheng H, Fletcher D, Kozak W, Jiang M, Hofmann K, Conn C, et al. Resistance to fever induction and impaired acute-phase response in interleukin-1 beta-deficient mice. Immunity. 1995;3:9-19 pubmed
- Halle A, Hornung V, Petzold G, Stewart C, Monks B, Reinheckel T, et al. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response to amyloid-beta. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:857-65 pubmed publisherThe fibrillar peptide amyloid-beta (A beta) has a chief function in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a key cytokine in the inflammatory response to A beta...
- Fantuzzi G, Zheng H, Faggioni R, Benigni F, Ghezzi P, Sipe J, et al. Effect of endotoxin in IL-1 beta-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1996;157:291-6 pubmed..In summary, our results suggest that either IL-1 beta is not essential for the in vivo systemic response to LPS or that its role can be fulfilled by other cytokines with overlapping activities. ..
- Clausen B, Lambertsen K, Babcock A, Holm T, Dagnaes Hansen F, Finsen B. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are expressed by different subsets of microglia and macrophages after ischemic stroke in mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2008;5:46 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide evidence of a functional diversity among different subsets of microglia and macrophages that is potentially relevant to future design of anti-inflammatory therapies in stroke. ..
- Jager J, Gremeaux T, Cormont M, Le Marchand Brustel Y, Tanti J. Interleukin-1beta-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes through down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression. Endocrinology. 2007;148:241-51 pubmed..By targeting IRS-1, IL-1beta is capable of impairing insulin signaling and action, and could thus participate in concert with other cytokines, in the development of insulin resistance in adipocytes. ..
- Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner K, Sirois C, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind F, et al. NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature. 2010;464:1357-61 pubmed publisher..These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and indicate new potential molecular targets for the therapy of this disease. ..
- Kleibeuker W, Gabay E, Kavelaars A, Zijlstra J, Wolf G, Ziv N, et al. IL-1 beta signaling is required for mechanical allodynia induced by nerve injury and for the ensuing reduction in spinal cord neuronal GRK2. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:200-8 pubmed..These results suggest a functional relation between the L5 SNT-induced IL-1 beta-mediated decrease in GRK2 and development of mechanical allodynia. ..
- Takenouchi T, Iwamaru Y, Sugama S, Sato M, Hashimoto M, Kitani H. Lysophospholipids and ATP mutually suppress maturation and release of IL-1 beta in mouse microglial cells using a Rho-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 2008;180:7827-39 pubmed..Collectively, these data suggest opposing functions by lysophospholipids, either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory, in regard to the maturation and release of IL-1beta from microglial cells. ..
- Furuzawa M, Kuwahara M, Ishii K, Iwakura Y, Tsubone H. Diurnal variation of heart rate, locomotor activity, and body temperature in interleukin-1 alpha/beta doubly deficient mice. Exp Anim. 2002;51:49-56 pubmed..These results suggest that IL-1 may play important physiological and pathophysiological roles on biobehavioral activities. ..
- Gray P, Glaister D, Chen E, Goeddel D, Pennica D. Two interleukin 1 genes in the mouse: cloning and expression of the cDNA for murine interleukin 1 beta. J Immunol. 1986;137:3644-8 pubmedA human interleukin 1 beta (IL 1 beta) cDNA probe was utilized to identify a homologous murine cDNA clone. The murine cDNA encodes a 269-residue protein which is 67% homologous to human IL 1 beta...