Gene Symbol: Il1b
Description: interleukin 1 beta
Alias: IL-1beta, Il-1b, interleukin-1 beta, IL-1 beta
Species: mouse
Products:     Il1b

Top Publications

  1. Shornick L, De Togni P, Mariathasan S, Goellner J, Strauss Schoenberger J, Karr R, et al. Mice deficient in IL-1beta manifest impaired contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzone. J Exp Med. 1996;183:1427-36 pubmed
    ..They suggest an important role for IL-1beta in initiation of the host of response at the epidermal barrier. ..
  2. Joosten L, Abdollahi Roodsaz S, Heuvelmans Jacobs M, Helsen M, van den Bersselaar L, Oppers Walgreen B, et al. T cell dependence of chronic destructive murine arthritis induced by repeated local activation of Toll-like receptor-driven pathways: crucial role of both interleukin-1beta and interleukin-17. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the TNFalpha dependence of arthritis is lost during the erosive stage, when Th17 cells become crucial. IL-1beta dependence remains strong, consistent with its pivotal role in the generation of Th17 cells. ..
  3. Lange J, Sapozhnikova A, Lu C, Hu D, Li X, Miclau T, et al. Action of IL-1beta during fracture healing. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:778-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes could reflect a slight acceleration of endochondral ossification, or direct effects on cartilage and bone formation. ..
  4. Murray C, Skelly D, Cunningham C. Exacerbation of CNS inflammation and neurodegeneration by systemic LPS treatment is independent of circulating IL-1β and IL-6. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:50 pubmed publisher
  5. Antonopoulos C, El Sanadi C, Kaiser W, Mocarski E, Dubyak G. Proapoptotic chemotherapeutic drugs induce noncanonical processing and release of IL-1? via caspase-8 in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2013;191:4789-803 pubmed publisher
  6. Clausen F, Hånell A, Israelsson C, Hedin J, Ebendal T, Mir A, et al. Neutralization of interleukin-1? reduces cerebral edema and tissue loss and improves late cognitive outcome following traumatic brain injury in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:110-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The improved histological and behavioral outcome following anti-IL-1? treatment also implies that further exploration of IL-1?-neutralizing compounds as a treatment option for TBI patients is warranted. ..
  7. Mishra B, Rathinam V, Martens G, Martinot A, Kornfeld H, Fitzgerald K, et al. Nitric oxide controls the immunopathology of tuberculosis by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent processing of IL-1?. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the NO produced as a result of adaptive immunity is indispensable in modulating the destructive innate inflammatory responses elicited during persistent infections. ..
  8. Shi C, Shenderov K, Huang N, Kabat J, Abu Asab M, Fitzgerald K, et al. Activation of autophagy by inflammatory signals limits IL-1β production by targeting ubiquitinated inflammasomes for destruction. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that autophagy accompanies inflammasome activation to temper inflammation by eliminating active inflammasomes. ..
  9. Shaw M, Kamada N, Kim Y, Nunez G. Microbiota-induced IL-1?, but not IL-6, is critical for the development of steady-state TH17 cells in the intestine. J Exp Med. 2012;209:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, commensal-induced IL-1? production is a critical step for sT(H)17 differentiation in the intestine, which may have therapeutic implications for T(H)17-mediated pathologies. ..

More Information


  1. Chou R, Kim N, Sadik C, Seung E, Lan Y, Byrne M, et al. Lipid-cytokine-chemokine cascade drives neutrophil recruitment in a murine model of inflammatory arthritis. Immunity. 2010;33:266-78 pubmed publisher
  2. Elinav E, Strowig T, Kau A, Henao Mejia J, Thaiss C, Booth C, et al. NLRP6 inflammasome regulates colonic microbial ecology and risk for colitis. Cell. 2011;145:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, perturbations in this inflammasome pathway, including NLRP6, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-18, may constitute a predisposing or initiating event in some cases of human IBD. ..
  3. Gross O, Yazdi A, Thomas C, Masin M, Heinz L, Guarda G, et al. Inflammasome activators induce interleukin-1? secretion via distinct pathways with differential requirement for the protease function of caspase-1. Immunity. 2012;36:388-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Because inflammasomes contribute to the pathology of numerous chronic inflammatory diseases such as gout and diabetes, IL-1? antagonists may be beneficial in the treatment of these disorders. ..
  4. Nadeau S, Filali M, Zhang J, Kerr B, Rivest S, Soulet D, et al. Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury is dependent on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF: implications for neuropathic pain. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12533-42 pubmed publisher
  5. Ceballos Olvera I, Sahoo M, Miller M, del Barrio L, Re F. Inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis and IL-18 protect against Burkholderia pseudomallei lung infection while IL-1? is deleterious. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002452 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes have non-redundant protective roles in melioidosis: NLRC4 regulates pyroptosis while NLRP3 regulates production of protective IL-18 and deleterious IL-1?. ..
  6. Luheshi N, Giles J, Lopez Castejon G, Brough D. Sphingosine regulates the NLRP3-inflammasome and IL-1? release from macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:716-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose Sph as a new DAMP, and that a serine/threonine phosphatase (PP1/PP2A)-dependent signal is central to the endogenous host mechanism through which diverse stimuli regulate inflammasome activation. ..
  7. Sato A, Ohtaki H, Tsumuraya T, Song D, Ohara K, Asano M, et al. Interleukin-1 participates in the classical and alternative activation of microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we suggest that IL-1 participates in both the classical and alternative activation of MG in in vivo and in vitro systems. ..
  8. Allen C, Thornton P, Denes A, McColl B, Pierozynski A, Monestier M, et al. Neutrophil cerebrovascular transmigration triggers rapid neurotoxicity through release of proteases associated with decondensed DNA. J Immunol. 2012;189:381-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Such mechanisms have important implications for neuroinflammatory disorders, notably in the development of antileukocyte therapies. ..
  9. Lopez Castejon G, Luheshi N, Compan V, High S, Whitehead R, Flitsch S, et al. Deubiquitinases regulate the activity of caspase-1 and interleukin-1? secretion via assembly of the inflammasome. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:2721-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal the requirement for DUB activity in a key reaction of the innate immune response and highlight the therapeutic potential of DUB inhibitors for chronic auto-inflammatory diseases. ..
  10. Tsay T, Yang M, Chen P, Lai K, Huang H, Hsu C, et al. Blocking TNF-α enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced mortality in burn mice through induction of IL-1β. Cytokine. 2013;63:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an IL-1 receptor antagonist combined with the neutralization of TNF-α could be a useful strategy for decreasing P. aeruginosa infection-induced mortality in burn patients. ..
  11. Bossaller L, Chiang P, Schmidt Lauber C, Ganesan S, Kaiser W, Rathinam V, et al. Cutting edge: FAS (CD95) mediates noncanonical IL-1? and IL-18 maturation via caspase-8 in an RIP3-independent manner. J Immunol. 2012;189:5508-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Fas controls a novel noncanonical IL-1? activation pathway in myeloid cells, which could play an essential role in inflammatory processes, tumor surveillance, and control of infectious diseases. ..
  12. Miao E, Leaf I, Treuting P, Mao D, Dors M, Sarkar A, et al. Caspase-1-induced pyroptosis is an innate immune effector mechanism against intracellular bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:1136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that activation of caspase-1 clears intracellular bacteria in vivo independently of IL-1? and IL-18 and establishes pyroptosis as an efficient mechanism of bacterial clearance by the innate immune system...
  13. Rider P, Carmi Y, Guttman O, Braiman A, Cohen I, Voronov E, et al. IL-1? and IL-1? recruit different myeloid cells and promote different stages of sterile inflammation. J Immunol. 2011;187:4835-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data provide new insight into the biology of IL-1 molecules as well as on the regulation of sterile inflammation. ..
  14. Lalor S, Dungan L, Sutton C, Basdeo S, Fletcher J, Mills K. Caspase-1-processed cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 promote IL-17 production by gammadelta and CD4 T cells that mediate autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2011;186:5738-48 pubmed publisher
  15. Wen H, Gris D, Lei Y, JHA S, Zhang L, Huang M, et al. Fatty acid-induced NLRP3-ASC inflammasome activation interferes with insulin signaling. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, IL-1? affects insulin sensitivity through tumor necrosis factor-independent and dependent pathways. These findings provide insights into the association of inflammation, diet and T2D. ..
  16. Dunne A, Ross P, Pospisilova E, Masin J, Meaney A, Sutton C, et al. Inflammasome activation by adenylate cyclase toxin directs Th17 responses and protection against Bordetella pertussis. J Immunol. 2010;185:1711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to its known role in subverting host immunity, our findings suggest that CyaA can promote IL-1beta-mediated Th17 cells, which promote clearance of the bacteria from the respiratory tract...
  17. Tannahill G, Curtis A, Adamik J, Palsson McDermott E, McGettrick A, Goel G, et al. Succinate is an inflammatory signal that induces IL-1β through HIF-1α. Nature. 2013;496:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipopolysaccharide also increases succinylation of several proteins. We therefore identify succinate as a metabolite in innate immune signalling, which enhances interleukin-1β production during inflammation. ..
  18. Pazár B, Ea H, Narayan S, Kolly L, Bagnoud N, Chobaz V, et al. Basic calcium phosphate crystals induce monocyte/macrophage IL-1? secretion through the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro. J Immunol. 2011;186:2495-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we speculate that IL-1 blockade could be a novel strategy to inhibit BCP-induced inflammation in human disease...
  19. Provoost S, Maes T, Pauwels N, Vanden Berghe T, Vandenabeele P, Lambrecht B, et al. NLRP3/caspase-1-independent IL-1beta production mediates diesel exhaust particle-induced pulmonary inflammation. J Immunol. 2011;187:3331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, DEP initiates inflammation independent of the classical NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway, suggesting that other proteases might be involved. ..
  20. Liu Z, Zaki M, Vogel P, Gurung P, Finlay B, Deng W, et al. Role of inflammasomes in host defense against Citrobacter rodentium infection. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16955-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, production of IL-1? and IL-18 downstream of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasomes plays a critical role in host defense against enteric infections caused by C. rodentium...
  21. Karmakar M, Sun Y, Hise A, Rietsch A, Pearlman E. Cutting edge: IL-1? processing during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is mediated by neutrophil serine proteases and is independent of NLRC4 and caspase-1. J Immunol. 2012;189:4231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that during P. aeruginosa infection, neutrophils are the primary source of mature IL-1? and that IL-1? processing is dependent on serine proteases and not NLRC4 or caspase-1...
  22. Barry K, Fontana M, Portman J, Dugan A, Vance R. IL-1? signaling initiates the inflammatory response to virulent Legionella pneumophila in vivo. J Immunol. 2013;190:6329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish IL-1? as a critical initiator of the inflammatory response to L. pneumophila in vivo and point to an important role for IL-1? in providing an alternative to inflammasome-mediated immune responses in vivo. ..
  23. Mankan A, Dau T, Jenne D, Hornung V. The NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 axis regulates IL-1? processing in neutrophils. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:710-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish the NLRP3 inflammasome as a key step in the secretion of matured IL-1? by neutrophils. ..
  24. Lee Y, Fujikado N, Manaka H, Yasuda H, Iwakura Y. IL-1 plays an important role in the bone metabolism under physiological conditions. Int Immunol. 2010;22:805-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that IL-1 directly activates RANK signaling other than inducing RANKL to promote osteoclastogenesis and plays an important role in physiological bone metabolism. ..
  25. Luheshi N, Kovacs K, Lopez Castejon G, Brough D, Denes A. Interleukin-1? expression precedes IL-1? after ischemic brain injury and is localised to areas of focal neuronal loss and penumbral tissues. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:186 pubmed publisher
    ..This adds to the growing body of evidence that IL-1? is a key mediator of the sterile inflammatory response. ..
  26. Lukens J, Vogel P, Johnson G, Kelliher M, Iwakura Y, Lamkanfi M, et al. RIP1-driven autoinflammation targets IL-1? independently of inflammasomes and RIP3. Nature. 2013;498:224-7 pubmed publisher
  27. Carmi Y, Rinott G, Dotan S, Elkabets M, Rider P, Voronov E, et al. Microenvironment-derived IL-1 and IL-17 interact in the control of lung metastasis. J Immunol. 2011;186:3462-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, we suggest that intervention in IL-1/IL-17 production could be therapeutically used to tilt this balance toward enhanced antitumor immunity. ..
  28. Harris J, Hartman M, Roche C, Zeng S, O Shea A, Sharp F, et al. Autophagy controls IL-1beta secretion by targeting pro-IL-1beta for degradation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9587-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that autophagy controls the production of IL-1? through at least two separate mechanisms: by targeting pro-IL-1? for lysosomal degradation and by regulating activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. ..
  29. Dupont N, Jiang S, Pilli M, Ornatowski W, Bhattacharya D, Deretic V. Autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway for extracellular delivery of IL-1?. EMBO J. 2011;30:4701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It enables a subset of cytosolic proteins devoid of signal peptide sequences, and thus unable to access the conventional pathway through the ER, to enter an autophagy-based secretory pathway facilitating their exit from the cytoplasm. ..
  30. Vince J, Wong W, Gentle I, Lawlor K, Allam R, O Reilly L, et al. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins limit RIP3 kinase-dependent interleukin-1 activation. Immunity. 2012;36:215-27 pubmed publisher
  31. D EUSTACHIO P, Jadidi S, Fuhlbrigge R, Gray P, Chaplin D. Interleukin-1 alpha and beta genes: linkage on chromosome 2 in the mouse. Immunogenetics. 1987;26:339-43 pubmed
    ..7 centimorgans distal to B2m (beta-2 microglobulin). We have named the locus encoding IL-1 alpha Il-1 alpha and the locus encoding IL-1 beta Il-1b. ..
  32. Mingam R, De Smedt V, Amédée T, Bluthé R, Kelley K, Dantzer R, et al. In vitro and in vivo evidence for a role of the P2X7 receptor in the release of IL-1 beta in the murine brain. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:234-44 pubmed
    ..These results show that P2X7R plays a key role in the brain cytokine response to immune stimuli, which certainly applies also to cytokine-dependent alterations in brain functions including sickness behavior...
  33. Zhang R, Sun L, Hayashi Y, Liu X, Koyama S, Wu Z, et al. Acute p38-mediated inhibition of NMDA-induced outward currents in hippocampal CA1 neurons by interleukin-1beta. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;38:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that IL-1beta increases the excitability of hippocampal CA1 neurons in the p38-dependent inhibition of I(NMDA-OUT). ..
  34. Vonk A, Netea M, van Krieken J, Iwakura Y, Van der Meer J, Kullberg B. Endogenous interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta are crucial for host defense against disseminated candidiasis. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1419-26 pubmed
    ..albicans. Although IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta have differential effects on the various arms of host defense, both cytokines are essential for mounting a protective host response against invasive C. albicans infection. ..
  35. Hurgin V, Novick D, Werman A, Dinarello C, Rubinstein M. Antiviral and immunoregulatory activities of IFN-gamma depend on constitutively expressed IL-1alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5044-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, IFN-gamma induced serum IL-18 binding protein in wild-type mice but not in IL-1alpha/beta double-deficient mice. Thus, constitutively expressed IL-1alpha is critical for numerous IFN-gamma activities. ..
  36. Godambe S, Chaplin D, Takova T, Read L, Bellone C. A novel cis-acting element required for lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of the murine interleukin-1 beta gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:112-9 pubmed
    ..UV cross-linking and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis identified an IL1 beta -UNF1-specific binding factor approximately 85 to 90 kDa in size. ..
  37. Honsho S, Nishikawa S, Amano K, Zen K, Adachi Y, Kishita E, et al. Pressure-mediated hypertrophy and mechanical stretch induces IL-1 release and subsequent IGF-1 generation to maintain compensative hypertrophy by affecting Akt and JNK pathways. Circ Res. 2009;105:1149-58 pubmed publisher
  38. Kono H, Karmarkar D, Iwakura Y, Rock K. Identification of the cellular sensor that stimulates the inflammatory response to sterile cell death. J Immunol. 2010;184:4470-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One key way they accomplish this important task is by producing IL-1alpha that is needed to initiate the inflammatory response...
  39. Fantuzzi G, Ku G, Harding M, Livingston D, Sipe J, Kuida K, et al. Response to local inflammation of IL-1 beta-converting enzyme- deficient mice. J Immunol. 1997;158:1818-24 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that in turpentine-induced tissue necrosis, precursor IL-1 beta is processed by non-ICE proteases, but in complement-mediated inflammation, ICE participates in the processing of the IL-1 beta precursor. ..
  40. Prow N, Irani D. The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta, mediates loss of astroglial glutamate transport and drives excitotoxic motor neuron injury in the spinal cord during acute viral encephalomyelitis. J Neurochem. 2008;105:1276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide one of the strongest in vivo links between innate immune responses and the development of excitotoxicity demonstrated to date. ..
  41. Shio M, Tiemi Shio M, Eisenbarth S, Savaria M, Vinet A, Bellemare M, et al. Malarial hemozoin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome through Lyn and Syk kinases. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000559 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings not only identify one way by which the immune system is alerted to malarial infection but also are one of the first to suggest a role for tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. ..
  42. van de Veerdonk F, Joosten L, Devesa I, Mora Montes H, Kanneganti T, Dinarello C, et al. Bypassing pathogen-induced inflammasome activation for the regulation of interleukin-1beta production by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1087-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription through mannan/chitin/MR and beta-glucan/dectin-1/TLR2 induces production of IL-1beta by C. albicans in human monocytes, whereas processing of IL-1beta is mediated by constitutively active caspase-1. ..
  43. Luheshi N, Rothwell N, Brough D. The dynamics and mechanisms of interleukin-1alpha and beta nuclear import. Traffic. 2009;10:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide valuable insights into the dynamic regulation of intracellular cytokine trafficking. ..
  44. Ganter M, Roux J, Miyazawa B, Howard M, Frank J, Su G, et al. Interleukin-1beta causes acute lung injury via alphavbeta5 and alphavbeta6 integrin-dependent mechanisms. Circ Res. 2008;102:804-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these results demonstrate a critical role for the alphavbeta5/beta6 integrins in mediating the IL-1beta-induced ALI and indicate that these integrins could be a potentially attractive therapeutic target in ALI. ..
  45. Lagathu C, Yvan Charvet L, Bastard J, Maachi M, Quignard Boulange A, Capeau J, et al. Long-term treatment with interleukin-1beta induces insulin resistance in murine and human adipocytes. Diabetologia. 2006;49:2162-73 pubmed
    ..b>IL1B, a proinflammatory cytokine, may participate in this alteration...
  46. Qu Y, Franchi L, Nunez G, Dubyak G. Nonclassical IL-1 beta secretion stimulated by P2X7 receptors is dependent on inflammasome activation and correlated with exosome release in murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2007;179:1913-25 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest an alternative model of IL-1 beta release that may involve the P2X7R-induced formation of multivesicular bodies that contain exosomes with entrapped IL-1 beta, caspase-1, and other inflammasome components. ..
  47. Laflamme N, Lacroix S, Rivest S. An essential role of interleukin-1beta in mediating NF-kappaB activity and COX-2 transcription in cells of the blood-brain barrier in response to a systemic and localized inflammation but not during endotoxemia. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10923-30 pubmed
  48. Schielke G, Yang G, Shivers B, Betz A. Reduced ischemic brain injury in interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme-deficient mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1998;18:180-5 pubmed
    ..Although the mechanism of this effect is uncertain, our results suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of ICE may be a useful treatment for stroke. ..
  49. Pelegrin P, Barroso Gutierrez C, Surprenant A. P2X7 receptor differentially couples to distinct release pathways for IL-1beta in mouse macrophage. J Immunol. 2008;180:7147-57 pubmed
    ..None of these release responses were associated with cell damage or cytolytic effects. This provides the first direct demonstration of a distinct signaling mechanism responsible for ATP-induced release of pro-IL-1beta. ..
  50. Timoshanko J, Kitching A, Iwakura Y, Holdsworth S, Tipping P. Leukocyte-derived interleukin-1beta interacts with renal interleukin-1 receptor I to promote renal tumor necrosis factor and glomerular injury in murine crescentic glomerulonephritis. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1967-77 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that leukocytes are the major cellular source of IL-1beta, and that IL-1beta acts principally via the IL-1RI on intrinsic renal cells to induce TNF expression and crescentic glomerular injury. ..
  51. Babelova A, Moreth K, Tsalastra Greul W, Zeng Brouwers J, Eickelberg O, Young M, et al. Biglycan, a danger signal that activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via toll-like and P2X receptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24035-48 pubmed publisher
  52. Matsuki T, Horai R, Sudo K, Iwakura Y. IL-1 plays an important role in lipid metabolism by regulating insulin levels under physiological conditions. J Exp Med. 2003;198:877-88 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that IL-1 plays an important role in lipid metabolism by regulating insulin levels and lipase activity under physiological conditions. ..
  53. Hein A, Stasko M, Matousek S, Scott McKean J, Maier S, Olschowka J, et al. Sustained hippocampal IL-1beta overexpression impairs contextual and spatial memory in transgenic mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Sustained neuroinflammation also reduced basal and conditioning-induced levels of the plasticity-related gene Arc. ..
  54. Hsu L, Ali S, McGillivray S, Tseng P, Mariathasan S, Humke E, et al. A NOD2-NALP1 complex mediates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta secretion in response to Bacillus anthracis infection and muramyl dipeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7803-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NOD2 plays a key role in the B. anthracis-induced inflammatory response by being a critical mediator of IL-1beta secretion. ..
  55. Shchors K, Shchors E, Rostker F, Lawlor E, Brown Swigart L, Evan G. The Myc-dependent angiogenic switch in tumors is mediated by interleukin 1beta. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2527-38 pubmed
    ..Together, our data delineate a complete pathway in vivo by which the highly pleiotropic Myc oncoproteins elicits coexpansion of the vascular compartment during tumorigenic progression. ..
  56. Nambu A, Nakae S, Iwakura Y. IL-1beta, but not IL-1alpha, is required for antigen-specific T cell activation and the induction of local inflammation in the delayed-type hypersensitivity responses. Int Immunol. 2006;18:701-12 pubmed
    ..In addition, CD4+ T cell-derived IL-1 plays an important role in the activation of DCs during the elicitation phase, resulting in the production of TNF, that activate allergen-specific T cells. ..
  57. Prantner D, Darville T, Sikes J, Andrews C, Brade H, Rank R, et al. Critical role for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection and bacterial replication-independent secretion of IL-1beta in mouse macrophages. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5334-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, prestimulation of macrophages by chlamydial TLR ligands may account for the elevated levels of pro-IL-1beta mRNA observed in vivo in this cell type...
  58. Raupach B, Peuschel S, Monack D, Zychlinsky A. Caspase-1-mediated activation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18 contributes to innate immune defenses against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4922-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, we show that Casp-1 is essential for host innate immune defense against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and that Casp-1 substrates are required at distinct times and anatomical sites. ..
  59. Poeck H, Bscheider M, Gross O, Finger K, Roth S, Rebsamen M, et al. Recognition of RNA virus by RIG-I results in activation of CARD9 and inflammasome signaling for interleukin 1 beta production. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:63-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a potent proinflammatory factor during viral infection...
  60. Mason J, Suzuki K, Chaplin D, Matsushima G. Interleukin-1beta promotes repair of the CNS. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7046-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-1beta may be crucial to the repair of the CNS, presumably through the induction of astrocyte and microglia-macrophage-derived IGF-1. ..
  61. Lu J, Sadri N, Schneider R. Endotoxic shock in AUF1 knockout mice mediated by failure to degrade proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3174-84 pubmed
    ..Defects in the AUF1 post-transcriptionally controlled pathway may be involved in human inflammatory disease. ..
  62. Matsuki T, Nakae S, Sudo K, Horai R, Iwakura Y. Abnormal T cell activation caused by the imbalance of the IL-1/IL-1R antagonist system is responsible for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Int Immunol. 2006;18:399-407 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the IL-1/IL-1Ra system is crucial for auto-antigen-specific T cell induction and contributes to the development of EAE. ..
  63. Zheng H, Fletcher D, Kozak W, Jiang M, Hofmann K, Conn C, et al. Resistance to fever induction and impaired acute-phase response in interleukin-1 beta-deficient mice. Immunity. 1995;3:9-19 pubmed
  64. Halle A, Hornung V, Petzold G, Stewart C, Monks B, Reinheckel T, et al. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response to amyloid-beta. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:857-65 pubmed publisher
    The fibrillar peptide amyloid-beta (A beta) has a chief function in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a key cytokine in the inflammatory response to A beta...
  65. Fantuzzi G, Zheng H, Faggioni R, Benigni F, Ghezzi P, Sipe J, et al. Effect of endotoxin in IL-1 beta-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1996;157:291-6 pubmed
    ..In summary, our results suggest that either IL-1 beta is not essential for the in vivo systemic response to LPS or that its role can be fulfilled by other cytokines with overlapping activities. ..
  66. Clausen B, Lambertsen K, Babcock A, Holm T, Dagnaes Hansen F, Finsen B. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are expressed by different subsets of microglia and macrophages after ischemic stroke in mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2008;5:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence of a functional diversity among different subsets of microglia and macrophages that is potentially relevant to future design of anti-inflammatory therapies in stroke. ..
  67. Jager J, Gremeaux T, Cormont M, Le Marchand Brustel Y, Tanti J. Interleukin-1beta-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes through down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression. Endocrinology. 2007;148:241-51 pubmed
    ..By targeting IRS-1, IL-1beta is capable of impairing insulin signaling and action, and could thus participate in concert with other cytokines, in the development of insulin resistance in adipocytes. ..
  68. Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner K, Sirois C, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind F, et al. NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature. 2010;464:1357-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and indicate new potential molecular targets for the therapy of this disease. ..
  69. Kleibeuker W, Gabay E, Kavelaars A, Zijlstra J, Wolf G, Ziv N, et al. IL-1 beta signaling is required for mechanical allodynia induced by nerve injury and for the ensuing reduction in spinal cord neuronal GRK2. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:200-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a functional relation between the L5 SNT-induced IL-1 beta-mediated decrease in GRK2 and development of mechanical allodynia. ..
  70. Takenouchi T, Iwamaru Y, Sugama S, Sato M, Hashimoto M, Kitani H. Lysophospholipids and ATP mutually suppress maturation and release of IL-1 beta in mouse microglial cells using a Rho-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 2008;180:7827-39 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest opposing functions by lysophospholipids, either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory, in regard to the maturation and release of IL-1beta from microglial cells. ..
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    ..These results suggest that IL-1 may play important physiological and pathophysiological roles on biobehavioral activities. ..
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    A human interleukin 1 beta (IL 1 beta) cDNA probe was utilized to identify a homologous murine cDNA clone. The murine cDNA encodes a 269-residue protein which is 67% homologous to human IL 1 beta...