Gene Symbol: Il13
Description: interleukin 13
Alias: Il-13, interleukin-13, T-cell activation protein P600
Species: mouse
Products:     Il13

Top Publications

  1. Doherty T, Kastelein R, Menon S, Andrade S, Coffman R. Modulation of murine macrophage function by IL-13. J Immunol. 1993;151:7151-60 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that IL-13 could be a potent modulator of immune responses in vivo, with effects that may embrace both macrophage suppressive and macrophage potentiating functions. ..
  2. Chiaramonte M, Donaldson D, Cheever A, Wynn T. An IL-13 inhibitor blocks the development of hepatic fibrosis during a T-helper type 2-dominated inflammatory response. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:777-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings provide evidence that IL-13 inhibitors may be of general therapeutic benefit in preventing damaging tissue fibrosis resulting from Th2-dominated inflammatory responses. ..
  3. Webb D, McKenzie A, Koskinen A, Yang M, Mattes J, Foster P. Integrated signals between IL-13, IL-4, and IL-5 regulate airways hyperreactivity. J Immunol. 2000;165:108-13 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest both a modulatory role for IL-13 during sensitization and a proinflammatory role during aeroallergen challenge. The latter process appears redundant with respect to IL-4. ..
  4. Townsend J, Fallon G, Matthews J, Smith P, Jolin E, McKenzie N. IL-9-deficient mice establish fundamental roles for IL-9 in pulmonary mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia but not T cell development. Immunity. 2000;13:573-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, deletion of IL-9 manifests as a highly defined phenotype in Th2 responses modulating mucus production and mast cell proliferation...
  5. Wood N, Whitters M, Jacobson B, Witek J, Sypek J, Kasaian M, et al. Enhanced interleukin (IL)-13 responses in mice lacking IL-13 receptor alpha 2. J Exp Med. 2003;197:703-9 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a phenotype of enhanced IL-13 responsiveness and demonstrate a role for endogenous IL-13 and IL-13Ralpha2 in regulating immune responses in wild-type mice. ..
  6. Dakhama A, Park J, Taube C, Joetham A, Balhorn A, Miyahara N, et al. The enhancement or prevention of airway hyperresponsiveness during reinfection with respiratory syncytial virus is critically dependent on the age at first infection and IL-13 production. J Immunol. 2005;175:1876-83 pubmed
  7. Cunningham A, Fallon P, Khan M, Vacheron S, Acha Orbea H, MacLennan I, et al. Th2 activities induced during virgin T cell priming in the absence of IL-4, IL-13, and B cells. J Immunol. 2002;169:2900-6 pubmed
    ..These early events that direct virgin T cells toward Th2 differentiation contrast with the critical later role of Th2 cytokines in selectively expanding Th2 clones and driving further IL-4 synthesis. ..
  8. Walter D, McIntire J, Berry G, McKenzie A, Donaldson D, DeKruyff R, et al. Critical role for IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity. J Immunol. 2001;167:4668-75 pubmed
    ..Therefore, treatment of human asthma with antagonists of IL-13 may be very effective. ..
  9. Khodoun M, Lewis C, Lewis C, Yang J, Orekov T, Potter C, et al. Differences in expression, affinity, and function of soluble (s)IL-4Ralpha and sIL-13Ralpha2 suggest opposite effects on allergic responses. J Immunol. 2007;179:6429-38 pubmed

More Information


  1. Harris J, De Haro S, Master S, Keane J, Roberts E, Delgado M, et al. T helper 2 cytokines inhibit autophagic control of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Immunity. 2007;27:505-17 pubmed
    ..These findings establish a mechanism through which Th1-Th2 polarization differentially affects the immune control of intracellular pathogens. ..
  2. Matthews D, Emson C, McKenzie G, Jolin H, Blackwell J, McKenzie A. IL-13 is a susceptibility factor for Leishmania major infection. J Immunol. 2000;164:1458-62 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, using BALB/c mice deficient in the expression of IL-4, IL-13, or both IL-13 and IL-4, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are resistant to infection and that there is an additive effect of deleting both IL-4 and IL-13. ..
  3. Fallon P, Richardson E, McKenzie G, McKenzie A. Schistosome infection of transgenic mice defines distinct and contrasting pathogenic roles for IL-4 and IL-13: IL-13 is a profibrotic agent. J Immunol. 2000;164:2585-91 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we demonstrate that during a dynamic type 2 cytokine disease process IL-13 is detrimental to survival following infection, whereas IL-4 is beneficial. ..
  4. Okamoto M, Kato S, Oizumi K, Kinoshita M, Inoue Y, Hoshino K, et al. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) in synergy with IL-2 induces lethal lung injury in mice: a potential role for cytokines, chemokines, and natural killer cells in the pathogenesis of interstitial pneumonia. Blood. 2002;99:1289-98 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the clinical use of this interleukin may result in unexpected physiological consequences. ..
  5. Manocha M, Shajib M, Rahman M, Wang H, Rengasamy P, Bogunovic M, et al. IL-13-mediated immunological control of enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia and serotonin production in the gut. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:146-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we studied the role of interleukin 13 (IL-13) in EC cell biology by utilizing IL-13-deficient (IL-13-/-) mice and BON cells (a model for human EC ..
  6. Zhu Z, Zheng T, Homer R, Kim Y, Chen N, Cohn L, et al. Acidic mammalian chitinase in asthmatic Th2 inflammation and IL-13 pathway activation. Science. 2004;304:1678-82 pubmed
    ..AMCase may thus be an important mediator of IL-13-induced responses in Th2-dominated disorders such as asthma. ..
  7. Kim E, Battaile J, Patel A, You Y, Agapov E, Grayson M, et al. Persistent activation of an innate immune response translates respiratory viral infection into chronic lung disease. Nat Med. 2008;14:633-40 pubmed publisher
  8. Munitz A, Brandt E, Mingler M, Finkelman F, Rothenberg M. Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor alpha1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13Ralpha1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R. ..
  9. Kuperman D, Huang X, Koth L, Chang G, Dolganov G, Zhu Z, et al. Direct effects of interleukin-13 on epithelial cells cause airway hyperreactivity and mucus overproduction in asthma. Nat Med. 2002;8:885-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of direct effects of IL-13 on epithelial cells in causing two central features of asthma. ..
  10. Fallon P, Emson C, Smith P, McKenzie A. IL-13 overexpression predisposes to anaphylaxis following antigen sensitization. J Immunol. 2001;166:2712-6 pubmed
    ..The systemic regulation of this response makes these mice an important resource for studying atopic responses. ..
  11. Hesse M, Modolell M, La Flamme A, Schito M, Fuentes J, Cheever A, et al. Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase-2 and arginase-1 by type 1/type 2 cytokines in vivo: granulomatous pathology is shaped by the pattern of L-arginine metabolism. J Immunol. 2001;167:6533-44 pubmed
  12. McDermott J, Humphreys N, Forman S, Donaldson D, Grencis R. Intraepithelial NK cell-derived IL-13 induces intestinal pathology associated with nematode infection. J Immunol. 2005;175:3207-13 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first evidence that intestinal tissue restructuring during helminth infection is an innate event dependent on IL-13 production by NK cells resident in the epithelium of the intestine. ..
  13. McKenzie G, Emson C, Bell S, Anderson S, Fallon P, Zurawski G, et al. Impaired development of Th2 cells in IL-13-deficient mice. Immunity. 1998;9:423-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-13 is an important regulator of Th2 commitment and may therefore play a central role in atopy and infectious diseases. ..
  14. Chiaramonte M, Cheever A, Malley J, Donaldson D, Wynn T. Studies of murine schistosomiasis reveal interleukin-13 blockade as a treatment for established and progressive liver fibrosis. Hepatology. 2001;34:273-82 pubmed
  15. Voehringer D, Reese T, Huang X, Shinkai K, Locksley R. Type 2 immunity is controlled by IL-4/IL-13 expression in hematopoietic non-eosinophil cells of the innate immune system. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1435-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, components of type 2 immunity mediated by IL-4/IL-13 are partitioned between T cell-dependent IgE and an innate non-eosinophil tissue component, suggesting new strategies for interventions in allergic immunity. ..
  16. McKenzie G, Fallon P, Emson C, Grencis R, McKenzie A. Simultaneous disruption of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 defines individual roles in T helper cell type 2-mediated responses. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1565-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IL-4 and IL-13 cooperate to initiate rapid Th2 cell-driven responses, and that although their functions overlap, they perform additive roles. ..
  17. Ohnmacht C, Voehringer D. Basophil effector function and homeostasis during helminth infection. Blood. 2009;113:2816-25 pubmed publisher
  18. Reinhardt R, Liang H, Locksley R. Cytokine-secreting follicular T cells shape the antibody repertoire. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a model in which B cells compete for cytokines produced by follicular helper T cells that shape the affinity and isotype of the antibody response. ..
  19. WU D, Molofsky A, Liang H, Ricardo Gonzalez R, Jouihan H, Bando J, et al. Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis. Science. 2011;332:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that eosinophils play an unexpected role in metabolic homeostasis through maintenance of adipose AAMs. ..
  20. Mattes J, Yang M, Siqueira A, Clark K, MacKenzie J, McKenzie A, et al. IL-13 induces airways hyperreactivity independently of the IL-4R alpha chain in the allergic lung. J Immunol. 2001;167:1683-92 pubmed
    ..We show that this novel pathway for IL-13 signaling is dependent on T cell activation in the lung and is critically linked to downstream effector pathways regulated by eotaxin and STAT6. ..
  21. McKenzie G, Bancroft A, Grencis R, McKenzie A. A distinct role for interleukin-13 in Th2-cell-mediated immune responses. Curr Biol. 1998;8:339-42 pubmed
    ..These data support a unique role for IL-13 in Th2-cell-mediated immune responses and demonstrate that IL-13 and IL-4 are not redundant. ..
  22. Gessner A, Mohrs K, Mohrs M. Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils acquire constitutive IL-4 and IL-13 transcripts during lineage differentiation that are sufficient for rapid cytokine production. J Immunol. 2005;174:1063-72 pubmed
    ..These novel findings have important implications for the prevention and therapeutic intervention of allergic and asthmatic diseases. ..
  23. Akbari O, Stock P, Meyer E, Kronenberg M, Sidobre S, Nakayama T, et al. Essential role of NKT cells producing IL-4 and IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Nat Med. 2003;9:582-8 pubmed
    ..Therapies that target V(alpha)14i NKT cells may be clinically effective in limiting the development of AHR and asthma. ..
  24. Murray H, Tsai C, Liu J, Ma X. Visceral Leishmania donovani infection in interleukin-13-/- mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2487-90 pubmed
    ..By itself, interleukin-13 does not appear to materially influence acquired resistance in this intracellular infection. ..
  25. Morimoto M, Morimoto M, Zhao A, Madden K, Dawson H, Finkelman F, et al. Functional importance of regional differences in localized gene expression of receptors for IL-13 in murine gut. J Immunol. 2006;176:491-5 pubmed
    ..The pronounced differences in the expression of IL-13Ralpha2 suggest that the gut has developed sophisticated mechanisms for controlling the physiological and pathophysiological activities of IL-13. ..
  26. Molofsky A, Nussbaum J, Liang H, Van Dyken S, Cheng L, Mohapatra A, et al. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. J Exp Med. 2013;210:535-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation. ..
  27. Price A, Liang H, Sullivan B, Reinhardt R, Eisley C, Erle D, et al. Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Widely dispersed innate type 2 helper cells, which we designate Ih2 cells, play an integral role in type 2 immune responses. ..
  28. Herrick C, Xu L, McKenzie A, Tigelaar R, Bottomly K. IL-13 is necessary, not simply sufficient, for epicutaneously induced Th2 responses to soluble protein antigen. J Immunol. 2003;170:2488-95 pubmed
  29. Taube C, Duez C, Cui Z, Takeda K, Rha Y, Park J, et al. The role of IL-13 in established allergic airway disease. J Immunol. 2002;169:6482-9 pubmed
  30. Sullivan B, Liang H, Bando J, WU D, Cheng L, McKerrow J, et al. Genetic analysis of basophil function in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Although targeted deletion of IL-4 and IL-13 in either CD4(+) T cells or basophils had a minimal effect on worm clearance, deletion from both lineages demonstrated a nonredundant role for basophil cytokines in primary helminth immunity...
  31. Chiaramonte M, Mentink Kane M, Jacobson B, Cheever A, Whitters M, Goad M, et al. Regulation and function of the interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 during a T helper cell type 2-dominant immune response. J Exp Med. 2003;197:687-701 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies illustrate the central role played by the IL-13Ralpha2 in the down-regulation of a chronic and pathogenic Th2-mediated immune response. ..
  32. Yang M, Hogan S, Henry P, Matthaei K, McKenzie A, Young I, et al. Interleukin-13 mediates airways hyperreactivity through the IL-4 receptor-alpha chain and STAT-6 independently of IL-5 and eotaxin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;25:522-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, IL-13-induced AHR, eosinophilia, and mucus production are critically dependent on the IL-4Ralpha chain and STAT-6. ..
  33. Fallon P, Jolin H, Smith P, Emson C, Townsend M, Fallon R, et al. IL-4 induces characteristic Th2 responses even in the combined absence of IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. Immunity. 2002;17:7-17 pubmed
    ..These mice reveal distinct spatial, temporal, and hierarchical cytokine requirements in immune function...
  34. Stager S, Alexander J, Carter K, Brombacher F, Kaye P. Both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4 receptor alpha signaling contribute to the development of hepatic granulomas with optimal antileishmanial activity. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4804-7 pubmed
    ..IL-4 and IL-13 appear to play little role in regulating collagen deposition in L. donovani-induced granulomas. ..
  35. Brown K, Zurawski S, Mosmann T, Zurawski G. A family of small inducible proteins secreted by leukocytes are members of a new superfamily that includes leukocyte and fibroblast-derived inflammatory agents, growth factors, and indicators of various activation processes. J Immunol. 1989;142:679-87 pubmed
    ..One of the small, inducible, secreted proteins has a predicted mature N terminus identical to that of the previously described macrophage inflammatory protein. ..
  36. Barner M, Mohrs M, Brombacher F, Kopf M. Differences between IL-4R alpha-deficient and IL-4-deficient mice reveal a role for IL-13 in the regulation of Th2 responses. Curr Biol. 1998;8:669-72 pubmed
    ..Injection of recombinant IL-13 induced worm expulsion in otherwise incompetent RAG2-/- mice. Our results suggest that IL-13 regulates Th2 responses to nematode infection and requires IL-4R alpha. ..
  37. Chiaramonte M, Schopf L, Neben T, Cheever A, Donaldson D, Wynn T. IL-13 is a key regulatory cytokine for Th2 cell-mediated pulmonary granuloma formation and IgE responses induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. J Immunol. 1999;162:920-30 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that IL-13 serves as an important mediator of Th2-mediated inflammation and plays a role in eliciting IgE responses triggered by schistosome eggs...
  38. Hoshino T, Kato S, Oka N, Imaoka H, Kinoshita T, Takei S, et al. Pulmonary inflammation and emphysema: role of the cytokines IL-18 and IL-13. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176:49-62 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that IL-18 and IL-13 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. ..
  39. McKenzie A, Li X, Largaespada D, Sato A, Kaneda A, Zurawski S, et al. Structural comparison and chromosomal localization of the human and mouse IL-13 genes. J Immunol. 1993;150:5436-44 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequence of a 4.6-kb DNA segment of the human gene is described. The human IL-13 gene (IL13) occurs as a single copy in the haploid genome and maps to human chromosome 5. A 4...
  40. Nguyen K, Qiu Y, Cui X, Goh Y, Mwangi J, David T, et al. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis. Nature. 2011;480:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have discovered a role for alternatively activated macrophages in the orchestration of an important mammalian stress response, the response to cold. ..
  41. Klein Wolterink R, Kleinjan A, van Nimwegen M, Bergen I, de Bruijn M, Levani Y, et al. Pulmonary innate lymphoid cells are major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 in murine models of allergic asthma. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:1106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that both ILC2s and Th2 cells produce large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 that contribute to allergic airway inflammation. ..
  42. Muller U, Stenzel W, Kohler G, Werner C, Polte T, Hansen G, et al. IL-13 induces disease-promoting type 2 cytokines, alternatively activated macrophages and allergic inflammation during pulmonary infection of mice with Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol. 2007;179:5367-77 pubmed
    ..This indicates that IL-13 contributes to fatal allergic inflammation during C. neoformans infection...
  43. Mohrs M, Ledermann B, Kohler G, Dorfm├╝ller A, Gessner A, Brombacher F. Differences between IL-4- and IL-4 receptor alpha-deficient mice in chronic leishmaniasis reveal a protective role for IL-13 receptor signaling. J Immunol. 1999;162:7302-8 pubmed
    ..major, mediated by a functional IL-13 receptor. ..
  44. Bancroft A, McKenzie A, Grencis R. A critical role for IL-13 in resistance to intestinal nematode infection. J Immunol. 1998;160:3453-61 pubmed
    ..The IL-13 KO mouse had a separate phenotype to that of the IL-4 KO mouse, suggesting that both IL-4 and IL-13 play important yet different roles in mediating immunity to intestinal helminths. ..
  45. Liang H, Reinhardt R, Bando J, Sullivan B, Ho I, Locksley R. Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity. Nat Immunol. 2011;13:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The distinct localization and cellular expression of IL-4 and IL-13 explains their unique roles during allergic immunity...
  46. Fichtner Feigl S, Strober W, Kawakami K, Puri R, Kitani A. IL-13 signaling through the IL-13alpha2 receptor is involved in induction of TGF-beta1 production and fibrosis. Nat Med. 2006;12:99-106 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that IL-13Ralpha(2) signaling during prolonged inflammation is an important therapeutic target for the prevention of TGF-beta(1)-mediated fibrosis. ..
  47. Neill D, Wong S, Bellosi A, Flynn R, Daly M, Langford T, et al. Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity. Nature. 2010;464:1367-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of allergic asthma-consists of responses dominated by the cardinal type-2 cytokines interleukin (IL)4, IL5 and IL13 (ref. 5)...
  48. Takeda K, Kamanaka M, Tanaka T, Kishimoto T, Akira S. Impaired IL-13-mediated functions of macrophages in STAT6-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1996;157:3220-2 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the macrophage functions in response to IL-13 were impaired in STAT6-deficient mice, indicating that IL-13 and IL-4 share the signaling pathway via STAT6. ..
  49. Fallon P, Ballantyne S, Mangan N, Barlow J, Dasvarma A, Hewett D, et al. Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1105-16 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that these IL-25-regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion...
  50. Zhu Z, Homer R, Wang Z, Chen Q, Geba G, Wang J, et al. Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:779-88 pubmed
    ..IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses. ..
  51. Zheng T, Zhu Z, Wang Z, Homer R, Ma B, Riese R, et al. Inducible targeting of IL-13 to the adult lung causes matrix metalloproteinase- and cathepsin-dependent emphysema. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1081-93 pubmed
    ..They also demonstrate that IL-13 causes emphysema via a MMP- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism(s) and highlight common mechanisms that may underlie COPD and asthma. ..
  52. Bhattacharjee A, Shukla M, Yakubenko V, Mulya A, Kundu S, Cathcart M. IL-4 and IL-13 employ discrete signaling pathways for target gene expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;54:1-16 pubmed publisher
  53. Zhao A, McDermott J, Urban J, Gause W, Madden K, Yeung K, et al. Dependence of IL-4, IL-13, and nematode-induced alterations in murine small intestinal smooth muscle contractility on Stat6 and enteric nerves. J Immunol. 2003;171:948-54 pubmed
    ..Differences in these effects correlate with differences in the relative importance of these cytokines in the expulsion of enteric nematode parasites...