Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il13
Description: interleukin 13
Alias: Il-13, interleukin-13, T-cell activation protein P600
- Harris J, De Haro S, Master S, Keane J, Roberts E, Delgado M, et al. T helper 2 cytokines inhibit autophagic control of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Immunity. 2007;27:505-17 pubmed..These findings establish a mechanism through which Th1-Th2 polarization differentially affects the immune control of intracellular pathogens. ..
- Matthews D, Emson C, McKenzie G, Jolin H, Blackwell J, McKenzie A. IL-13 is a susceptibility factor for Leishmania major infection. J Immunol. 2000;164:1458-62 pubmed..Furthermore, using BALB/c mice deficient in the expression of IL-4, IL-13, or both IL-13 and IL-4, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are resistant to infection and that there is an additive effect of deleting both IL-4 and IL-13. ..
- Fallon P, Richardson E, McKenzie G, McKenzie A. Schistosome infection of transgenic mice defines distinct and contrasting pathogenic roles for IL-4 and IL-13: IL-13 is a profibrotic agent. J Immunol. 2000;164:2585-91 pubmed..Therefore, we demonstrate that during a dynamic type 2 cytokine disease process IL-13 is detrimental to survival following infection, whereas IL-4 is beneficial. ..
- Okamoto M, Kato S, Oizumi K, Kinoshita M, Inoue Y, Hoshino K, et al. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) in synergy with IL-2 induces lethal lung injury in mice: a potential role for cytokines, chemokines, and natural killer cells in the pathogenesis of interstitial pneumonia. Blood. 2002;99:1289-98 pubmed..These results suggest that the clinical use of this interleukin may result in unexpected physiological consequences. ..
- Manocha M, Shajib M, Rahman M, Wang H, Rengasamy P, Bogunovic M, et al. IL-13-mediated immunological control of enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia and serotonin production in the gut. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:146-55 pubmed publisher..Herein we studied the role of interleukin 13 (IL-13) in EC cell biology by utilizing IL-13-deficient (IL-13-/-) mice and BON cells (a model for human EC ..
- Zhu Z, Zheng T, Homer R, Kim Y, Chen N, Cohn L, et al. Acidic mammalian chitinase in asthmatic Th2 inflammation and IL-13 pathway activation. Science. 2004;304:1678-82 pubmed..AMCase may thus be an important mediator of IL-13-induced responses in Th2-dominated disorders such as asthma. ..
- Munitz A, Brandt E, Mingler M, Finkelman F, Rothenberg M. Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor alpha1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7240-5 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13Ralpha1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R. ..
- Kuperman D, Huang X, Koth L, Chang G, Dolganov G, Zhu Z, et al. Direct effects of interleukin-13 on epithelial cells cause airway hyperreactivity and mucus overproduction in asthma. Nat Med. 2002;8:885-9 pubmed..These results demonstrate the importance of direct effects of IL-13 on epithelial cells in causing two central features of asthma. ..
- Fallon P, Emson C, Smith P, McKenzie A. IL-13 overexpression predisposes to anaphylaxis following antigen sensitization. J Immunol. 2001;166:2712-6 pubmed..The systemic regulation of this response makes these mice an important resource for studying atopic responses. ..
- Hesse M, Modolell M, La Flamme A, Schito M, Fuentes J, Cheever A, et al. Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase-2 and arginase-1 by type 1/type 2 cytokines in vivo: granulomatous pathology is shaped by the pattern of L-arginine metabolism. J Immunol. 2001;167:6533-44 pubmed
- McDermott J, Humphreys N, Forman S, Donaldson D, Grencis R. Intraepithelial NK cell-derived IL-13 induces intestinal pathology associated with nematode infection. J Immunol. 2005;175:3207-13 pubmed..These data provide the first evidence that intestinal tissue restructuring during helminth infection is an innate event dependent on IL-13 production by NK cells resident in the epithelium of the intestine. ..
- McKenzie G, Emson C, Bell S, Anderson S, Fallon P, Zurawski G, et al. Impaired development of Th2 cells in IL-13-deficient mice. Immunity. 1998;9:423-32 pubmed..Thus, IL-13 is an important regulator of Th2 commitment and may therefore play a central role in atopy and infectious diseases. ..
- Chiaramonte M, Cheever A, Malley J, Donaldson D, Wynn T. Studies of murine schistosomiasis reveal interleukin-13 blockade as a treatment for established and progressive liver fibrosis. Hepatology. 2001;34:273-82 pubmed
- Voehringer D, Reese T, Huang X, Shinkai K, Locksley R. Type 2 immunity is controlled by IL-4/IL-13 expression in hematopoietic non-eosinophil cells of the innate immune system. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1435-46 pubmed..Thus, components of type 2 immunity mediated by IL-4/IL-13 are partitioned between T cell-dependent IgE and an innate non-eosinophil tissue component, suggesting new strategies for interventions in allergic immunity. ..
- McKenzie G, Fallon P, Emson C, Grencis R, McKenzie A. Simultaneous disruption of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 defines individual roles in T helper cell type 2-mediated responses. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1565-72 pubmed..We conclude that IL-4 and IL-13 cooperate to initiate rapid Th2 cell-driven responses, and that although their functions overlap, they perform additive roles. ..
- Reinhardt R, Liang H, Locksley R. Cytokine-secreting follicular T cells shape the antibody repertoire. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:385-93 pubmed publisher..Our findings support a model in which B cells compete for cytokines produced by follicular helper T cells that shape the affinity and isotype of the antibody response. ..
- WU D, Molofsky A, Liang H, Ricardo Gonzalez R, Jouihan H, Bando J, et al. Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis. Science. 2011;332:243-7 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that eosinophils play an unexpected role in metabolic homeostasis through maintenance of adipose AAMs. ..
- Mattes J, Yang M, Siqueira A, Clark K, MacKenzie J, McKenzie A, et al. IL-13 induces airways hyperreactivity independently of the IL-4R alpha chain in the allergic lung. J Immunol. 2001;167:1683-92 pubmed..We show that this novel pathway for IL-13 signaling is dependent on T cell activation in the lung and is critically linked to downstream effector pathways regulated by eotaxin and STAT6. ..
- McKenzie G, Bancroft A, Grencis R, McKenzie A. A distinct role for interleukin-13 in Th2-cell-mediated immune responses. Curr Biol. 1998;8:339-42 pubmed..These data support a unique role for IL-13 in Th2-cell-mediated immune responses and demonstrate that IL-13 and IL-4 are not redundant. ..
- Gessner A, Mohrs K, Mohrs M. Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils acquire constitutive IL-4 and IL-13 transcripts during lineage differentiation that are sufficient for rapid cytokine production. J Immunol. 2005;174:1063-72 pubmed..These novel findings have important implications for the prevention and therapeutic intervention of allergic and asthmatic diseases. ..
- Akbari O, Stock P, Meyer E, Kronenberg M, Sidobre S, Nakayama T, et al. Essential role of NKT cells producing IL-4 and IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Nat Med. 2003;9:582-8 pubmed..Therapies that target V(alpha)14i NKT cells may be clinically effective in limiting the development of AHR and asthma. ..
- Murray H, Tsai C, Liu J, Ma X. Visceral Leishmania donovani infection in interleukin-13-/- mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2487-90 pubmed..By itself, interleukin-13 does not appear to materially influence acquired resistance in this intracellular infection. ..
- Morimoto M, Morimoto M, Zhao A, Madden K, Dawson H, Finkelman F, et al. Functional importance of regional differences in localized gene expression of receptors for IL-13 in murine gut. J Immunol. 2006;176:491-5 pubmed..The pronounced differences in the expression of IL-13Ralpha2 suggest that the gut has developed sophisticated mechanisms for controlling the physiological and pathophysiological activities of IL-13. ..
- Molofsky A, Nussbaum J, Liang H, Van Dyken S, Cheng L, Mohapatra A, et al. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. J Exp Med. 2013;210:535-49 pubmed publisher..Thus, ILC2s are resident in VAT and promote eosinophils and AAM implicated in metabolic homeostasis, and this axis is enhanced during Th2-associated immune stimulation. ..
- Price A, Liang H, Sullivan B, Reinhardt R, Eisley C, Erle D, et al. Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11489-94 pubmed publisher..Widely dispersed innate type 2 helper cells, which we designate Ih2 cells, play an integral role in type 2 immune responses. ..
- Herrick C, Xu L, McKenzie A, Tigelaar R, Bottomly K. IL-13 is necessary, not simply sufficient, for epicutaneously induced Th2 responses to soluble protein antigen. J Immunol. 2003;170:2488-95 pubmed
- Taube C, Duez C, Cui Z, Takeda K, Rha Y, Park J, et al. The role of IL-13 in established allergic airway disease. J Immunol. 2002;169:6482-9 pubmed
- Sullivan B, Liang H, Bando J, WU D, Cheng L, McKerrow J, et al. Genetic analysis of basophil function in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:527-35 pubmed publisher..Although targeted deletion of IL-4 and IL-13 in either CD4(+) T cells or basophils had a minimal effect on worm clearance, deletion from both lineages demonstrated a nonredundant role for basophil cytokines in primary helminth immunity...
- Chiaramonte M, Mentink Kane M, Jacobson B, Cheever A, Whitters M, Goad M, et al. Regulation and function of the interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 during a T helper cell type 2-dominant immune response. J Exp Med. 2003;197:687-701 pubmed..Together, these studies illustrate the central role played by the IL-13Ralpha2 in the down-regulation of a chronic and pathogenic Th2-mediated immune response. ..
- Yang M, Hogan S, Henry P, Matthaei K, McKenzie A, Young I, et al. Interleukin-13 mediates airways hyperreactivity through the IL-4 receptor-alpha chain and STAT-6 independently of IL-5 and eotaxin. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;25:522-30 pubmed..Furthermore, IL-13-induced AHR, eosinophilia, and mucus production are critically dependent on the IL-4Ralpha chain and STAT-6. ..
- Fallon P, Jolin H, Smith P, Emson C, Townsend M, Fallon R, et al. IL-4 induces characteristic Th2 responses even in the combined absence of IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. Immunity. 2002;17:7-17 pubmed..These mice reveal distinct spatial, temporal, and hierarchical cytokine requirements in immune function...
- Stager S, Alexander J, Carter K, Brombacher F, Kaye P. Both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4 receptor alpha signaling contribute to the development of hepatic granulomas with optimal antileishmanial activity. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4804-7 pubmed..IL-4 and IL-13 appear to play little role in regulating collagen deposition in L. donovani-induced granulomas. ..
- Brown K, Zurawski S, Mosmann T, Zurawski G. A family of small inducible proteins secreted by leukocytes are members of a new superfamily that includes leukocyte and fibroblast-derived inflammatory agents, growth factors, and indicators of various activation processes. J Immunol. 1989;142:679-87 pubmed..One of the small, inducible, secreted proteins has a predicted mature N terminus identical to that of the previously described macrophage inflammatory protein. ..
- Barner M, Mohrs M, Brombacher F, Kopf M. Differences between IL-4R alpha-deficient and IL-4-deficient mice reveal a role for IL-13 in the regulation of Th2 responses. Curr Biol. 1998;8:669-72 pubmed..Injection of recombinant IL-13 induced worm expulsion in otherwise incompetent RAG2-/- mice. Our results suggest that IL-13 regulates Th2 responses to nematode infection and requires IL-4R alpha. ..
- Chiaramonte M, Schopf L, Neben T, Cheever A, Donaldson D, Wynn T. IL-13 is a key regulatory cytokine for Th2 cell-mediated pulmonary granuloma formation and IgE responses induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. J Immunol. 1999;162:920-30 pubmed..Together, these data demonstrate that IL-13 serves as an important mediator of Th2-mediated inflammation and plays a role in eliciting IgE responses triggered by schistosome eggs...
- Hoshino T, Kato S, Oka N, Imaoka H, Kinoshita T, Takei S, et al. Pulmonary inflammation and emphysema: role of the cytokines IL-18 and IL-13. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176:49-62 pubmed..Our results indicate that IL-18 and IL-13 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. ..
- McKenzie A, Li X, Largaespada D, Sato A, Kaneda A, Zurawski S, et al. Structural comparison and chromosomal localization of the human and mouse IL-13 genes. J Immunol. 1993;150:5436-44 pubmed..The nucleotide sequence of a 4.6-kb DNA segment of the human gene is described. The human IL-13 gene (IL13) occurs as a single copy in the haploid genome and maps to human chromosome 5. A 4...
- Nguyen K, Qiu Y, Cui X, Goh Y, Mwangi J, David T, et al. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis. Nature. 2011;480:104-8 pubmed publisher..Thus, we have discovered a role for alternatively activated macrophages in the orchestration of an important mammalian stress response, the response to cold. ..
- Klein Wolterink R, Kleinjan A, van Nimwegen M, Bergen I, de Bruijn M, Levani Y, et al. Pulmonary innate lymphoid cells are major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 in murine models of allergic asthma. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:1106-16 pubmed publisher..We conclude that both ILC2s and Th2 cells produce large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 that contribute to allergic airway inflammation. ..
- Muller U, Stenzel W, Kohler G, Werner C, Polte T, Hansen G, et al. IL-13 induces disease-promoting type 2 cytokines, alternatively activated macrophages and allergic inflammation during pulmonary infection of mice with Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol. 2007;179:5367-77 pubmed..This indicates that IL-13 contributes to fatal allergic inflammation during C. neoformans infection...
- Mohrs M, Ledermann B, Kohler G, Dorfmüller A, Gessner A, Brombacher F. Differences between IL-4- and IL-4 receptor alpha-deficient mice in chronic leishmaniasis reveal a protective role for IL-13 receptor signaling. J Immunol. 1999;162:7302-8 pubmed..major, mediated by a functional IL-13 receptor. ..
- Bancroft A, McKenzie A, Grencis R. A critical role for IL-13 in resistance to intestinal nematode infection. J Immunol. 1998;160:3453-61 pubmed..The IL-13 KO mouse had a separate phenotype to that of the IL-4 KO mouse, suggesting that both IL-4 and IL-13 play important yet different roles in mediating immunity to intestinal helminths. ..
- Liang H, Reinhardt R, Bando J, Sullivan B, Ho I, Locksley R. Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity. Nat Immunol. 2011;13:58-66 pubmed publisher..The distinct localization and cellular expression of IL-4 and IL-13 explains their unique roles during allergic immunity...
- Fichtner Feigl S, Strober W, Kawakami K, Puri R, Kitani A. IL-13 signaling through the IL-13alpha2 receptor is involved in induction of TGF-beta1 production and fibrosis. Nat Med. 2006;12:99-106 pubmed..These data suggest that IL-13Ralpha(2) signaling during prolonged inflammation is an important therapeutic target for the prevention of TGF-beta(1)-mediated fibrosis. ..
- Neill D, Wong S, Bellosi A, Flynn R, Daly M, Langford T, et al. Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity. Nature. 2010;464:1367-70 pubmed publisher..of allergic asthma-consists of responses dominated by the cardinal type-2 cytokines interleukin (IL)4, IL5 and IL13 (ref. 5)...
- Takeda K, Kamanaka M, Tanaka T, Kishimoto T, Akira S. Impaired IL-13-mediated functions of macrophages in STAT6-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1996;157:3220-2 pubmed..Taken together, these results suggest that the macrophage functions in response to IL-13 were impaired in STAT6-deficient mice, indicating that IL-13 and IL-4 share the signaling pathway via STAT6. ..
- Fallon P, Ballantyne S, Mangan N, Barlow J, Dasvarma A, Hewett D, et al. Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1105-16 pubmed..We demonstrate that these IL-25-regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion...
- Zhu Z, Homer R, Wang Z, Chen Q, Geba G, Wang J, et al. Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:779-88 pubmed..IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses. ..
- Zheng T, Zhu Z, Wang Z, Homer R, Ma B, Riese R, et al. Inducible targeting of IL-13 to the adult lung causes matrix metalloproteinase- and cathepsin-dependent emphysema. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1081-93 pubmed..They also demonstrate that IL-13 causes emphysema via a MMP- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism(s) and highlight common mechanisms that may underlie COPD and asthma. ..
- Zhao A, McDermott J, Urban J, Gause W, Madden K, Yeung K, et al. Dependence of IL-4, IL-13, and nematode-induced alterations in murine small intestinal smooth muscle contractility on Stat6 and enteric nerves. J Immunol. 2003;171:948-54 pubmed..Differences in these effects correlate with differences in the relative importance of these cytokines in the expulsion of enteric nematode parasites...