Gene Symbol: Il12b
Description: interleukin 12b
Alias: Il-12b, Il-12p40, Il12p40, p40, interleukin-12 subunit beta, CLMF p40, IL-12 p40 subunit, IL-12 subunit p40, IL-23 subunit p40, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 40 kDa subunit, interleukin-12 p40 subunit
Species: mouse
Products:     Il12b

Top Publications

  1. Holscher C, Atkinson R, Arendse B, Brown N, Myburgh E, Alber G, et al. A protective and agonistic function of IL-12p40 in mycobacterial infection. J Immunol. 2001;167:6957-66 pubmed
    IL-12p35(-/-)p40(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In this study IL-12p35(-/-) mice, which are able to produce endogenous IL-12p40, cleared M...
  2. Khader S, Partida Sanchez S, Bell G, Jelley Gibbs D, Swain S, Pearl J, et al. Interleukin 12p40 is required for dendritic cell migration and T cell priming after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1805-15 pubmed
    ..Treatment of IL-12p40-deficient DCs with IL-12p40 homodimer (IL-12(p40)(2)) restores Mtb-induced DC migration and the ability of IL-12p40-deficient DCs to activate naive T cells...
  3. Nagarajan N, Kronenberg M. Invariant NKT cells amplify the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2007;178:2706-13 pubmed
  4. Street S, Cretney E, Smyth M. Perforin and interferon-gamma activities independently control tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. Blood. 2001;97:192-7 pubmed
  5. Lieberman L, Cardillo F, Owyang A, Rennick D, Cua D, Kastelein R, et al. IL-23 provides a limited mechanism of resistance to acute toxoplasmosis in the absence of IL-12. J Immunol. 2004;173:1887-93 pubmed
    IL-23 and IL-12 are heterodimeric cytokines which share the p40 subunit, but which have unique second subunits, IL-23p19 and IL-12p35...
  6. Paget C, Mallevaey T, Speak A, Torres D, Fontaine J, Sheehan K, et al. Activation of invariant NKT cells by toll-like receptor 9-stimulated dendritic cells requires type I interferon and charged glycosphingolipids. Immunity. 2007;27:597-609 pubmed
    ..These data underline the role of TLR9 in iNKT cell activation and might have relevance to infectious diseases and cancer. ..
  7. Soares H, Waechter H, Glaichenhaus N, Mougneau E, Yagita H, Mizenina O, et al. A subset of dendritic cells induces CD4+ T cells to produce IFN-gamma by an IL-12-independent but CD70-dependent mechanism in vivo. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1095-106 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that two DC subsets have innate propensities to differentially affect the Th1/Th2 balance in vivo and by distinct mechanisms. ..
  8. Freudenberg M, Merlin T, Kalis C, Chvatchko Y, Stübig H, Galanos C. Cutting edge: a murine, IL-12-independent pathway of IFN-gamma induction by gram-negative bacteria based on STAT4 activation by Type I IFN and IL-18 signaling. J Immunol. 2002;169:1665-8 pubmed
    ..This pathway participates in the induction of IFN-gamma by Gram-negative bacteria and is therefore expected to play a role whenever IFN-alpha or IFN-beta and IL-18 are produced concomitantly during bacterial, viral, or other infections. ..
  9. Feng C, Jankovic D, Kullberg M, Cheever A, Scanga C, Hieny S, et al. Maintenance of pulmonary Th1 effector function in chronic tuberculosis requires persistent IL-12 production. J Immunol. 2005;174:4185-92 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis infection and suggest that breakdown of this mechanism could be a contributing factor in reactivated disease. ..

More Information


  1. Ghilardi N, Kljavin N, Chen Q, Lucas S, Gurney A, De Sauvage F. Compromised humoral and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in IL-23-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2004;172:2827-33 pubmed
    ..heterodimeric cytokine IL-23 consists of a private cytokine-like p19 subunit and a cytokine receptor-like subunit, p40, which is shared with IL-12...
  2. Zhu C, Rao K, Xiong H, Gagnidze K, Li F, Horvath C, et al. Activation of the murine interleukin-12 p40 promoter by functional interactions between NFAT and ICSBP. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39372-82 pubmed
    ..The IL-12 p40 gene product, expressed specifically in macrophages and dendritic cells, heterodimerizes with p35 to form bioactive ..
  3. Gran B, Zhang G, Yu S, Li J, Chen X, Ventura E, et al. IL-12p35-deficient mice are susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: evidence for redundancy in the IL-12 system in the induction of central nervous system autoimmune demyelination. J Immunol. 2002;169:7104-10 pubmed
    ..IL-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine, composed of a p40 and a p35 subunit, which is thought to play an important role in the development of Th1 cells and can exacerbate ..
  4. Kinjo Y, Kawakami K, Uezu K, Yara S, Miyagi K, Koguchi Y, et al. Contribution of IL-18 to Th1 response and host defense against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a comparative study with IL-12p40. J Immunol. 2002;169:323-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that IL-18 plays an important role in Th1 response and host defense against M. tuberculosis infection although the contribution was not as profound as that of IL-12p40. ..
  5. Kohyama S, Ohno S, Isoda A, Moriya O, Belladonna M, Hayashi H, et al. IL-23 enhances host defense against vaccinia virus infection via a mechanism partly involving IL-17. J Immunol. 2007;179:3917-25 pubmed
    ..Unveiling of an alternative pathway in the IL-23-regulated resistance might provide a novel strategy against infectious pathogens without side effects of autoimmunity. ..
  6. Luger D, Silver P, Tang J, Cua D, Chen Z, Iwakura Y, et al. Either a Th17 or a Th1 effector response can drive autoimmunity: conditions of disease induction affect dominant effector category. J Exp Med. 2008;205:799-810 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also raise the possibility that the nonredundant requirement for IL-23 in EAU may extend beyond its role in promoting the Th17 effector response and help provide a balance in the current Th1 versus Th17 paradigm. ..
  7. Chiaramonte M, Mentink Kane M, Jacobson B, Cheever A, Whitters M, Goad M, et al. Regulation and function of the interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 during a T helper cell type 2-dominant immune response. J Exp Med. 2003;197:687-701 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies illustrate the central role played by the IL-13Ralpha2 in the down-regulation of a chronic and pathogenic Th2-mediated immune response. ..
  8. Cua D, Sherlock J, Chen Y, Murphy C, Joyce B, Seymour B, et al. Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the brain. Nature. 2003;421:744-8 pubmed
    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric molecule composed of p35 and p40 subunits...
  9. Nguyen K, Salazar Mather T, Dalod M, Van Deusen J, Wei X, Liew F, et al. Coordinated and distinct roles for IFN-alpha beta, IL-12, and IL-15 regulation of NK cell responses to viral infection. J Immunol. 2002;169:4279-87 pubmed
  10. Pathak S, Basu S, Bhattacharyya A, Pathak S, Kundu M, Basu J. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan-mediated IRAK-M induction negatively regulates Toll-like receptor-dependent interleukin-12 p40 production in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42794-800 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis. We demonstrate that Man-LAM inhibits IL-12 p40 production mediated by subsequent challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
  11. Pearce E, Shen H. Generation of CD8 T cell memory is regulated by IL-12. J Immunol. 2007;179:2074-81 pubmed
    ..These results have implications for understanding memory T cell development and enhancing vaccine efficacy, and offer new insight into the role of IL-12 in coordinating the innate and adaptive immune response. ..
  12. Masumi A, Tamaoki S, Wang I, Ozato K, Komuro K. IRF-8/ICSBP and IRF-1 cooperatively stimulate mouse IL-12 promoter activity in macrophages. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:348-53 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that ICSBP and IRF-1 cooperatively stimulate murine IL-12 transcription through a novel regulatory element in the murine promoter. ..
  13. Cooper A, Kipnis A, Turner J, Magram J, Ferrante J, Orme I. Mice lacking bioactive IL-12 can generate protective, antigen-specific cellular responses to mycobacterial infection only if the IL-12 p40 subunit is present. J Immunol. 2002;168:1322-7 pubmed
    ..To determine whether this is the case in tuberculosis, both p35 and p40 knockout mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  14. Jana M, Dasgupta S, Saha R, Liu X, Pahan K. Induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by interleukin-12 p40 monomer and homodimer in microglia and macrophages. J Neurochem. 2003;86:519-28 pubmed
    The present study was undertaken to explore the role of interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40 in the expression of TNF-alpha in microglia...
  15. Yap G, Ortmann R, Shevach E, Sher A. A heritable defect in IL-12 signaling in B10.Q/J mice. II. Effect on acute resistance to Toxoplasma gondii and rescue by IL-18 treatment. J Immunol. 2001;166:5720-5 pubmed
    ..Q/J mice can result in defective host resistance and demonstrate a therapeutic function for IL-18 in reversing a genetically based immunodeficiency in IL-12-dependent IFN-gamma production. ..
  16. Wilson M, Elnekave E, Mentink Kane M, Hodges M, Pesce J, Ramalingam T, et al. IL-13Ralpha2 and IL-10 coordinately suppress airway inflammation, airway-hyperreactivity, and fibrosis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2941-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-10 and IL-13Ralpha2 are both required to control chronic Th2-driven pathological responses. ..
  17. Zheng Y, Valdez P, Danilenko D, Hu Y, Sa S, Gong Q, et al. Interleukin-22 mediates early host defense against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens. Nat Med. 2008;14:282-9 pubmed publisher
    ..rodentium infection. Together, our data identify a new innate immune function for IL-22 in regulating early defense mechanisms against A/E bacterial pathogens...
  18. Schleicher U, Liese J, Knippertz I, Kurzmann C, Hesse A, Heit A, et al. NK cell activation in visceral leishmaniasis requires TLR9, myeloid DCs, and IL-12, but is independent of plasmacytoid DCs. J Exp Med. 2007;204:893-906 pubmed
  19. Khader S, Bell G, Pearl J, Fountain J, Rangel Moreno J, Cilley G, et al. IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:369-77 pubmed
  20. Skokos D, Nussenzweig M. CD8- DCs induce IL-12-independent Th1 differentiation through Delta 4 Notch-like ligand in response to bacterial LPS. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1525-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, activation of the two DC subsets by TLR4 leads to Th1 responses by two distinct MyD88-dependent pathways. ..
  21. Robinson R, Khader S, Locksley R, Lien E, Smiley S, Cooper A. Yersinia pestis evades TLR4-dependent induction of IL-12(p40)2 by dendritic cells and subsequent cell migration. J Immunol. 2008;181:5560-7 pubmed
    ..pestis grown at 26 degrees C (Y. pestis-26 degrees), they secrete copious amounts of IL-12p40 homodimer (IL-12(p40)(2)). In contrast, when DCs are exposed to Y. pestis grown at 37 degrees C (Y...
  22. Lin Y, Ritchea S, Logar A, Slight S, Messmer M, Rangel Moreno J, et al. Interleukin-17 is required for T helper 1 cell immunity and host resistance to the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis. Immunity. 2009;31:799-810 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings illustrate a biological function for IL-17A in regulating IL-12-Th1 cell immunity and host responses to an intracellular pathogen. ..
  23. Herbert D, Orekov T, Roloson A, Ilies M, Perkins C, O BRIEN W, et al. Arginase I suppresses IL-12/IL-23p40-driven intestinal inflammation during acute schistosomiasis. J Immunol. 2010;184:6438-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, macrophage-derived Arg I protects hosts against excessive tissue injury caused by worm eggs during acute schistosomiasis by suppressing IL-12/IL-23p40 production and maintaining the Treg/Th17 balance within the intestinal mucosa. ..
  24. Ko J, Gendron Fitzpatrick A, Splitter G. Susceptibility of IFN regulatory factor-1 and IFN consensus sequence binding protein-deficient mice to brucellosis. J Immunol. 2002;168:2433-40 pubmed
  25. Abdi K. IL-12: the role of p40 versus p75. Scand J Immunol. 2002;56:1-11 pubmed
    ..IL)-12p75 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the product of two different genes that specify p35 and p40 subunits...
  26. Buxbaum L, Uzonna J, Goldschmidt M, Scott P. Control of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is IL-12 independent but STAT4 dependent. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:3206-15 pubmed
    ..These data uncover the existence of an alternate IFN-gamma and iNOS pathway for control of Leishmania lesions, which is IL-12 independent, but which unexpectedly requires STAT4. ..
  27. Bastos K, Alvarez J, Marinho C, Rizzo L, Lima M. Macrophages from IL-12p40-deficient mice have a bias toward the M2 activation profile. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;71:271-8 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that IL-12 has a central role in driving macrophage polarization, regulating their intrinsic ability to respond against intracellular parasites. ..
  28. Pesce J, Kaviratne M, Ramalingam T, Thompson R, Urban J, Cheever A, et al. The IL-21 receptor augments Th2 effector function and alternative macrophage activation. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2044-55 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results illustrate an essential function for the IL-21R in the development of pathogen-induced Th2 responses, which may have relevance in therapies for both inflammatory and chronic fibrotic diseases. ..
  29. Fortier A, Doiron K, Saleh M, Grinstein S, Gros P. Restriction of Legionella pneumophila replication in macrophages requires concerted action of the transcriptional regulators Irf1 and Irf8 and nod-like receptors Naip5 and Nlrc4. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that flagellin sensing by the NLR proteins Naip5 and Nlrc4 may be coupled to Irf1-Irf8-mediated transcriptional activation of key effector genes essential for macrophage resistance to L. pneumophila infection. ..
  30. Demangel C, Bertolino P, Britton W. Autocrine IL-10 impairs dendritic cell (DC)-derived immune responses to mycobacterial infection by suppressing DC trafficking to draining lymph nodes and local IL-12 production. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:994-1002 pubmed
  31. Becher B, Durell B, Noelle R. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis and inflammation in the absence of interleukin-12. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:493-7 pubmed
    ..IL-12 is a heterodimer composed of a p35 subunit and a common p40 subunit shared by other cytokines. Both IL-12 p40(-/-) and p35(-/-) mice fail to produce IL-12 p70 heterodimer...
  32. Jankovic D, Kullberg M, Hieny S, Caspar P, Collazo C, Sher A. In the absence of IL-12, CD4(+) T cell responses to intracellular pathogens fail to default to a Th2 pattern and are host protective in an IL-10(-/-) setting. Immunity. 2002;16:429-39 pubmed
  33. Wang S, Bao Y, Rosenberger C, Tesfaigzi Y, Stark J, Harrod K. IL-12p40 and IL-18 modulate inflammatory and immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2004;173:4040-9 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate a role for IL-12 and IL-18 in modulating respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway inflammation distinct from that of viral clearance. ..
  34. Khader S, Pearl J, Sakamoto K, Gilmartin L, Bell G, Jelley Gibbs D, et al. IL-23 compensates for the absence of IL-12p70 and is essential for the IL-17 response during tuberculosis but is dispensable for protection and antigen-specific IFN-gamma responses if IL-12p70 is available. J Immunol. 2005;175:788-95 pubmed
  35. Teng M, Andrews D, McLaughlin N, von Scheidt B, Ngiow S, Möller A, et al. IL-23 suppresses innate immune response independently of IL-17A during carcinogenesis and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data indicate the general role that IL-23 plays in suppressing natural or cytokine-induced innate immunity, promoting tumor development and metastases independently of IL-17A. ..
  36. Leemans J, Wieland C, Florquin S, van der Poll T, Vervoordeldonk M. Mice overexpressing p40 in lungs have reduced leucocyte influx and slightly impaired resistance during tuberculosis. Immunology. 2006;117:409-18 pubmed
    Interleukin (IL)-12 (p70) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of p40 and p35, that plays a major role in the protective immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To define the role of p40 in lungs during pulmonary M...
  37. Murray H, Tsai C, Liu J, Ma X. Responses to Leishmania donovani in mice deficient in interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-12/IL-23, or IL-18. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4370-4 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, testing in IL-18(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice and in IL-12p40(-/-) compared to IL-12p35(-/-) mice also suggested both early-acting (IL-18) and late-acting (IL-23) antileishmanial effects independent of IL-12. ..
  38. Becker C, Dornhoff H, Neufert C, Fantini M, Wirtz S, Huebner S, et al. Cutting edge: IL-23 cross-regulates IL-12 production in T cell-dependent experimental colitis. J Immunol. 2006;177:2760-4 pubmed
    Although IL-12 and IL-23 share the common p40 subunit, IL-23, rather than IL-12, seems to drive the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and arthritis, because IL-23/p19 knockout mice are protected from disease...
  39. Yoshida K, Yang G, Zhang W, Tsuda M, Tsuneyama K, Moritoki Y, et al. Deletion of interleukin-12p40 suppresses autoimmune cholangitis in dominant negative transforming growth factor beta receptor type II mice. Hepatology. 2009;50:1494-500 pubmed publisher
  40. Amprey J, Im J, Turco S, Murray H, Illarionov P, Besra G, et al. A subset of liver NK T cells is activated during Leishmania donovani infection by CD1d-bound lipophosphoglycan. J Exp Med. 2004;200:895-904 pubmed
    ..Together, these data identify Leishmania surface glycoconjugates as potential glycolipid antigens and suggest an important role for the CD1d-NK T cell immune axis in the early response to visceral Leishmania infection. ..
  41. Tyznik A, Tupin E, Nagarajan N, Her M, Benedict C, Kronenberg M. Cutting edge: the mechanism of invariant NKT cell responses to viral danger signals. J Immunol. 2008;181:4452-6 pubmed
    ..Consequently, iNKT cells have the ability to respond to a variety of microbes, including viruses, in an Ag-independent manner, suggesting they may play a broad role in antipathogen defenses despite their limited TCR repertoire. ..
  42. Onari Y, Yokoyama A, Haruta Y, Nakashima T, Iwamoto H, Hattori N, et al. IL-12p40 is essential for the down-regulation of airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of bronchial asthma with prolonged antigen exposure. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that endogenous IL-12p40 is essential for inhibition of AHR and peribronchial fibrosis, but not eosinophilic inflammation, in a murine asthma model with prolonged antigen exposures. ..
  43. Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H, Hoshino K, Kaisho T, Sanjo H, et al. Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science. 2003;301:640-3 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense. ..
  44. Bombeiro A, D Império Lima M, Chadi G, Alvarez J. Neurodegeneration and increased production of nitrotyrosine, nitric oxide synthase, IFN-gamma and S100beta protein in the spinal cord of IL-12p40-deficient mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010;17:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current work, we studied the expression of NO, interferon (IFN)-gamma and S100beta in the spinal cord tissue of IL-12p40KO mice infected with T. cruzi, a model of neurodegenerative process...
  45. Kawakami K, Kinjo Y, Yara S, Uezu K, Koguchi Y, Tohyama M, et al. Enhanced gamma interferon production through activation of Valpha14(+) natural killer T cells by alpha-galactosylceramide in interleukin-18-deficient mice with systemic cryptococcosis. Infect Immun. 2001;69:6643-50 pubmed
    ..Our results indicated that in IL-18KO mice, IFN-gamma synthesis was enhanced through overproduction of IL-12 and IL-4 after intravenous infection with C. neoformans and a ligand-specific activation of Valpha14(+) NKT cells. ..
  46. Langrish C, Chen Y, Blumenschein W, Mattson J, Basham B, Sedgwick J, et al. IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation. J Exp Med. 2005;201:233-40 pubmed
    Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a unique p19 subunit, and a common p40 subunit shared with IL-12...
  47. Schulz S, Kohler G, Schütze N, Knauer J, Straubinger R, Chackerian A, et al. Protective immunity to systemic infection with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in the absence of IL-12 is associated with IL-23-dependent IL-22, but not IL-17. J Immunol. 2008;181:7891-901 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, IL-23-dependent IL-22, but not IL-17 production is associated with protection against systemic infection with S. Enteritidis in the absence of IL-12. ..
  48. Sakamoto H, Zhao L, Jain F, Kradin R. IL-12p40(-/-) mice treated with intratracheal bleomycin exhibit decreased pulmonary inflammation and increased fibrosis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2002;72:1-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IL-12 promotes the lymphohistiocytic response to BLM and may inhibit the late development of pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  49. Huaux F, Arras M, Tomasi D, Barbarin V, Delos M, Coutelier J, et al. A profibrotic function of IL-12p40 in experimental pulmonary fibrosis. J Immunol. 2002;169:2653-61 pubmed
    The p40 subunit of IL-12 (IL-12p40), but not the heterodimeric form IL-12p70, is secreted during the development of silica-induced lung fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice...
  50. Tsujimura H, Tamura T, Gongora C, Aliberti J, Reis E Sousa C, Sher A, et al. ICSBP/IRF-8 retrovirus transduction rescues dendritic cell development in vitro. Blood. 2003;101:961-9 pubmed
    ..did not mature in response to activation signals, and failed to express CD8alpha and interleukin 12 (IL-12) p40, a feature consistent with ICSBP(-/-) DCs in vivo...
  51. Ehl S, Bischoff R, Ostler T, Vallbracht S, Schulte Mönting J, Poltorak A, et al. The role of Toll-like receptor 4 versus interleukin-12 in immunity to respiratory syncytial virus. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:1146-53 pubmed
    ..These findings clearly argue against a significant role for TLR4 and define a limited role for IL-12 in primary murine RSV infection. ..
  52. Gutierrez J, Valdez S, di Genaro S, Gomez N. Interleukin-12p40 contributes to protection against lung injury after oral Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Inflamm Res. 2008;57:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Y. enterocolitica infection may induce inflammatory response in lung and that IL-12p40 could contribute to protection against lung injury. ..
  53. Maruyama S, Sumita K, Shen H, Kanoh M, Xu X, Sato M, et al. Identification of IFN regulatory factor-1 binding site in IL-12 p40 gene promoter. J Immunol. 2003;170:997-1001 pubmed
    IL-12 is a heterodimer composed of p40 and p35 and is a key cytokine that functions to protect the host from viral and microbial infections...
  54. Galvão Da Silva A, Jacysyn J, De Almeida Abrahamsohn I. Resistant mice lacking interleukin-12 become susceptible to Trypanosoma cruzi infection but fail to mount a T helper type 2 response. Immunology. 2003;108:230-7 pubmed
    ..cruzi (Y strain) infection and the regulation of cytokine responses and nitric oxide production in C57BL/6 IL-12 p40-knockout mice...
  55. Gramaglia I, Sahlin H, Nolan J, Frangos J, Intaglietta M, van der Heyde H. Cell- rather than antibody-mediated immunity leads to the development of profound thrombocytopenia during experimental Plasmodium berghei malaria. J Immunol. 2005;175:7699-707 pubmed
  56. Oppmann B, Lesley R, Blom B, Timans J, Xu Y, Hunte B, et al. Novel p19 protein engages IL-12p40 to form a cytokine, IL-23, with biological activities similar as well as distinct from IL-12. Immunity. 2000;13:715-25 pubmed
    ..This factor, which we term p19, shows no biological activity by itself; instead, it combines with the p40 subunit of IL-12 to form a novel, biologically active, composite cytokine, which we term IL-23...