Il12a

Summary

Gene Symbol: Il12a
Description: interleukin 12a
Alias: IL-12p35, Il-12a, Ll12a, p35, interleukin-12 subunit alpha, CLMF p35, IL-12 p35 subunit, IL-12 subunit p35, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 35 kDa subunit, interleukin 12a p35 subunit, interleukin-12 p35 subunit
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi IL-12, independently of IFN-gamma, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of a murine psoriasis-like skin disorder
    K Hong
    Protein Design Labs, Inc, Fremont, CA 94555, USA
    J Immunol 162:7480-91. 1999
  2. pmc Experimental autoimmune encephalitis and inflammation in the absence of interleukin-12
    Burkhard Becher
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    J Clin Invest 110:493-7. 2002
  3. ncbi Generation of CD8 T cell memory is regulated by IL-12
    Erika L Pearce
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 179:2074-81. 2007
  4. ncbi IL-4 and IL-10 antagonize IL-12-mediated protection against acute vaccinia virus infection with a limited role of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide synthetase 2
    M van Den Broek
    Institute for Experimental Immunology, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Immunol 164:371-8. 2000
  5. pmc The role of interleukin-4 and interleukin-12 in the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
    Piers Davenport
    Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Monash Medical Centre Level 5 Block E, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 3168
    Am J Pathol 163:1117-25. 2003
  6. pmc Mammalian target of rapamycin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 differentially regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-12 production in dendritic cells
    Masashi Ohtani
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Blood 112:635-43. 2008
  7. ncbi Interleukin-12 enhances interleukin-3 dependent multilineage hematopoietic colony formation stimulated by interleukin-11 or steel factor
    R E Ploemacher
    Institute of Hematology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Leukemia 7:1374-80. 1993
  8. ncbi Signal 3 availability limits the CD8 T cell response to a solid tumor
    Julie M Curtsinger
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 178:6752-60. 2007
  9. ncbi Cloning and expression of murine IL-12
    D S Schoenhaut
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Roche Research Center, Hoffmann La Roche Inc, Nutley, NJ 07110 1197
    J Immunol 148:3433-40. 1992
  10. ncbi IL-12 increases resistance of BALB/c mice to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    J L Flynn
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Immunol 155:2515-24. 1995

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications148 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi IL-12, independently of IFN-gamma, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of a murine psoriasis-like skin disorder
    K Hong
    Protein Design Labs, Inc, Fremont, CA 94555, USA
    J Immunol 162:7480-91. 1999
    ..Overall, these results suggest that IL-12, independently of IFN-gamma, is able to induce pathogenic, inflammatory T cells that are able to induce psoriasiform lesions in mice...
  2. pmc Experimental autoimmune encephalitis and inflammation in the absence of interleukin-12
    Burkhard Becher
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    J Clin Invest 110:493-7. 2002
    ..IL-12 is a heterodimer composed of a p35 subunit and a common p40 subunit shared by other cytokines...
  3. ncbi Generation of CD8 T cell memory is regulated by IL-12
    Erika L Pearce
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 179:2074-81. 2007
    ..These results have implications for understanding memory T cell development and enhancing vaccine efficacy, and offer new insight into the role of IL-12 in coordinating the innate and adaptive immune response...
  4. ncbi IL-4 and IL-10 antagonize IL-12-mediated protection against acute vaccinia virus infection with a limited role of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide synthetase 2
    M van Den Broek
    Institute for Experimental Immunology, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Immunol 164:371-8. 2000
    ..Thus, our results identify a new role for IL-12 in defense beyond the induction of IFN-gamma and show that IL-4 and IL-10 modulate host protective responses to VV...
  5. pmc The role of interleukin-4 and interleukin-12 in the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
    Piers Davenport
    Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Monash Medical Centre Level 5 Block E, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 3168
    Am J Pathol 163:1117-25. 2003
    ..05). This suggests that both Th1 and Th2 cytokines play roles throughout the development of atherosclerosis in various vascular sites in apoE(-/-) mice...
  6. pmc Mammalian target of rapamycin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 differentially regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-12 production in dendritic cells
    Masashi Ohtani
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Blood 112:635-43. 2008
    ..The signaling pathway downstream of PI3K would be a good target to modulate the Th1/Th2 balance in immune responses in vivo...
  7. ncbi Interleukin-12 enhances interleukin-3 dependent multilineage hematopoietic colony formation stimulated by interleukin-11 or steel factor
    R E Ploemacher
    Institute of Hematology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Leukemia 7:1374-80. 1993
    ..The observed activity of IL-12, however, required the presence of a least two factors, i.e. either IL-3 + IL-11, or IL-3 + SF...
  8. ncbi Signal 3 availability limits the CD8 T cell response to a solid tumor
    Julie M Curtsinger
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 178:6752-60. 2007
    ....
  9. ncbi Cloning and expression of murine IL-12
    D S Schoenhaut
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Roche Research Center, Hoffmann La Roche Inc, Nutley, NJ 07110 1197
    J Immunol 148:3433-40. 1992
    ..the murine subunits with their human counterparts revealed that the p40 subunits are more highly conserved than the p35 subunits (70% vs 60% identity, respectively). The sizes of the p35 and p40 subunit mRNA were estimated to be 1...
  10. ncbi IL-12 increases resistance of BALB/c mice to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    J L Flynn
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Immunol 155:2515-24. 1995
    ..tuberculosis-infected gko mice, transgenic mice in which the IFN-gamma gene has been disrupted, indicating that IL-12 does not induce protection against tuberculosis in mice in the absence of IFN-gamma...
  11. ncbi Mouse interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40 homodimer: a potent IL-12 antagonist
    S Gillessen
    Department of Inflammation Autoimmune Diseases, Hoffmann La Roche Inc, Nutley, NJ 07110
    Eur J Immunol 25:200-6. 1995
    ..has regulatory effects on T and natural killer (NK) cells and is composed of two disulfide-bonded subunits, p40 and p35. It was recently reported that supernatants from cultures of mouse IL-12 (moIL-12) p40-transfected COS cells could ..
  12. ncbi IL-12-deficient mice are defective in IFN gamma production and type 1 cytokine responses
    J Magram
    Department of Biotechnology, Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Nutley, New Jersey 07110, USA
    Immunity 4:471-81. 1996
    ..However, other phenomena associated with Th1 responses and cell-mediated immunity, i.e., IL-2 secretion and CTL generation, were not compromised in the absence of IL-12...
  13. ncbi Genetically resistant mice lacking interleukin-12 are susceptible to infection with Leishmania major and mount a polarized Th2 cell response
    F Mattner
    Department of Infectious Diseases, F Hoffmann La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Eur J Immunol 26:1553-9. 1996
    Mice with homologous disruption of the gene coding for either the p35 subunit or the p40 subunit of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and derived from a strain genetically resistant to infection with Leishmania major have been used to study further ..
  14. ncbi Reduced incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in interleukin-12-deficient mice
    K W McIntyre
    Department of Inflammation Autoimmune Diseases, Hoffmann La Roche Inc, Nutley, NJ 07110, USA
    Eur J Immunol 26:2933-8. 1996
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate an important role for IL-12 in the pathogenesis of CIA, although it is not absolutely required for disease development...
  15. ncbi Endogenous IL-12 is required for induction and expression of experimental autoimmune uveitis
    T K Tarrant
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute National Institutes of Health Research Scholars Program, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 161:122-7. 1998
    ..Lastly, the diminished ability of primed wt lymphocytes to induce EAU in 12KO mice indicates a role for endogenous IL-12 in the efferent phase of disease expression that is distinct from its role during Ag priming...
  16. ncbi IL-12, but not IFN-gamma, plays a major role in sustaining the chronic phase of colitis in IL-10-deficient mice
    N J Davidson
    DNAX Research Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Immunol 161:3143-9. 1998
    ....
  17. ncbi Requirement for type 2 NO synthase for IL-12 signaling in innate immunity
    A Diefenbach
    Institut fur Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Universitat Erlangen, Wasserturmstrasse 3, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Science 284:951-5. 1999
    ..Activation of Tyk2 in NK cells by IFN-alpha/beta also required NOS2. Thus, NOS2-derived NO is a prerequisite for cytokine signaling and function in innate immunity...
  18. ncbi IL-12 gene-deficient C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to Leishmania donovani but have diminished hepatic immunopathology
    A R Satoskar
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston 02115, USA
    Eur J Immunol 30:834-9. 2000
    ..These findings indicate that although endogenous IL-12 is critical for the development of protective immunity to L. donovani, it is also responsible for inducing the significant immunopathology associated with visceral leishmaniasis...
  19. ncbi Development of Th1-type immune responses requires the type I cytokine receptor TCCR
    Q Chen
    Department of Molecular Oncology, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Nature 407:916-20. 2000
    ..Our results demonstrate the existence of a new cytokine receptor involved in regulating the adaptive immune response and critical to the generation of a Th1 response...
  20. ncbi Mice lacking bioactive IL-12 can generate protective, antigen-specific cellular responses to mycobacterial infection only if the IL-12 p40 subunit is present
    Andrea M Cooper
    Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    J Immunol 168:1322-7. 2002
    ..of the IL-12p40 subunit is more detrimental to the generation of protective responses than is the absence of the p35 subunit...
  21. ncbi Autocrine IL-10 impairs dendritic cell (DC)-derived immune responses to mycobacterial infection by suppressing DC trafficking to draining lymph nodes and local IL-12 production
    Caroline Demangel
    Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, Newtown, NSW, Australia
    Eur J Immunol 32:994-1002. 2002
    ....
  22. ncbi Cutting edge: a murine, IL-12-independent pathway of IFN-gamma induction by gram-negative bacteria based on STAT4 activation by Type I IFN and IL-18 signaling
    Marina A Freudenberg
    Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany
    J Immunol 169:1665-8. 2002
    ..This pathway participates in the induction of IFN-gamma by Gram-negative bacteria and is therefore expected to play a role whenever IFN-alpha or IFN-beta and IL-18 are produced concomitantly during bacterial, viral, or other infections...
  23. ncbi A profibrotic function of IL-12p40 in experimental pulmonary fibrosis
    Francois Huaux
    Units of Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Brussels, Belgium
    J Immunol 169:2653-61. 2002
    ..Together, our data suggest that IL-12p40 plays an important role in silica-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, possibly by exacerbating macrophage recruitment...
  24. ncbi Coordinated and distinct roles for IFN-alpha beta, IL-12, and IL-15 regulation of NK cell responses to viral infection
    Khuong B Nguyen
    Deparment of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    J Immunol 169:4279-87. 2002
    ....
  25. ncbi Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the brain
    Daniel J Cua
    Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, California 94304 1104, USA
    Nature 421:744-8. 2003
    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric molecule composed of p35 and p40 subunits...
  26. ncbi Intracellular localization of the p35 subunit of murine IL-12
    Hema Vaidyanathan
    Center for Biological Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA
    Cytokine 21:120-8. 2003
    Production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a heterodimer of p35 and p40 subunits, is limited by p35 expression. A long and a short murine p35 mRNA potentially encoding proteins differing in pre-sequence size are produced...
  27. ncbi Regulation of dendritic cell function by NK cells: mechanisms underlying the synergism in the combination therapy of IL-12 and 4-1BB activation
    Ping Ying Pan
    Carl C Icahn Institute for Gene Therapy and Molecular Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Immunol 172:4779-89. 2004
    ....
  28. ncbi IL-23 provides a limited mechanism of resistance to acute toxoplasmosis in the absence of IL-12
    Linda A Lieberman
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 173:1887-93. 2004
    ..gondii, mice lacking the p40 subunit (common to IL-12 and IL-23) and mice that lack IL-12 p35 (specific for IL-12) were infected and their responses were compared...
  29. ncbi CD40 engagement enhances antigen-presenting langerhans cell priming of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells independently of IL-12
    Anton V Gorbachev
    Department of Immunology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA
    J Immunol 173:2443-52. 2004
    ..These results indicate that hpLC stimulated by CD40 ligation use a mechanism distinct from increased IL-12 production to promote Ag-specific T cell development to IFN-gamma-producing cells...
  30. ncbi Cutting edge: Bcl-3 up-regulation by signal 3 cytokine (IL-12) prolongs survival of antigen-activated CD8 T cells
    Javier O Valenzuela
    Center for Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 174:600-4. 2005
    ..The time courses of expression suggest that Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) promote survival early in the response, whereas Bcl-3 acts later in the response...
  31. ncbi Inflammatory mediators are insufficient for full dendritic cell activation and promote expansion of CD4+ T cell populations lacking helper function
    Roman Spörri
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Nat Immunol 6:163-70. 2005
    ....
  32. ncbi Severe CD4 T cell-mediated immunopathology in murine schistosomiasis is dependent on IL-12p40 and correlates with high levels of IL-17
    Laura I Rutitzky
    Department of Pathology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Immunol 175:3920-6. 2005
    ..Our findings indicate that an IL-17-producing T cell population, likely driven by IL-23, significantly contributes to severe immunopathology in schistosomiasis...
  33. pmc IL-23 is essential for T cell-mediated colitis and promotes inflammation via IL-17 and IL-6
    David Yen
    Department of Discovery Research, Schering Plough Biopharma, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:1310-6. 2006
    ..This pathway may be responsible for chronic intestinal inflammation as well as other chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases...
  34. ncbi IL-23 promotes tumour incidence and growth
    John L Langowski
    Schering Plough Biopharma, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Nature 442:461-5. 2006
    ..We show that IL-23 is an important molecular link between tumour-promoting pro-inflammatory processes and the failure of the adaptive immune surveillance to infiltrate tumours...
  35. ncbi Tyk2 negatively regulates adaptive Th1 immunity by mediating IL-10 signaling and promoting IFN-gamma-dependent IL-10 reactivation
    Michael H Shaw
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02906, USA
    J Immunol 176:7263-71. 2006
    ..Thus, Tyk2 can be viewed as a dual-function Jak, mediating both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses...
  36. ncbi Cutting edge: IL-23 cross-regulates IL-12 production in T cell-dependent experimental colitis
    Christoph Becker
    Laboratory of Immunology, First Medical Clinic, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    J Immunol 177:2760-4. 2006
    ..Taken together, our data identify cross-regulation of IL-12 expression by IL-23 as novel key regulatory pathway during initiation of T cell dependent colitis...
  37. ncbi Cutting Edge: IL-12 inversely regulates T-bet and eomesodermin expression during pathogen-induced CD8+ T cell differentiation
    Naofumi Takemoto
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 177:7515-9. 2006
    ....
  38. pmc CD8- DCs induce IL-12-independent Th1 differentiation through Delta 4 Notch-like ligand in response to bacterial LPS
    Dimitris Skokos
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1525-31. 2007
    ..Thus, activation of the two DC subsets by TLR4 leads to Th1 responses by two distinct MyD88-dependent pathways...
  39. ncbi IL-35 is a novel cytokine with therapeutic effects against collagen-induced arthritis through the expansion of regulatory T cells and suppression of Th17 cells
    Wanda Niedbala
    Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:3021-9. 2007
    Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and the p35 subunit of IL-12 have been reported to form a heterodimeric hematopoietin in human and mouse...
  40. ncbi IL-23 and the Th17 pathway promote inflammation and impair antifungal immune resistance
    Teresa Zelante
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 37:2695-706. 2007
    ..As IL-23-driven inflammation promotes infection and impairs antifungal resistance, modulation of the inflammatory response represents a potential strategy to stimulate protective immune responses to fungi...
  41. ncbi The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function
    Lauren W Collison
    Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Nature 450:566-9. 2007
    ..we demonstrate that Epstein-Barr-virus-induced gene 3 (Ebi3, which encodes IL-27beta) and interleukin-12 alpha (Il12a, which encodes IL-12alpha/p35) are highly expressed by mouse Foxp3+ (forkhead box P3) T(reg) cells but not by ..
  42. ncbi TLR9 signaling is essential for the innate NK cell response in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Jan Liese
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Clinic of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 37:3424-34. 2007
    ..We conclude that TLR9 signaling is essential for NK cell activation, but dispensable for a protective T cell response to L. major in vivo...
  43. pmc Either a Th17 or a Th1 effector response can drive autoimmunity: conditions of disease induction affect dominant effector category
    Dror Luger
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute NEI, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 205:799-810. 2008
    ..These data also raise the possibility that the nonredundant requirement for IL-23 in EAU may extend beyond its role in promoting the Th17 effector response and help provide a balance in the current Th1 versus Th17 paradigm...
  44. ncbi IL-12 signaling drives CD8+ T cell IFN-gamma production and differentiation of KLRG1+ effector subpopulations during Toxoplasma gondii Infection
    Douglas C Wilson
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    J Immunol 180:5935-45. 2008
    ..gondii...
  45. ncbi Protective immunity to systemic infection with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in the absence of IL-12 is associated with IL-23-dependent IL-22, but not IL-17
    Silke M Schulz
    Institute of Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    J Immunol 181:7891-901. 2008
    ..To analyze the role of IL-23 in the absence of IL-12, low doses of S. Enteritidis were administered to p35(-/-) mice (lacking IL-12), p35/19(-/-) mice (lacking IL-12 and IL-23), p35/40(-/-) mice (lacking IL-12, IL-23, and ..
  46. pmc Toll-like receptor 7 mitigates lethal West Nile encephalitis via interleukin 23-dependent immune cell infiltration and homing
    Terrence Town
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Immunity 30:242-53. 2009
    ..and mice deficient in IL-12 p40 and IL-23 p40 (Il12b(-/-)) or IL-23 p19 (Il23a(-/-)), but not IL-12 p35 (Il12a(-/-)), responded similarly to Tlr7(-/-) mice, with increased susceptibility to lethal WNV encephalitis...
  47. pmc Th17 cells and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for mucosal host defense against oral candidiasis
    Heather R Conti
    Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14201, USA
    J Exp Med 206:299-311. 2009
    ..Thus, the Th17 lineage, acting largely through IL-17, confers the dominant response to oral candidiasis through neutrophils and antimicrobial factors...
  48. pmc Programming for CD8 T cell memory development requires IL-12 or type I IFN
    Zhengguo Xiao
    Center for Immunology and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 182:2786-94. 2009
    ..These data demonstrate that IL-12 and type I IFN play an essential early role in determining whether Ag encounter by naive CD8 T cells results in formation of a protective memory population...
  49. pmc Gene regulation and chromatin remodeling by IL-12 and type I IFN in programming for CD8 T cell effector function and memory
    Pujya Agarwal
    Center for Immunology and Department of Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 183:1695-704. 2009
    ....
  50. pmc Interleukin-17 is required for T helper 1 cell immunity and host resistance to the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis
    Yinyao Lin
    Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
    Immunity 31:799-810. 2009
    ..Together, these findings illustrate a biological function for IL-17A in regulating IL-12-Th1 cell immunity and host responses to an intracellular pathogen...
  51. pmc IL-23 suppresses innate immune response independently of IL-17A during carcinogenesis and metastasis
    Michele W L Teng
    Trescowthick Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8328-33. 2010
    ..Overall, these data indicate the general role that IL-23 plays in suppressing natural or cytokine-induced innate immunity, promoting tumor development and metastases independently of IL-17A...
  52. pmc IL-35-mediated induction of a potent regulatory T cell population
    Lauren W Collison
    Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:1093-101. 2010
    ..Thus, iT(R)35 cells constitute a key mediator of infectious tolerance and contribute to T(reg) cell-mediated tumor progression. Furthermore, iT(R)35 cells generated ex vivo might have therapeutic utility...
  53. doi H-ras and N-ras are dispensable for T-cell development and activation but critical for protective Th1 immunity
    Salvador Iborra
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    Blood 117:5102-11. 2011
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that H-ras and N-ras act as critical controllers of Th1 responses, mostly by transmitting TCR signals for Th1 priming of CD4⁺ T cells...
  54. doi IL-12p35 subunit contributes to autoimmunity by limiting IL-27-driven regulatory responses
    Rita Vasconcellos
    Centre for Rheumatology Research, University College London, London WC1E 6JF, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 187:3402-12. 2011
    ..The restoration of disease phenotype after anti-IL-27 administration indicates that the IL-12p35 subunit acts as negative regulator of the developing IL-27 response in this model of arthritis...
  55. pmc CD8α(+) dendritic cells are the critical source of interleukin-12 that controls acute infection by Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites
    Mona Mashayekhi
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Immunity 35:249-59. 2011
    ..These results reveal that the function of CD8α(+) DCs extends beyond a role in cross-presentation and includes a critical role for activation of innate immunity through IL-12 production during T. gondii infection...
  56. pmc Pathogen-induced inflammatory environment controls effector and memory CD8+ T cell differentiation
    Joshua J Obar
    Center for Integrated Immunology and Vaccine Research, Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    J Immunol 187:4967-78. 2011
    ..Thus, our data shed light on how varying the context of T cell priming alters downstream effector and memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation...
  57. pmc Signal 3 cytokines as modulators of primary immune responses during infections: the interplay of type I IFN and IL-12 in CD8 T cell responses
    Selina Jessica Keppler
    Department of Immunology, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e40865. 2012
    ..Furthermore our results demonstrate that the pathogen-induced overall inflammatory milieu and not the antigen load and/or the quality of antigen presentation critically determine the signal 3 dependence of CD8 T cells...
  58. pmc Pathogen-specific Treg cells expand early during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection but are later eliminated in response to Interleukin-12
    Shahin Shafiani
    Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Immunity 38:1261-70. 2013
    ..These findings have important implications for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and other chronic diseases in which antigen-specific Treg cells restrict immunity...
  59. pmc Regulation of interleukin 12 p40 expression through an NF-kappa B half-site
    T L Murphy
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 15:5258-67. 1995
    ..Finally, we find that IFN-gamma treatment of cells enhances this binding interaction, thus potentially providing a mechanism for IFN-gamma augmentation of IL-12 production by macrophages...
  60. ncbi Expression of murine IL-12 is regulated by translational control of the p35 subunit
    J M Babik
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 162:4069-78. 1999
    IL-12 is a heterodimer of two subunits, p35 and p40, encoded by separate genes that are regulated independently...
  61. pmc Two roads diverged: interferon alpha/beta- and interleukin 12-mediated pathways in promoting T cell interferon gamma responses during viral infection
    L P Cousens
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    J Exp Med 189:1315-28. 1999
    ....
  62. ncbi Cutting edge: selective IL-18 requirements for induction of compartmental IFN-gamma responses during viral infection
    G C Pien
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    J Immunol 165:4787-91. 2000
    ..Taken together, our results delineate contrasting compartmental requirements for IL-18 and suggest that preservation of local, hepatic IFN-gamma production is critical for host defense during murine cytomegalovirus challenge...
  63. ncbi A protective and agonistic function of IL-12p40 in mycobacterial infection
    C Holscher
    Medical Research Council Unit Immunology in Infectious Diseases, Department of Immunology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Immunol 167:6957-66. 2001
    ..Together, these results show evidence for a protective and agonistic role of endogenous and exogenous IL-12p40 in mycobacterial infection, which is independent of IL-12p70...
  64. ncbi IL-12p35-deficient mice are susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: evidence for redundancy in the IL-12 system in the induction of central nervous system autoimmune demyelination
    Bruno Gran
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 169:7104-10. 2002
    ..IL-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine, composed of a p40 and a p35 subunit, which is thought to play an important role in the development of Th1 cells and can exacerbate EAE...
  65. ncbi IL-23 compensates for the absence of IL-12p70 and is essential for the IL-17 response during tuberculosis but is dispensable for protection and antigen-specific IFN-gamma responses if IL-12p70 is available
    Shabaana A Khader
    Trudeau Institute, 154 Algonquin Avenue, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
    J Immunol 175:788-95. 2005
    ....
  66. pmc IL-12 and type-I IFN synergize for IFN-gamma production by CD4 T cells, whereas neither are required for IFN-gamma production by CD8 T cells after Listeria monocytogenes infection
    Sing Sing Way
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 Northeast Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Immunol 178:4498-505. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate an important dichotomy between the signals required for priming IFN-gamma production by CD4 and CD8 T cells in response to bacterial infection...
  67. pmc The central memory CD4+ T cell population generated during Leishmania major infection requires IL-12 to produce IFN-gamma
    Nazzy Pakpour
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 180:8299-305. 2008
    ..Thus, continued IL-12 production may be required to ensure the development of Th1 cells from this central memory T cell pool, a finding that has direct relevance to the design of vaccines dependent upon central memory CD4(+) T cells...
  68. ncbi Preferential expression of interleukin-12 or interleukin-4 by murine bone marrow mast cells derived in mast cell growth factor or interleukin-3
    T J Smith
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132
    Eur J Immunol 24:822-6. 1994
    ..The finding that the MGF-derived connective tissue-like mast cells possess IL-12 transcripts suggests that the development of the TH1 T cell pathway may be positively influenced by this type of mast cell...
  69. ncbi Mice lacking IL-12 develop polarized Th1 cells during viral infection
    V E Schijns
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 160:3958-64. 1998
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that mice with a targeted disruption of the IL-12p40 and/or p35 gene effectively control liver damage induced by mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection, similar to wild-type ..
  70. ncbi (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents photocarcinogenesis in mice through interleukin-12-dependent DNA repair
    Syed M Meeran
    Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Cancer Res 66:5512-20. 2006
    ..Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that EGCG can prevent photocarcinogenesis through an EGCG-induced IL-12-dependent DNA repair mechanism...
  71. pmc Vaccine-induced protection against 3 systemic mycoses endemic to North America requires Th17 cells in mice
    Marcel Wuthrich
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:554-68. 2011
    ..These data suggest that human vaccines against systemic fungal infections should be designed to induce Th17 cells if they are to be effective...
  72. pmc The plasticity of regulatory T cell function
    Meenu R Pillai
    Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 3678, USA
    J Immunol 187:4987-97. 2011
    ..These data reveal that cross-regulatory pathways exist that control the utilization of suppressive mechanisms, thereby providing T(reg) functional plasticity...
  73. pmc The p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 promotes stabilization and export of the p35 subunit: implications for improved IL-12 cytokine production
    Rashmi Jalah
    Human Retrovirus Pathogenesis Section, Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:6763-76. 2013
    IL-12 is a 70-kDa heterodimeric cytokine composed of the p35 and p40 subunits...
  74. ncbi Structure-function analysis of the p35 subunit of mouse interleukin 12
    J J Zou
    Department of Inflammation Autoimmune Diseases, Hoffmann La Roche Inc, Nutley, New Jersey 07110 1199
    J Biol Chem 270:5864-71. 1995
    ..This species specificity is determined by the p35 subunit of the IL-12 heterodimer...
  75. ncbi Up-regulation of tubular epithelial interleukin-12 in autoimmune MRL-Fas(lpr) mice with renal injury
    X Fan
    Physiological Institute, University of Zurich Irchel, Switzerland
    Kidney Int 51:79-86. 1997
    ..Compared with normal mice RT-PCR products encoding both the p35 and p40 subunits of IL-12 were markedly increased in the kidney of MRL-Fas(lpr)...
  76. ncbi Induction of type 1 immune pathology in the brain following immunization without central nervous system autoantigen in transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted expression of IL-12
    S Lassmann
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Immunol 167:5485-93. 2001
    ..These findings indicate that the cytokine milieu of a tissue can dramatically influence the development of intrinsic immune responses and associated pathology...
  77. pmc Borna disease virus accelerates inflammation and disease associated with transgenic expression of interleukin-12 in the central nervous system
    Susanna Freude
    Abteilung Neuropathologie, Pathologisches Institut, Universitat Freiburg, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 76:12223-32. 2002
    ..Our results illustrate that infection of the CNS with a virus that is benign in certain hosts can be harmful in such normally disease-resistant hosts if the tissue is unfavorably preconditioned by proinflammatory cytokines...
  78. ncbi IL-23 enhances the inflammatory cell response in Cryptococcus neoformans infection and induces a cytokine pattern distinct from IL-12
    Melanie A Kleinschek
    Institute of Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    J Immunol 176:1098-106. 2006
    ..These results show that IL-23 complements the more dominant role of IL-12 in protection against a chronic fungal infection by an enhanced inflammatory cell response and distinct cytokine regulation...
  79. pmc Memory phenotype CD8+ T cells with innate function selectively develop in the absence of active Itk
    Jianfang Hu
    Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease and Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Eur J Immunol 37:2892-9. 2007
    ..These results indicate that active signals from Tec kinases regulate the development of memory-like CD8(+) T cells with innate function...
  80. ncbi IL-12 is required for anti-OX40-mediated CD4 T cell survival
    Carl E Ruby
    Earle A Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR 97213, USA
    J Immunol 180:2140-8. 2008
    ....
  81. ncbi FcgammaRIIB deficiency leads to autoimmunity and a defective response to apoptosis in Mrl-MpJ mice
    Tracy L McGaha
    Department of Medicine, Section of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    J Immunol 180:5670-9. 2008
    ..Additionally, the data indicates FcgammaRIIB function has a significant impact on APC activity, suggesting a prominent role in dendritic cell activity in response to interaction with particulate autoantigens...
  82. doi Adenylate cycalse toxin of Bordetella pertussis inhibits TLR-induced IRF-1 and IRF-8 activation and IL-12 production and enhances IL-10 through MAPK activation in dendritic cells
    Fionnuala B Hickey
    Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Leukoc Biol 84:234-43. 2008
    ....
  83. doi CD40L-expressing CD8 T cells prime CD8alpha(+) DC for IL-12p70 production
    Kok Loon Wong
    Immunology Program and Department of Microbiology, Centre for Life Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Eur J Immunol 38:2251-62. 2008
    ..Our results suggest that the interaction between CD8alpha(+) DC and antigen-primed CD8 T cells may form an important component of Th1-mediated immunity through the induction of IL-12p70...
  84. pmc Cutting edge: Priming of NK cells by IL-18
    Julie Chaix
    Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 6102, Marseille, France
    J Immunol 181:1627-31. 2008
    ..This suggests that priming by IL-18 leads to an improved translation of IFN-gamma mRNA. These results reveal a novel type of cooperation between IL-12 and IL-18 that requires the sequential action of these cytokines...
  85. doi Stimulation of dendritic cells via the dectin-1/Syk pathway allows priming of cytotoxic T-cell responses
    Salome Leibundgut-Landmann
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, Lincoln s Inn Fields Laboratories, London, United Kingdom
    Blood 112:4971-80. 2008
    ..These data highlight the ability of non-TLR receptors to bridge innate and adaptive immunity and suggest that dectin-1 agonists may constitute useful adjuvants for immunotherapy and vaccination...
  86. ncbi A novel role for neutrophils as critical activators of NK cells
    Roman Spörri
    ETH Zurich, Institute for Microbiology, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Immunol 181:7121-30. 2008
    ..We propose a novel central role for neutrophils as essential IL-18 producers and hence NK cell "helpers" in bacterial infection...
  87. doi The elimination of Anaplasma phagocytophilum requires CD4+ T cells, but is independent of Th1 cytokines and a wide spectrum of effector mechanisms
    Katharina Birkner
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 38:3395-410. 2008
    ..These findings provide a novel paradigm for the control of an intracellular pathogen, which appears to be strikingly different from the CD4(+) T cell-, IL-12-, and IFN-gamma-dependent immunity to other intracellular bacteria...
  88. doi IL-12 inhibits TNF-alpha induced osteoclastogenesis via a T cell-independent mechanism in vivo
    Masako Yoshimatsu
    Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan
    Bone 45:1010-6. 2009
    ..These results suggest that IL-12 inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated osteoclastogenesis and induces apoptotic changes through an interaction between TNF-alpha-induced Fas and IL-12-induced FasL, in vivo, via a T cell-independent mechanism...
  89. pmc Docosahexaenoic acid prevents dendritic cell maturation and in vitro and in vivo expression of the IL-12 cytokine family
    Weimin Kong
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    Lipids Health Dis 9:12. 2010
    ....
  90. doi IL-12p35 promotes antibody-induced joint inflammation by activating NKT cells and suppressing TGF-beta
    Yuna Park
    Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon Dong, Chongno Gu, Seoul 110 799, Seoul, South Korea
    J Immunol 185:1476-84. 2010
    ....
  91. pmc Macrophage IL-12p70 signaling prevents HSV-1-induced CNS autoimmunity triggered by autoaggressive CD4+ Tregs
    Kevin R Mott
    Center for Neurobiology and Vaccine Development, Ophthalmology Research, Department of Surgery and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:2321-33. 2011
    ..However, it is unclear whether innate immune cells modulate Treg function. Here the authors examined the role of innate immunity in lymphomyeloid homeostasis...
  92. ncbi Endogenously produced IL-12 is required for the induction of protective T cells during Mycobacterium avium infections in mice
    A G Castro
    Center for Experimental Cytology, University of Porto, Portugal
    J Immunol 155:2013-9. 1995
    ..Finally, animals whose IL-12 was blocked expressed heightened levels of IL-4 and IL-10 message and reduced expression of IFN-gamma as compared with control mice...
  93. ncbi Interleukin-12 synergizes with interleukin-3 and steel factor to enhance recovery of murine hemopoietic stem cells in liquid culture
    R E Ploemacher
    Institute of Hematology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Leukemia 7:1381-8. 1993
    ..These data show that IL-12 interacts with IL-3 and SF to regulate survival and growth of myeloid stem cells and progenitor cells...
  94. pmc Interleukin 12 administration induces T helper type 1 cells and accelerates autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice
    S Trembleau
    Roche Milano Ricerche, Italy
    J Exp Med 181:817-21. 1995
    ..These results hold implications for the pathogenesis, and possibly for the therapy of IDDM and of other Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune diseases...
  95. pmc Interleukin-12 gene expression after viral infection in the mouse
    J P Coutelier
    Unit of Experimental Medicine, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    J Virol 69:1955-8. 1995
    ..Interleukin-12 was expressed mainly by macrophages. Therefore, production of interleukin-12 might constitute the initial event that would determine the subsequent characteristics of the immune response elicited by viral infections...
  96. ncbi Cellular and molecular mechanisms of the IL-12-induced increase in allospecific murine cytolytic T cell activity. Implications for the age-related decline in CTL
    E T Bloom
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Immunol 152:4242-54. 1994
    ..Finally, IL-12 was effective for moderating the age-related decrease in CTL activity, suggesting a potential role for immunomodulation by IL-12...
  97. ncbi Genetic mapping of the IL-12 alpha chain gene (Il12a) on mouse chromosome 3
    P A Schweitzer
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    Mamm Genome 7:394-5. 1996
  98. ncbi Induction of IL-12 gene expression in the brain in septic shock
    J H Park
    Christian Medical Research Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju, Chonbuk, Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 224:391-6. 1996
    ..Microglia-like cells are the primary producers of the p40 transcripts. In contrast, the IL-12 p35 gene is constitutively expressed in the brain at a very low level.
  99. ncbi IL-12 is a central mediator of acute graft-versus-host disease in mice
    E Williamson
    Department of Immunology, Western Infirmary, University of Glasgow, Scotland
    J Immunol 157:689-99. 1996
    ....
  100. pmc Interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 synergistically induce murine tumor regression which involves inhibition of angiogenesis
    C M Coughlin
    Biomedical Graduate Program, Institute for Human Gene Therapy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Clin Invest 101:1441-52. 1998
    ..This suggests that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis is an important part of the systemic antitumor effect produced by mIL-12 and mIL-18...
  101. ncbi Adjuvant effect of IL-12: conversion of peptide antigen administration from tolerizing to immunizing for CD8+ T cells in vivo
    C S Schmidt
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    J Immunol 163:2561-7. 1999
    ..Thus, CFA or IL-12 can enhance Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses to peptide, demonstrating that an inflammatory cytokine(s) can support activation and prevent tolerance induction...

Research Grants12

  1. HOST IMMUNOREGULATION OF ANTILEISHMANIAL CHEMOTHERAPY
    Henry Murray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..And Aim 3: Characterize immunostimulation in AmB's efficacy, and in recrudescent infection following AmB therapy, pinpoint the likely cytokine-driven T cell mechanism which prevents post-treatment relapse. ..
  2. Host Immunoregulation of Response to Antileishmanial Chemotherapy
    Henry Murray; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. FLOW CYTOMETRY INSTRUMENT
    ZUHAIR BALLAS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. Role of IL-10 in Periodontal Bone Destruction
    Hajime Sasaki; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The long-term goal is to determine the preventive role of lL-10 in periodontitis, and to apply this information to the development of modulators that ameliorate this disease. ..
  5. Immunogenetics of Leishmania chagasi Infection
    Mary Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..chagasi infection, and to identify specific alleles that influence human immune responses and thereby modify the course of disease. ..
  6. Impact of chronic infection in the aged on the response to vaccination
    Andrea Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These experiments are relevant to human health since determining the effect of inflammation on the response to vaccination will allow us to improve vaccination in the elderly. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. KILLER CELLS AND ALCOHOL
    ZUHAIR BALLAS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Preliminary data prompted the hypothesis that ETOH blunts the enhanced NK activity induced by CpG ODN [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. Collaborative Development of a Vaccine against Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmanias
    MARY EDYTHE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Through a coordinated approach in the three laboratories, we will systematically perform pre-clinical testing against several Leishmania species, with the goal of developing a pan-leishmania protective vaccine. ..
  9. The role of IL-12p40 in the response of pulmonary dendritic cells to tuberculosis
    Andrea M Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This increased understanding will allow targeted and novel interventions that will improve our ability to control disease. ..
  10. GP63 EXPRESSION IN LEISHMANIA CHAGASI
    Mary Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..They will also provide a model for differential expression of tandemly linked genes in this group of protozoa. ..
  11. IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM DISEASE
    Andrea Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Finally, they will test the hypothesis that appropriate chemotherapy can restore the correct immunologic functions/signals, using both established regimens, as well as new compounds recently identified in their laboratory as active. ..
  12. The Major Surface Protease of Trypanosomatid Protozoa
    Mary Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..chagasi whose coding sequences predict they lack the usual GPI anchor, and to contrast the amino acid sequences that regulate the intracellular trafficking of these unusual MSPs with the MSPs that possess a GPI membrane anchor. ..