Gene Symbol: Igf2r
Description: insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor
Alias: AI661837, CD222, CI-MPR, M6P/IGF2R, Mpr300, cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor, 300 kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor, CI Man-6-P receptor, IGF-II receptor, IGF-II/CI-MPR, M6P/IGF2 receptor, M6PR, MPR 300, cation-independent MPR, insulin-like growth factor II receptor, mannose-6-phosphate receptor, cation independent
Species: mouse
Products:     Igf2r

Top Publications

  1. Wutz A, Theussl H, Dausman J, Jaenisch R, Barlow D, Wagner E. Non-imprinted Igf2r expression decreases growth and rescues the Tme mutation in mice. Development. 2001;128:1881-7 pubmed
    In the mouse the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 2 gene (Igf2r) is imprinted and maternally expressed...
  2. Wylie A, Pulford D, McVie Wylie A, Waterland R, Evans H, Chen Y, et al. Tissue-specific inactivation of murine M6P/IGF2R. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:321-8 pubmed
    The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) encodes a multifunctional protein involved in lysosomal enzyme trafficking, fetal organogenesis, tumor suppression, and T cell- mediated immunity...
  3. Li J, Sahagian G. Demonstration of tumor suppression by mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor. Oncogene. 2004;23:9359-68 pubmed
    ..These findings establish a role for the receptor as a bona fide tumor suppressor gene and together with previous studies, suggest an important role for the receptor in human and rodent cancers. ..
  4. Pravtcheva D, Wise T. Igf2r improves the survival and transmission ratio of Igf2 transgenic mice. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1678-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Degradation of IGFII is mediated by the insulin-like growth factor type 2 receptor (IGF2R)...
  5. Wang Z, Fung M, Barlow D, Wagner E. Regulation of embryonic growth and lysosomal targeting by the imprinted Igf2/Mpr gene. Nature. 1994;372:464-7 pubmed
    ..A few (-/+) mice reactivated their paternal Igf2/Mpr allele in some tissues and survived to adults. But no (-/-) mice survived, indicating a role for the reactivated paternal allele in postnatal survival. ..
  6. Wutz A, Smrzka O, Schweifer N, Schellander K, Wagner E, Barlow D. Imprinted expression of the Igf2r gene depends on an intronic CpG island. Nature. 1997;389:745-9 pubmed
    ..The mouse Igf2r gene (encoding the receptor for insulin- like growth factor type-2) is imprinted and is expressed from the ..
  7. Kaneda M, Okano M, Hata K, Sado T, Tsujimoto N, Li E, et al. Essential role for de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a in paternal and maternal imprinting. Nature. 2004;429:900-3 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that both Dnmt3a and Dnmt3L are required for methylation of most imprinted loci in germ cells, but also suggest the involvement of other factors...
  8. Amritraj A, Hawkes C, Phinney A, Mount H, Scott C, Westaway D, et al. Altered levels and distribution of IGF-II/M6P receptor and lysosomal enzymes in mutant APP and APP + PS1 transgenic mouse brains. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:54-70 pubmed
  9. Lau M, Stewart C, Liu Z, Bhatt H, Rotwein P, Stewart C. Loss of the imprinted IGF2/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor results in fetal overgrowth and perinatal lethality. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2953-63 pubmed
    ..that inherit a nonfunctional insulin-like growth factor-II/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (Igf2r) gene from their fathers are viable and develop normally into adults...

More Information


  1. Wood R, Hulett M. Cell surface-expressed cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD222) binds enzymatically active heparanase independently of mannose 6-phosphate to promote extracellular matrix degradation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:4165-76 pubmed
  2. Latos P, Stricker S, Steenpass L, Pauler F, Huang R, Senergin B, et al. An in vitro ES cell imprinting model shows that imprinted expression of the Igf2r gene arises from an allele-specific expression bias. Development. 2009;136:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse Igf2r gene shows imprinted expression only in post-implantation stages, when repression of the paternal allele has been ..
  3. Probst O, Puxbaum V, Svoboda B, Leksa V, Stockinger H, Mikula M, et al. The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor restricts the tumourigenicity and invasiveness of squamous cell carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2559-67 pubmed publisher
    The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R) mediates biosynthetic sorting and endocytosis of various factors that impinge on the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of tumour cells...
  4. Chotalia M, Smallwood S, Ruf N, Dawson C, Lucifero D, Frontera M, et al. Transcription is required for establishment of germline methylation marks at imprinted genes. Genes Dev. 2009;23:105-17 pubmed publisher
  5. Zaina S, Newton R, Paul M, Graham C. Local reduction of organ size in transgenic mice expressing a soluble insulin-like growth factor II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor. Endocrinology. 1998;139:3886-95 pubmed
    Genetic evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)/mannose-6-phosphate receptor (IGF2R) slows growth...
  6. Hagan J, Kozlov S, Chiang Y, Sewell L, Stewart C. Intraspecific mating with CzechII/Ei mice rescue lethality associated with loss of function mutations of the imprinted genes, Igf2r and Cdkn1c. Genomics. 2004;84:836-43 pubmed
    ..encoding either the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (Cdkn1c) or the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (Igf2r) leads to fully penetrant perinatal lethality in C57BL/6J mice due to genomic imprinting...
  7. Gabory A, Ripoche M, Le Digarcher A, Watrin F, Ziyyat A, Forné T, et al. H19 acts as a trans regulator of the imprinted gene network controlling growth in mice. Development. 2009;136:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also bring further experimental evidence for the existence of the IGN and open new perspectives in the comprehension of the role of genomic imprinting in embryonic growth and in human imprinting pathologies. ..
  8. Schweifer N, Barlow D. The Lx1 gene maps to mouse chromosome 17 and codes for a protein that is homologous to glucose and polyspecific transmembrane transporters. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:735-40 pubmed
    ..The Lx1 gene maps very close to the imprinted Igf2r/Mpr300 gene on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 17, in a region that is syntenic to human Chr 6q...
  9. Bartolomei M. The search for imprinted genes. Nat Genet. 1994;6:220-1 pubmed
  10. Okano T, Xuan S, Kelley M. Insulin-like growth factor signaling regulates the timing of sensory cell differentiation in the mouse cochlea. J Neurosci. 2011;31:18104-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also provide new insights regarding the pathological processes that underlie auditory defects in the absence of IGF signaling in both humans and mice. ..
  11. Suto J. Quantitative trait locus mapping of genes that control body length and plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level in mice. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:547 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to our expectations, QTLs that interacted with the Ay allele were identified not for body length but for IGF1 levels. Body length and IGF1 levels were, thus, controlled by different sets of genes. ..
  12. Matzner U, Hille Rehfeld A, Von Figura K, Pohlmann R. Expression of mannose 6-phosphate receptors in chicken. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:11-24 pubmed
    ..synthesized lysosomal enzymes is accomplished by two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPR) designated MPR46 and MPR300. MPR300 has an additional function in clearing the nonglycosylated insulin-like growth factor II (IGFII)...
  13. SZABO P, Hübner K, Scholer H, Mann J. Allele-specific expression of imprinted genes in mouse migratory primordial germ cells. Mech Dev. 2002;115:157-60 pubmed
    ..by flow cytometry and determined the allele-specific expression of four imprinted genes - Snrpn, Igf2, H19 and Igf2r. The first three genes were expressed monoallelically, while the latter gene was expressed biallelically...
  14. Chen H, Remmler J, Delaney J, Messner D, Lobel P. Mutational analysis of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor. A consensus casein kinase II site followed by 2 leucines near the carboxyl terminus is important for intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:22338-46 pubmed
  15. Schweifer N, Valk P, Delwel R, Cox R, Francis F, Meier Ewert S, et al. Characterization of the C3 YAC contig from proximal mouse chromosome 17 and analysis of allelic expression of genes flanking the imprinted Igf2r gene. Genomics. 1997;43:285-97 pubmed
    The imprinted mouse insulin-like growth factor type 2 receptor (Igf2r) maps to the middle of a gene-rich region in band A2 of mouse chromosome 17...
  16. Li E, Beard C, Jaenisch R. Role for DNA methylation in genomic imprinting. Nature. 1993;366:362-5 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that a normal level of DNA methylation is required for controlling differential expression of the paternal and maternal alleles of imprinted genes. ..
  17. Zwart R, Sleutels F, Wutz A, Schinkel A, Barlow D. Bidirectional action of the Igf2r imprint control element on upstream and downstream imprinted genes. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2361-6 pubmed
    Imprinting of the maternally-expressed Igf2r gene is controlled by an intronic imprint control element (ICE) known as Region2 that contains the promoter of the noncoding Air RNA, whose transcript overlaps the silenced paternal Igf2r ..
  18. Himes K, Koppes E, Chaillet J. Generalized disruption of inherited genomic imprints leads to wide-ranging placental defects and dysregulated fetal growth. Dev Biol. 2013;373:72-82 pubmed publisher
  19. Hu M, Zhao Z, TuanMu L, Wei H, Gao F, Li L, et al. Analysis of imprinted gene expression and implantation in haploid androgenetic mouse embryos. Andrologia. 2015;47:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..post-developmental ability of haploid androgenetic mouse embryos, and to analyse the expression of imprinted genes Igf2r, Asb4 and Mest in haploid androgenetic/gynogenetic blastocysts, we produced the haploid mouse embryos using the ..
  20. Puxbaum V, Nimmerfall E, Bäuerl C, Taub N, Blaas P, Wieser J, et al. M6P/IGF2R modulates the invasiveness of liver cells via its capacity to bind mannose 6-phosphate residues. J Hepatol. 2012;57:337-43 pubmed publisher
    The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R), a multifunctional protein, plays a central role in intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes and control of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) bioactivity...
  21. Melnick M, Chen H, Buckley S, Warburton D, Jaskoll T. Insulin-like growth factor II receptor, transforming growth factor-beta, and Cdk4 expression and the developmental epigenetics of mouse palate morphogenesis and dysmorphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:11-25 pubmed
    ..Specifically, we evaluated the relationship between Igf2r gene expression, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activation, and cdk4 gene expression...
  22. Braulke T. Type-2 IGF receptor: a multi-ligand binding protein. Horm Metab Res. 1999;31:242-6 pubmed
    The Type-2 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF2R) is a ubiquitously expressed integral glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 300 kDa...
  23. Mascarenhas M, Parker A, Dzierzak E, Ottersbach K. Identification of novel regulators of hematopoietic stem cell development through refinement of stem cell localization and expression profiling. Blood. 2009;114:4645-53 pubmed publisher
  24. Laureys G, Barton D, Ullrich A, Francke U. Chromosomal mapping of the gene for the type II insulin-like growth factor receptor/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor in man and mouse. Genomics. 1988;3:224-9 pubmed
    The gene for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) receptor (IGF2R) that has recently been found, by DNA sequencing, to be identical to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIM6PR) has been mapped in the human and murine ..
  25. Liang X, Ge Z, Wei L, Guo L, Han Z, Schatten H, et al. The effects of postovulatory aging of mouse oocytes on methylation and expression of imprinted genes at mid-term gestation. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:562-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylation and total expression of Igf2r and H19 was investigated by quantitative analysis of methylation by PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, ..
  26. Ludwig T, Tenscher K, Remmler J, Hoflack B, Lobel P. Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the full-length mouse mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor. Gene. 1994;142:311-2 pubmed
    ..The open reading frame encodes a protein of 2482 amino acids that is 89 and 87% identical to the human and bovine receptors, respectively. ..
  27. Al Shanti N, Saini A, Faulkner S, Stewart C. Beneficial synergistic interactions of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in C2 skeletal myoblasts--potential cross-talk with IGF system. Growth Factors. 2008;26:61-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that in the presence of TNF-alpha/IL-6 functions positively and potentially also cooperatively with the IGF system to achieve the maximal beneficial effect on skeletal myoblast numbers...
  28. Farah B, Madden L, Li S, Nance S, Bird A, Bursac N, et al. Adjunctive ?2-agonist treatment reduces glycogen independently of receptor-mediated acid ?-glucosidase uptake in the limb muscles of mice with Pompe disease. FASEB J. 2014;28:2272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, ?2-agonist treatment enhanced CI-MPR-mediated uptake and trafficking of GAA in mice with Pompe disease, and a similarly enhanced benefit might be expected in other lysosomal storage disorders. ..
  29. Meyer C, Eskelinen E, Guruprasad M, Von Figura K, Schu P. Mu 1A deficiency induces a profound increase in MPR300/IGF-II receptor internalization rate. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4469-76 pubmed
    The mannose-6-phosphate/IGF-II receptor MPR300 mediates sorting of lysosomal enzymes from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes and endocytosis of hormones, for example, of IGF-II...
  30. Telford N, Hogan A, Franz C, Schultz G. Expression of genes for insulin and insulin-like growth factors and receptors in early postimplantation mouse embryos and embryonal carcinoma cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 1990;27:81-92 pubmed
    ..g., maternal) sources of insulin. Both IGF-I and IGF-II could act as paracrine or autocrine growth factors, and IGF-II is the more abundant growth factor in differentiating F9 cells. ..
  31. Suh H, Cosenza Nashat M, Choi N, Zhao M, Li J, Pollard J, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor is an IFNgamma-inducible microglial protein that facilitates intracellular HIV replication: implications for HIV-induced neurocognitive disorders. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2446-58 pubmed publisher
    Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), also known as cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor, is a transmembrane glycoprotein localized in the trans-Golgi region and is involved in targeting both M6P-bearing enzymes ..
  32. Wang Y, Thinakaran G, Kar S. Overexpression of the IGF-II/M6P receptor in mouse fibroblast cell lines differentially alters expression profiles of genes involved in Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98057 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, taken together, suggest that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels can influence the expression profiles of transcripts as well as proteins that are involved in AD pathogenesis. ..
  33. Labosky P, Barlow D, Hogan B. Mouse embryonic germ (EG) cell lines: transmission through the germline and differences in the methylation imprint of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (Igf2r) gene compared with embryonic stem (ES) cell lines. Development. 1994;120:3197-204 pubmed
    ..the methylation status of the putative imprinting box of the insulin-like growth factor type 2 receptor gene (Igf2r) in these embryonic germ cell lines. No correlation was found between methylation pattern and germline competence...
  34. Zhu J, Liu J, Liang X, Xu B, Hou Y, Zhao X, et al. Heat stress causes aberrant DNA methylation of H19 and Igf-2r in mouse blastocysts. Mol Cells. 2008;25:211-5 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that heat stress may induce aberrant methylation imprinting, which results in developmental failure of mouse embryos, and that the effects of heat shock on methylation imprinting may be gene-specific. ..
  35. Allen N, Barton S, Hilton K, Norris M, Surani M. A functional analysis of imprinting in parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells. Development. 1994;120:1473-82 pubmed
    ..We also analysed the expression of known imprinted genes after ES cell differentiation. Igf2, H19 and Igf2r were all appropriately expressed in the PGES derived cells following induction of differentiation in vitro with ..
  36. Kitsberg D, Selig S, Brandeis M, Simon I, Keshet I, Driscoll D, et al. Allele-specific replication timing of imprinted gene regions. Nature. 1993;364:459-63 pubmed
    ..we have examined the replication timing patterns for the chromosomal regions containing the imprinted genes Igf2, Igf2r, H19 and Snrpn in the mouse...
  37. Tilghman S. The sins of the fathers and mothers: genomic imprinting in mammalian development. Cell. 1999;96:185-93 pubmed
  38. Kato Y, Rideout W, Hilton K, Barton S, Tsunoda Y, Surani M. Developmental potential of mouse primordial germ cells. Development. 1999;126:1823-32 pubmed
    ..The evidence suggests that gametic imprints are essential for normal development, and that they can neither be initiated nor erased in mature oocytes; these properties are unique to the developing germ line. ..
  39. Ariel M, Selig S, Brandeis M, Kitsberg D, Kafri T, Weiss A, et al. Allele-specific structures in the mouse Igf2-H19 domain. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1993;58:307-13 pubmed
  40. Klein D, Yaghootfam A, Matzner U, Koch B, Braulke T, Gieselmann V. Mannose 6-phosphate receptor-dependent endocytosis of lysosomal enzymes is increased in sulfatide-storing kidney cells. Biol Chem. 2009;390:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination of mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR300)-dependent endocytosis revealed that uptake of lysosomal enzymes is more than two-fold increased in sulfatide-..
  41. Hughes J, Frago S, Bühnemann C, Carter E, Hassan A. Maternal transmission of a humanised Igf2r allele results in an Igf2 dependent hypomorphic and non-viable growth phenotype. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57270 pubmed publisher
    The cation independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) functions in the transportation and regulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and mannose 6-phosphate modified proteins...
  42. Olson L, Peterson F, Castonguay A, Bohnsack R, Kudo M, Gotschall R, et al. Structural basis for recognition of phosphodiester-containing lysosomal enzymes by the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12493-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show the mechanism by which the CI-MPR recognizes Man-P-GlcNAc-containing ligands and provides new avenues to investigate the role of phosphodiester-containing lysosomal enzymes in the biogenesis of lysosomes. ..
  43. Mclaughlin K, Szabo P, Haegel H, Mann J. Mouse embryos with paternal duplication of an imprinted chromosome 7 region die at midgestation and lack placental spongiotrophoblast. Development. 1996;122:265-70 pubmed
    ..d7 phenotype is p-/p- expression of this gene. We also confirm that PatDup.d7 embryos lack H19 RNA and posses excess Igf2 RNA as might be expected from the parental-specific activities of these genes in normal embryos. ..
  44. Regha K, Latos P, Spahn L. The imprinted mouse Igf2r/Air cluster--a model maternal imprinting system. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113:165-77 pubmed
    ..The mouse Igf2r/Air cluster is presented as a model of the maternal imprinting system.
  45. Pantaleon M, Jericho H, Rabnott G, Kaye P. The role of insulin-like growth factor II and its receptor in mouse preimplantation development. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2003;15:37-45 pubmed
    ..These responses indicate that the IGF-II/M6P receptor is functional and likely to participate in such a regulatory circuit. The functional role of IGF-II and its receptor is discussed with reference to regulation of early development. ..
  46. Hoffman M, Kidder B, Steinberg Z, Lakhani S, Ho S, Kleinman H, et al. Gene expression profiles of mouse submandibular gland development: FGFR1 regulates branching morphogenesis in vitro through BMP- and FGF-dependent mechanisms. Development. 2002;129:5767-78 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest specific FGFs and BMPs play reciprocal roles in regulating branching morphogenesis and FGFR1 signaling plays a central role by regulating both FGF and BMP expression. ..
  47. Hiramuki Y, Sato T, Furuta Y, Surani M, Sehara Fujisawa A. Mest but Not MiR-335 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130436 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, expressions of H19 and Igf2r, maternally expressed imprinted genes were affected in tibialis anterior muscle of Mest+/-; DMD-null mice compared ..
  48. Shen J, Liu J, Xie Y, Diwan B, Waalkes M. Fetal onset of aberrant gene expression relevant to pulmonary carcinogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma development induced by in utero arsenic exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:313-20 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced aberrant ER signaling could disrupt early life stage genetic programing in the lung leading eventually to lung tumor formation much later in adulthood. ..
  49. Nagata K, Masumoto K, Uesugi T, Yamamoto S, Yoshizaki K, Fukumoto S, et al. Effect of insulin-like-growth factor and its receptors regarding lung development in fetal mice. Pediatr Surg Int. 2007;23:953-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the administration of IGFs to the fetal CDH lung may thus be able to effectively improve the symptoms of hypoplastic lung. ..
  50. Ferrón S, Radford E, Domingo Muelas A, Kleine I, Ramme A, Gray D, et al. Differential genomic imprinting regulates paracrine and autocrine roles of IGF2 in mouse adult neurogenesis. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8265 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that a regulatory decision to imprint or not is a functionally important mechanism of transcriptional dosage control in adult neurogenesis. ..
  51. Killian J, Byrd J, Jirtle J, Munday B, Stoskopf M, MacDonald R, et al. M6P/IGF2R imprinting evolution in mammals. Mol Cell. 2000;5:707-16 pubmed
    ..We report herein that M6P/IGF2R is not imprinted in monotremes and does not encode for a receptor that binds IGF2...
  52. Mainigi M, Olalere D, Burd I, Sapienza C, Bartolomei M, Coutifaris C. Peri-implantation hormonal milieu: elucidating mechanisms of abnormal placentation and fetal growth. Biol Reprod. 2014;90:26 pubmed publisher
  53. Vacik T, Forejt J. Quantification of expression and methylation of the Igf2r imprinted gene in segmental trisomic mouse model. Genomics. 2003;82:261-8 pubmed
    Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (Igf2r), a maternally expressed imprinted gene, is triplicated in Ts43H trisomic mice...
  54. Eggenschwiler J, Ludwig T, Fisher P, Leighton P, Tilghman S, Efstratiadis A. Mouse mutant embryos overexpressing IGF-II exhibit phenotypic features of the Beckwith-Wiedemann and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndromes. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3128-42 pubmed
    ..Also imprinted (expressed from the maternal allele) is the Igf2r gene on chromsome 17 encoding the type 2 IGF receptor that is involved in degradation of excess IGF-II...
  55. Caton J, Bringas P, Zeichner David M. IGFs increase enamel formation by inducing expression of enamel mineralizing specific genes. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:123-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IGFs increase enamel formation by the induction of gene expression of enamel related genes. Studies are underway to determine a possible mechanism for these factors. ..
  56. Roth R. Structure of the receptor for insulin-like growth factor II: the puzzle amplified. Science. 1988;239:1269-71 pubmed
    ..Since this latter receptor has been implicated in targeting of lysosomal enzymes, the question is now raised of whether the same protein can also mediate metabolic responses to IGF-II. ..
  57. Croteau S, Roquis D, Charron M, Frappier D, Yavin D, Loredo Osti J, et al. Increased plasticity of genomic imprinting of Dlk1 in brain is due to genetic and epigenetic factors. Mamm Genome. 2005;16:127-35 pubmed
    The expression of six imprinted genes (Dlk1, Gt12, Igf2r, Kcnq1, Nnat, and Peg1) was examined in brains of 21 mice derived from N2 x N2 intercrosses between C57BL/6 and MOLF/Ei strains...
  58. Leksa V, Godar S, Schiller H, Fuertbauer E, Muhammad A, Slezakova K, et al. TGF-beta-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells mediated by M6P/IGFII-R and mini-plasminogen. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4577-86 pubmed
    ..by functional and physical co-operation of the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like-growth-factor-II receptor (CD222) and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (CD87)...
  59. Reinhart B, Eljanne M, Chaillet J. Shared role for differentially methylated domains of imprinted genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2089-98 pubmed
    ..To examine this possibility, we introduced sequences from the DMDs of the imprinted Igf2r, H19, and Snrpn genes into a nonimprinted derivative of the normally imprinted RSVIgmyc transgene, created by ..
  60. Howell C, Bestor T, Ding F, Latham K, Mertineit C, Trasler J, et al. Genomic imprinting disrupted by a maternal effect mutation in the Dnmt1 gene. Cell. 2001;104:829-38 pubmed
    ..Transient nuclear localization of Dnmt1o in 8-cell embryos suggests that this variant of Dnmt1 provides maintenance methyltransferase activity specifically at imprinted loci during the fourth embryonic S phase. ..
  61. Watanabe T, Yoshimura A, Mishima Y, Endo Y, Shiroishi T, Koide T, et al. Differential chromatin packaging of genomic imprinted regions between expressed and non-expressed alleles. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:3029-35 pubmed
    ..examined the chromatin packaging state of allelic sites in the Zfp127/Snrpn locus on mouse chromosome 7 and in the Igf2r locus on mouse chromosome 17 with an assay consisting of chromatin fractionation and allele-specific detection...
  62. Choi I, Yu K, Kim J, De Guzman E, Weisenberger D, Oghamian S, et al. Alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation patterns of Calca, Timp3, Mmp2, and Igf2r are associated with chronic cystitis in a cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model. Urology. 2013;82:253.e9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses revealed statistically significant changes in DNA methylation associated with the Calca, Timp3, Mmp2, and Igf2r genes in the chronic bladder injury model...
  63. Sohar I, Sleat D, Gong Liu C, Ludwig T, Lobel P. Mouse mutants lacking the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor are impaired in lysosomal enzyme transport: comparison of cation-independent and cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor-deficient mice. Biochem J. 1998;330 ( Pt 2):903-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that while lack of the CI-MPR appears to perturb lysosome function to a greater degree than lack of the CD-MPR, each MPR has distinct functions for the targeting of lysosomal enzymes in vivo. ..
  64. Koeberl D, Li S, Dai J, Thurberg B, Bali D, Kishnani P. ?2 Agonists enhance the efficacy of simultaneous enzyme replacement therapy in murine Pompe disease. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;105:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, adjunctive therapy with ?2 agonists might improve the efficacy of ERT in Pompe disease and possibly other lysosomal storage disorders through enhancing receptor-mediated uptake of recombinant lysosomal enzymes. ..
  65. Olson L, Hancock M, Dix D, Kim J, Dahms N. Mutational analysis of the binding site residues of the bovine cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:36905-11 pubmed
    ..In addition, mutation of the single histidine residue, His-105, within the binding site diminished the binding of the receptor to ligand, but did not eliminate the ability of the CD-MPR to release ligand under acidic conditions. ..
  66. Farmer J, Weigent D. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-2 receptors on EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:79-85 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that one of the consequences of the overexpression of GH is an increase in the expression of the IGF-2R. ..
  67. Coan P, Conroy N, Burton G, Ferguson Smith A. Origin and characteristics of glycogen cells in the developing murine placenta. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3280-94 pubmed
    ..Expression of the clearance receptor for type II insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II), IGF2R, in a short developmental window before E16...
  68. Villar A, Eddy E, Pedersen R. Developmental regulation of genomic imprinting during gametogenesis. Dev Biol. 1995;172:264-71 pubmed
  69. Dressel R, von Figura K, Günther E. Unimpaired allorejection of cells deficient for the mannose 6-phosphate receptors Mpr300 and Mpr46. Transplantation. 2004;78:758-61 pubmed
    ..Using mouse embryonal fibroblasts from Mpr300 and Mpr46 knockout mice, we show that both Mpr 300 and Mpr46 are dispensable on target cells for lysis and apoptosis mediated by alloreactive CTL in vitro and for ..
  70. Hudson Q, Seidl C, Kulinski T, Huang R, Warczok K, Bittner R, et al. Extra-embryonic-specific imprinted expression is restricted to defined lineages in the post-implantation embryo. Dev Biol. 2011;353:420-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the VYS is an improved model for studying the epigenetic mechanisms regulating extra-embryonic-lineage-specific imprinted expression. ..
  71. Dean W, Bowden L, Aitchison A, Klose J, Moore T, Meneses J, et al. Altered imprinted gene methylation and expression in completely ES cell-derived mouse fetuses: association with aberrant phenotypes. Development. 1998;125:2273-82 pubmed
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