Gene Symbol: Igf2
Description: insulin-like growth factor 2
Alias: AL033362, Igf-2, Igf-II, M6pr, Mpr, Peg2, insulin-like growth factor II, multiplication-stimulating polypeptide
Species: mouse
Products:     Igf2

Top Publications

  1. DeChiara T, Efstratiadis A, Robertson E. A growth-deficiency phenotype in heterozygous mice carrying an insulin-like growth factor II gene disrupted by targeting. Nature. 1990;345:78-80 pubmed
    ..The effect of the mutation was exerted during the embryonic period. These results provide the first direct evidence for a physiological role of IGF-II in embryonic growth. ..
  2. Thorvaldsen J, Duran K, Bartolomei M. Deletion of the H19 differentially methylated domain results in loss of imprinted expression of H19 and Igf2. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3693-702 pubmed
    ..6-kb targeted deletion of the DMD and assayed for allelic expression of H19 and the linked, oppositely imprinted Igf2 gene...
  3. Hagege H, Nasser R, Weber M, Milligan L, Aptel N, Jacquet C, et al. The 3' portion of the mouse H19 Imprinting-Control Region is required for proper tissue-specific expression of the Igf2 gene. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113:230-7 pubmed
    Genomic imprinting at the H19/Igf2 locus is governed by a cis-acting Imprinting-Control Region (ICR), located 2 kb upstream of the H19 gene...
  4. Jiang B, Kumar S, Loh W, Manikandan J, Ling E, Tay S, et al. Global gene expression analysis of cranial neural tubes in embryos of diabetic mice. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:3481-93 pubmed publisher
    ..the development of choroid plexus and ventricular systems and reduced the production of proteins such as Ttr and Igf2 in the developing brain, indicating that these changes could impair the survival and proliferation of ..
  5. Kawahara M, Wu Q, Ferguson Smith A, Kono T. Appropriate expression of imprinted genes on mouse chromosome 12 extends development of bi-maternal embryos to term. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5178-84 pubmed
    ..Foetuses derived from ng(Deltach12)/fg BMEs were alive at E19.5 but could not survive further. Comparison with BMEs derived from Igf2+/- ng/fg genomes suggests that bi-allelic H19 expression might be involved in foetal development.
  6. Christofori G, Naik P, Hanahan D. Deregulation of both imprinted and expressed alleles of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene during beta-cell tumorigenesis. Nat Genet. 1995;10:196-201 pubmed
    ..by the SV40 large T-antigen (Tag) oncogene in pancreatic beta cells, the gene for insulin-like growth factor IGF2 is focally up-regulated and functionally implicated in tumour development...
  7. Sasaki H, Ferguson Smith A, Shum A, Barton S, Surani M. Temporal and spatial regulation of H19 imprinting in normal and uniparental mouse embryos. Development. 1995;121:4195-202 pubmed
    ..Differential methylation in the more upstream region, which is established in the gametes, is a likely candidate for the gametic signal and may directly control H19 activity. ..
  8. Chen Y, Dhupelia A, Schoenherr C. The Igf2/H19 imprinting control region exhibits sequence-specific and cell-type-dependent DNA methylation-mediated repression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:793-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the mouse Igf2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR), Igf2r differentially methylated region 2 (DMR2) and bacterial sequences, we ..
  9. Hetts S, Rosen K, Dikkes P, Villa Komaroff L, Mozell R. Expression and imprinting of the insulin-like growth factor II gene in neonatal mouse cerebellum. J Neurosci Res. 1997;50:958-66 pubmed
    ..In contrast, choroid plexus and leptomeninges express IGF-II mRNAs biallelically, indicating that cell type-specific regulation of genomic imprinting occurs within the mammalian CNS. ..

More Information


  1. Lee J, Pintar J, Efstratiadis A. Pattern of the insulin-like growth factor II gene expression during early mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1990;110:151-9 pubmed
    ..These correlations are consistent with the hypothesis that IGF-II has an autocrine function. ..
  2. Kaffer C, Srivastava M, Park K, Ives E, Hsieh S, Batlle J, et al. A transcriptional insulator at the imprinted H19/Igf2 locus. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1908-19 pubmed
    b>Igf2 and H19 exhibit parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic expression. H19 is expressed from the maternal chromosome and Igf2 from the paternal...
  3. Constancia M, Angiolini E, Sandovici I, Smith P, Smith R, Kelsey G, et al. Adaptation of nutrient supply to fetal demand in the mouse involves interaction between the Igf2 gene and placental transporter systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:19219-24 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that in a knockout lacking the imprinted placental-specific Igf2 transcript (P0), growth of the placenta is compromised from early gestation but fetal growth is normal until late ..
  4. Carter A, Nygard K, Mazzuca D, Han V. The expression of insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor binding protein mRNAs in mouse placenta. Placenta. 2006;27:278-90 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest possible biological roles of the peptides at the feto-maternal interface. ..
  5. Bourc his D, Xu G, Lin C, Bollman B, Bestor T. Dnmt3L and the establishment of maternal genomic imprints. Science. 2001;294:2536-9 pubmed
    ..The key catalytic motifs characteristic of DNA cytosine methyltransferases have been lost from Dnmt3L, and the protein is more likely to act as a regulator of imprint establishment than as a DNA methyltransferase. ..
  6. Louvi A, Accili D, Efstratiadis A. Growth-promoting interaction of IGF-II with the insulin receptor during mouse embryonic development. Dev Biol. 1997;189:33-48 pubmed
    ..IGR1R and IGF-II (30% of normal birthweight) is more severe than that manifested in either class of single Igf1r or Igf2 null mutants (45 and 60% of normal, respectively)...
  7. Baker J, Liu J, Robertson E, Efstratiadis A. Role of insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and postnatal growth. Cell. 1993;75:73-82 pubmed
  8. Weber M, Milligan L, Delalbre A, Antoine E, Brunel C, Cathala G, et al. Extensive tissue-specific variation of allelic methylation in the Igf2 gene during mouse fetal development: relation to expression and imprinting. Mech Dev. 2001;101:133-41 pubmed
    The imprinted Igf2 gene is active only on the paternal allele in most tissues. Its imprinting involves a cis-acting imprinting-control region (ICR) located upstream of the neighboring and maternally expressed H19 gene...
  9. Hori N, Nakano H, Takeuchi T, Kato H, Hamaguchi S, Oshimura M, et al. A dyad oct-binding sequence functions as a maintenance sequence for the unmethylated state within the H19/Igf2-imprinted control region. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27960-7 pubmed
    ..ICR) directs the allele-specific and reciprocal expression of the mouse H19 and the insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) genes, mediated by controlling enhancer access...
  10. Harper J, Burns J, Foulstone E, Pignatelli M, Zaina S, Hassan A. Soluble IGF2 receptor rescues Apc(Min/+) intestinal adenoma progression induced by Igf2 loss of imprinting. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1940-8 pubmed
    ..Increased expression of the normally monoallelic (paternally expressed) mouse (Igf2) and human (IGF2) genes modify progression of intestinal adenoma in the Apc(Min/+) mouse and correlate with a high ..
  11. Ward A, Bates P, Fisher R, Richardson L, Graham C. Disproportionate growth in mice with Igf-2 transgenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10365-9 pubmed
    ..By using a construct in which the coding region of the mouse insulin like growth factor II gene (Igf-2) was placed under the control of a keratin gene promoter, four transgenic lines were ..
  12. Szabo P, Mann J. Expression and methylation of imprinted genes during in vitro differentiation of mouse parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryonic stem cell lines. Development. 1994;120:1651-60 pubmed
  13. Mclaughlin K, Kochanowski H, Solter D, Schwarzkopf G, Szabo P, Mann J. Roles of the imprinted gene Igf2 and paternal duplication of distal chromosome 7 in the perinatal abnormalities of androgenetic mouse chimeras. Development. 1997;124:4897-904 pubmed
    ..to play a major role in these defects, as androgenetic cells possess two active paternal copies of the imprinted Igf2 gene, rather than one inactive maternal and one active paternal copy as in normal cells...
  14. DeChiara T, Robertson E, Efstratiadis A. Parental imprinting of the mouse insulin-like growth factor II gene. Cell. 1991;64:849-59 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that IGF-II is indispensable for normal embryonic growth and that the IGF-II gene is subject to tissue-specific parental imprinting. ..
  15. Kaffer C, Grinberg A, Pfeifer K. Regulatory mechanisms at the mouse Igf2/H19 locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8189-96 pubmed
    The closely linked H19 and Igf2 genes show highly similar patterns of gene expression but are reciprocally imprinted...
  16. Li T, Hu J, Qiu X, Ling J, Chen H, Wang S, et al. CTCF regulates allelic expression of Igf2 by orchestrating a promoter-polycomb repressive complex 2 intrachromosomal loop. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Using allelic regulation of mouse insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2) as a model, we demonstrate that CTCF binds to the unmethylated maternal allele of the imprinting control region (..
  17. Dilworth M, Kusinski L, Cowley E, Ward B, Husain S, Constancia M, et al. Placental-specific Igf2 knockout mice exhibit hypocalcemia and adaptive changes in placental calcium transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3894-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a mouse model of fetal growth restriction, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout (P0) mouse, shown previously to transiently adapt placental System-A amino acid transporter activity ..
  18. Hori N, Yamane M, Kouno K, Sato K. Induction of DNA demethylation depending on two sets of Sox2 and adjacent Oct3/4 binding sites (Sox-Oct motifs) within the mouse H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) imprinted control region. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:44006-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) imprinted control region (ICR) is a methylation state-sensitive insulator that regulates transcriptional ..
  19. Liu J, Baker J, Perkins A, Robertson E, Efstratiadis A. Mice carrying null mutations of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-1) and type 1 IGF receptor (Igf1r). Cell. 1993;75:59-72 pubmed
    ..The roles of the IGFs in mouse embryonic development, as revealed from the phenotypic differences between these mutants, are discussed. ..
  20. Wilson E, Hsieh M, Rotwein P. Autocrine growth factor signaling by insulin-like growth factor-II mediates MyoD-stimulated myocyte maturation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41109-13 pubmed
    ..Our observations identify a robust autocrine amplification network in which MyoD enhances the later steps in muscle differentiation by induction of a locally acting growth factor. ..
  21. Kusinski L, Dilworth M, Baker P, Sibley C, Wareing M, Glazier J. System A activity and vascular function in the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse. Placenta. 2011;32:871-6 pubmed publisher
    Deletion of the placental-specific P0 transcript of the insulin-like growth factor gene (Igf2) reduces placental growth from early pregnancy onwards...
  22. Oh R, Ho R, Mar L, Gertsenstein M, Paderova J, Hsien J, et al. Epigenetic and phenotypic consequences of a truncation disrupting the imprinted domain on distal mouse chromosome 7. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1092-103 pubmed
    ..Thus, all the imprinted genes located in the region and required for normal development are silenced by an IC2-dependent mechanism on the paternal allele...
  23. Leighton P, Saam J, Ingram R, Stewart C, Tilghman S. An enhancer deletion affects both H19 and Igf2 expression. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2079-89 pubmed
    ..are expressed exclusively from the maternal chromosome, whereas Insulin-2 (Ins-2) and Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) are paternally expressed...
  24. Fitzpatrick G, Soloway P, Higgins M. Regional loss of imprinting and growth deficiency in mice with a targeted deletion of KvDMR1. Nat Genet. 2002;32:426-31 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that loss of methylation in BWS patients activates the repressive function of KvDMR1 on the maternal chromosome, resulting in abnormal silencing of CDKN1C and the development of BWS. ..
  25. Constancia M, Dean W, Lopes S, Moore T, Kelsey G, Reik W. Deletion of a silencer element in Igf2 results in loss of imprinting independent of H19. Nat Genet. 2000;26:203-6 pubmed
    b>Igf2 and H19 are closely linked, reciprocally imprinted genes on mouse distal chromosome 7. The paternally expressed Igf2 encodes a potent fetal growth factor and the maternally expressed H19 encodes a non-coding RNA (refs 1,2)...
  26. Cobb L, Salih D, Gonzalez I, Tripathi G, Carter E, Lovett F, et al. Partitioning of IGFBP-5 actions in myogenesis: IGF-independent anti-apoptotic function. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1737-46 pubmed
    ..The relationship between IGF-II and IGFBP-5 was examined further by cotransfecting C2 myoblasts with antisense Igf2 (previously established to induce increased cell death) and Igfbp5; both wt- and mutIGFBP-5 conferred equivalent ..
  27. Ferguson M, Sharpe P, Thomas B, Beck F. Differential expression of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF I and II), mRNA, peptide and binding protein 1 during mouse palate development: comparison with TGF beta peptide distribution. J Anat. 1992;181 ( Pt 2):219-38 pubmed
    ..1991), which is characterised by the overgrowth of tissues (especially the tongue) expressing IGF II in the embryo, indicates the necessity of reanalysing human cleft palate families for disruption (including ..
  28. Hahn H, Wojnowski L, Specht K, Kappler R, Calzada Wack J, Potter D, et al. Patched target Igf2 is indispensable for the formation of medulloblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28341-4 pubmed
    ..Ptch mutant mice consistently contain elevated levels of the tumor growth-promoting insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2)...
  29. Dean W, Bowden L, Aitchison A, Klose J, Moore T, Meneses J, et al. Altered imprinted gene methylation and expression in completely ES cell-derived mouse fetuses: association with aberrant phenotypes. Development. 1998;125:2273-82 pubmed
    ..in imprinted genes, we analysed two maternally expressed genes (Igf2r, H19) and two paternally expressed genes (Igf2, U2af1-rs1) in ES cells and in completely ES cell-derived fetuses...
  30. Schuster Gossler K, Bilinski P, Sado T, Ferguson Smith A, Gossler A. The mouse Gtl2 gene is differentially expressed during embryonic development, encodes multiple alternatively spliced transcripts, and may act as an RNA. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:214-28 pubmed
    ..Gtl2 transcript levels are present in parthenogenic embryos but may be reduced, consistent with the pattern of inheritance of the Gtl2lacZ phenotype. ..
  31. Beechey C, Ball S, Townsend K, Jones J. The mouse chromosome 7 distal imprinting domain maps to G-bands F4/F5. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:236-40 pubmed
    ..hybridization (FISH) studies on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a T65H heterozygote show that the imprinted gene Igf2 is located in the same region...
  32. Han L, SZABO P, Mann J. Postnatal survival of mice with maternal duplication of distal chromosome 7 induced by a Igf2/H19 imprinting control region lacking insulator function. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000803 pubmed publisher
    ..dist7). Their small size could involve inactivity of Igf2, encoding a growth factor, with some contribution by over-expression of Cdkn1c, encoding a negative growth ..
  33. Lui J, Finkielstain G, Barnes K, Baron J. An imprinted gene network that controls mammalian somatic growth is down-regulated during postnatal growth deceleration in multiple organs. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..For these genes, Igf2, H19, Plagl1, Mest, Peg3, Dlk1, Gtl2, Grb10, Ndn, Cdkn1c, and SLC38a4, the declines show a temporal pattern similar ..
  34. Filson A, Louvi A, Efstratiadis A, Robertson E. Rescue of the T-associated maternal effect in mice carrying null mutations in Igf-2 and Igf2r, two reciprocally imprinted genes. Development. 1993;118:731-6 pubmed
    In mice, only the paternal allele of the Igf2 gene, encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is expressed due to parental imprinting...
  35. Kaneda A, Feinberg A. Loss of imprinting of IGF2: a common epigenetic modifier of intestinal tumor risk. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11236-40 pubmed
    ..a recent study showing that a mouse model of loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor II gene (Igf2), which shows aberrant activation of the normally silent maternal allele, modifies the risk of intestinal neoplasia ..
  36. George M, Ayuso E, Casellas A, Costa C, Devedjian J, Bosch F. Beta cell expression of IGF-I leads to recovery from type 1 diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1153-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results indicate that local expression of IGF-I in beta cells regenerates pancreatic islets and counteracts type 1 diabetes, suggesting that IGF-I gene transfer to the pancreas might be a suitable therapy for this disease. ..
  37. Li P, Cavallero S, Gu Y, Chen T, Hughes J, Hassan A, et al. IGF signaling directs ventricular cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic heart development. Development. 2011;138:1795-805 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that IGF2 is the most prominent mitogen made by primary mouse embryonic epicardial cells and by a newly derived immortalized ..
  38. Engemann S, Strödicke M, Paulsen M, Franck O, Reinhardt R, Lane N, et al. Sequence and functional comparison in the Beckwith-Wiedemann region: implications for a novel imprinting centre and extended imprinting. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:2691-706 pubmed
    ..One of the genes outside the cluster, Obph1, is imprinted in mouse placenta indicating that at least in extra-embryonic tissues the imprinting cluster extends into a larger domain. ..
  39. Weber M, Hagège H, Murrell A, Brunel C, Reik W, Cathala G, et al. Genomic imprinting controls matrix attachment regions in the Igf2 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8953-9 pubmed
    Genomic imprinting at the Igf2/H19 locus originates from allele-specific DNA methylation, which modifies the affinity of some proteins for their target sequences...
  40. Schmid C. Insulin-like growth factors. Cell Biol Int. 1995;19:445-57 pubmed
    The insulin-like growth factors I and II are single chain polypeptides homologous to proinsulin. IGF I and IGF II contribute to cell regulation and stimulate protein synthesis via signaling through type 1 receptors which are homologous to ..
  41. Szabo P, Han L, Hyo Jung J, Mann J. Mutagenesis in mice of nuclear hormone receptor binding sites in the Igf2/H19 imprinting control region. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113:238-46 pubmed
    The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) is a DNA methylation-dependent chromatin insulator in somatic cells...
  42. Grandjean V, Smith J, Schofield P, Ferguson Smith A. Increased IGF-II protein affects p57kip2 expression in vivo and in vitro: implications for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5279-84 pubmed
    In both human and mouse, the Igf2 gene, localized on chromosomes 11 and 7, respectively, is expressed from the paternally inherited chromosome in the majority of tissues...
  43. Burns J, Hassan A. Cell survival and proliferation are modified by insulin-like growth factor 2 between days 9 and 10 of mouse gestation. Development. 2001;128:3819-30 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the paternal allele of the imprinted embryonic gene coding for insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2, Igf2(+m/-p)), results in viable mice that are 60% the weight of wild-type littermates...
  44. Silva D, Venihaki M, Guo W, Lopez M. Igf2 deficiency results in delayed lung development at the end of gestation. Endocrinology. 2006;147:5584-91 pubmed
    ..IGF-II plays an important role in fetal growth as mice with targeted disruption of the IGF-II gene (Igf2) exhibit severe growth retardation...
  45. Lehtinen M, Zappaterra M, Chen X, Yang Y, Hill A, Lun M, et al. The cerebrospinal fluid provides a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells. Neuron. 2011;69:893-905 pubmed publisher
    ..which contacts this apical domain, has an age-dependent effect on proliferation, much of which is attributable to Igf2, but that CSF contains other signaling activities as well...
  46. Lau M, Stewart C, Liu Z, Bhatt H, Rotwein P, Stewart C. Loss of the imprinted IGF2/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor results in fetal overgrowth and perinatal lethality. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2953-63 pubmed
    ..express IGF2R in their tissues, are 25-30% larger than their normal siblings, have elevated levels of circulating IGF2 and IGF-binding proteins, and exhibit a slight kink in their tails...
  47. Li E, Beard C, Jaenisch R. Role for DNA methylation in genomic imprinting. Nature. 1993;366:362-5 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that a normal level of DNA methylation is required for controlling differential expression of the paternal and maternal alleles of imprinted genes. ..
  48. Sibley C, Coan P, Ferguson Smith A, Dean W, Hughes J, Smith P, et al. Placental-specific insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) regulates the diffusional exchange characteristics of the mouse placenta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8204-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we tested the hypothesis that the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (Igf2) transcribed from the placental-specific promoter (P0) regulates the development of the diffusional permeability ..
  49. Frank D, Fortino W, Clark L, Musalo R, Wang W, Saxena A, et al. Placental overgrowth in mice lacking the imprinted gene Ipl. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7490-5 pubmed
    The Ipl (Tssc3) gene lies in an extended imprinted region of distal mouse chromosome 7, which also contains the Igf2 gene...
  50. Leighton P, Ingram R, Eggenschwiler J, Efstratiadis A, Tilghman S. Disruption of imprinting caused by deletion of the H19 gene region in mice. Nature. 1995;375:34-9 pubmed
    ..The somatic overgrowth of heterozygotes for the maternal deletion is attributed to a gain of function of insulin-like growth factor 2, rather than a loss of function of H19. ..
  51. Jones B, Levorse J, Tilghman S. Igf2 imprinting does not require its own DNA methylation or H19 RNA. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2200-7 pubmed
    Three models have been proposed to explain the imprinting of the mouse Igf2 gene on the maternal chromosome...
  52. Engel N, Thorvaldsen J, Bartolomei M. CTCF binding sites promote transcription initiation and prevent DNA methylation on the maternal allele at the imprinted H19/Igf2 locus. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2945-54 pubmed
    Imprinting at the H19/Igf2 locus depends on a differentially methylated domain (DMD) acting as a maternal-specific, methylation-sensitive insulator and a paternal-specific locus of hypermethylation...
  53. Bates P, Fisher R, Ward A, Richardson L, Hill D, Graham C. Mammary cancer in transgenic mice expressing insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). Br J Cancer. 1995;72:1189-93 pubmed
    ..Primary tumours contained stromal and epithelial regions, but the tumours were dominated by mammary adenocarcinoma after transplantation. The tumours expressed high levels of Igf-2 mRNA transcribed from the integrated transgenes. ..
  54. Rosen K, Wentworth B, Rosenthal N, Villa Komaroff L. Specific, temporally regulated expression of the insulin-like growth factor II gene during muscle cell differentiation. Endocrinology. 1993;133:474-81 pubmed
  55. Forne T, Oswald J, Dean W, Saam J, Bailleul B, Dandolo L, et al. Loss of the maternal H19 gene induces changes in Igf2 methylation in both cis and trans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10243-8 pubmed
    ..investigations have shown that the maintenance of genomic imprinting of the murine insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) gene involves at least two factors: the DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase activity, which is required to ..
  56. Zaina S, Pettersson L, Ahren B, Brånén L, Hassan A, Lindholm M, et al. Insulin-like growth factor II plays a central role in atherosclerosis in a mouse model. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4505-11 pubmed
    ..These observations provide the first direct evidence for an atherogenic activity of insulin-like growth factor II in vivo. ..
  57. Moore T, Constancia M, Zubair M, Bailleul B, Feil R, Sasaki H, et al. Multiple imprinted sense and antisense transcripts, differential methylation and tandem repeats in a putative imprinting control region upstream of mouse Igf2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12509-14 pubmed
    The mouse insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) locus is a complex genomic region that produces multiple transcripts from alternative promoters. Expression at this locus is regulated by parental imprinting...
  58. Davies K, Bowden L, Smith P, Dean W, Hill D, Furuumi H, et al. Disruption of mesodermal enhancers for Igf2 in the minute mutant. Development. 2002;129:1657-68 pubmed
    ..show that the mutation is an inversion, whose breakpoint distal to H19 disrupts and thus identifies an enhancer for Igf2 expression in skeletal muscle and tongue, and separates the gene from other mesodermal and extra-embryonic ..
  59. Sun F, Dean W, Kelsey G, Allen N, Reik W. Transactivation of Igf2 in a mouse model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Nature. 1997;389:809-15 pubmed
    The gene IGF2, which encodes a fetal insulin-like growth factor, is imprinted, so only one of two parental copies of the gene is expressed...
  60. Christofori G, Naik P, Hanahan D. A second signal supplied by insulin-like growth factor II in oncogene-induced tumorigenesis. Nature. 1994;369:414-8 pubmed
    ..Several signals, in this case including an oncoprotein and a growth/survival factor, thus appear to be needed to elicit hyperproliferation. ..
  61. Polesskaya A, Cuvellier S, Naguibneva I, Duquet A, Moss E, Harel Bellan A. Lin-28 binds IGF-2 mRNA and participates in skeletal myogenesis by increasing translation efficiency. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1125-38 pubmed
    ..Our results unravel novel mechanisms of translational regulation in skeletal muscle and suggest that Lin-28 performs the role of "translational enhancer" in embryonic and adult cells and tissues. ..
  62. Yoon M, Chen J. PLD regulates myoblast differentiation through the mTOR-IGF2 pathway. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:282-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, PLD1 positively regulates mTOR signaling leading to the production of IGF2, an autocrine factor instrumental for the initiation of satellite cell differentiation...
  63. Hardouin S, Guo R, Romeo P, Nagy A, Aubin J. Impaired mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and osteoclastogenesis in mice deficient for Igf2-P2 transcripts. Development. 2011;138:203-13 pubmed publisher
    During embryonic development, Igf2 gene transcription is highly regulated through the use of several promoters whose specific roles are not defined...
  64. Kent L, Ohboshi S, Soares M. Akt1 and insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) regulate placentation and fetal/postnatal development. Int J Dev Biol. 2012;56:255-61 pubmed publisher
    Phenotypic characterization of Akt1 and Igf2 null mice has revealed roles for each in the regulation of placentation, and fetal and postnatal growth...
  65. Moorehead R, Hojilla C, De Belle I, Wood G, Fata J, Adamson E, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-II regulates PTEN expression in the mammary gland. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50422-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified a novel negative feedback loop within the PI3K pathway where IGF-II induces PTEN expression to modulate its physiologic effects. ..
  66. Kato R, Shirohzu H, Yokomine T, Mizuno S, Mukai T, Sasaki H. Sequence-ready 1-Mb YAC, BAC and cosmid contigs covering the distal imprinted region of mouse chromosome 7. DNA Res. 1999;6:401-5 pubmed
  67. Pant V, Kurukuti S, Pugacheva E, Shamsuddin S, Mariano P, Renkawitz R, et al. Mutation of a single CTCF target site within the H19 imprinting control region leads to loss of Igf2 imprinting and complex patterns of de novo methylation upon maternal inheritance. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3497-504 pubmed
    The differentially methylated imprinting control region (ICR) region upstream of the H19 gene regulates allelic Igf2 expression by means of a methylation-sensitive chromatin insulator function...
  68. Qiu X, Vu T, Lu Q, Ling J, Li T, Hou A, et al. A complex deoxyribonucleic acid looping configuration associated with the silencing of the maternal Igf2 allele. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1476-88 pubmed publisher
    Alternate interactions between the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) and one of the two Igf2 differentially methylated regions has been proposed as a model regulating the reciprocal imprinting of Igf2 and H19...
  69. Park I, Sohn B, Choo J, Joe C, Seong J, Lee Y, et al. Deregulation of DNA methyltransferases and loss of parental methylation at the insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2)/H19 loci in p53 knockout mice prior to tumor development. J Cell Biochem. 2005;94:585-96 pubmed
    ..we examined the DNA methylation of the imprinting control region (ICR) at the insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2)/H19 loci in the thymus and the liver of p53(+/+), p53(+/-), and p53(-/-) mice...
  70. Charalambous M, Menheniott T, Bennett W, Kelly S, Dell G, Dandolo L, et al. An enhancer element at the Igf2/H19 locus drives gene expression in both imprinted and non-imprinted tissues. Dev Biol. 2004;271:488-97 pubmed
    The insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) gene encodes a potent growth factor that is expressed in multiple tissues during embryonic development. Expression at this locus is mediated by genomic imprinting...
  71. Veronese A, Lupini L, Consiglio J, Visone R, Ferracin M, Fornari F, et al. Oncogenic role of miR-483-3p at the IGF2/483 locus. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3140-9 pubmed publisher
    hsa-mir-483 is located within intron 2 of the IGF2 locus. We found that the mature microRNA (miRNA) miR-483-3p is overexpressed in 100% of Wilms' tumors...
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