Gene Symbol: Igf1
Description: insulin-like growth factor 1
Alias: C730016P09Rik, Igf-1, Igf-I, insulin-like growth factor I, somatomedin
Species: mouse
Products:     Igf1

Top Publications

  1. Sanchez Calderon H, Rodriguez de la Rosa L, Milo M, Pichel J, Holley M, Varela Nieto I. RNA microarray analysis in prenatal mouse cochlea reveals novel IGF-I target genes: implication of MEF2 and FOXM1 transcription factors. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8699 pubmed publisher
    ..Homozygous mutations of human IGF1 cause syndromic sensorineural deafness, decreased intrauterine and postnatal growth rates, and mental retardation...
  2. Elis S, Courtland H, Wu Y, Rosen C, Sun H, Jepsen K, et al. Elevated serum levels of IGF-1 are sufficient to establish normal body size and skeletal properties even in the absence of tissue IGF-1. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:1257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of the rat igf1 transgene in livers of mice with otherwise normal IGF-1 expression (HIT mice) resulted in approximately threefold ..
  3. Scharin Tang M, Redfors B, Lindbom M, Svensson J, Ramunddal T, Ohlsson C, et al. Importance of circulating IGF-1 for normal cardiac morphology, function and post infarction remodeling. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2012;22:206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate an important role of circulating IGF-1 in preserving cardiac structure and function both in physiological settings and post MI. ..
  4. Santini M, Tsao L, Monassier L, Theodoropoulos C, Carter J, Lara Pezzi E, et al. Enhancing repair of the mammalian heart. Circ Res. 2007;100:1732-40 pubmed
    ..The robust response achieved with the mIGF-1 isoform provides a mechanistic basis for clinically feasible therapeutic strategies for improving the outcome of heart disease. ..
  5. Elia L, Contu R, Quintavalle M, Varrone F, Chimenti C, Russo M, et al. Reciprocal regulation of microRNA-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 signal transduction cascade in cardiac and skeletal muscle in physiological and pathological conditions. Circulation. 2009;120:2377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a critical role of miR-1 in mediating the effects of the IGF-1 pathway and demonstrate a feedback loop between miR-1 expression and the IGF-1 signal transduction cascade. ..
  6. Yakar S, Rosen C, Bouxsein M, Sun H, Mejia W, Kawashima Y, et al. Serum complexes of insulin-like growth factor-1 modulate skeletal integrity and carbohydrate metabolism. FASEB J. 2009;23:709-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, each IGF-1 complex constituent appears to play a distinct role in determining skeletal phenotype, with different effects on cortical and trabecular bone compartments. ..
  7. Villalpando I, Lira E, Medina G, Garcia Garcia E, Echeverria O. Insulin-like growth factor 1 is expressed in mouse developing testis and regulates somatic cell proliferation. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:419-26 pubmed publisher
  8. Svensson J, Tivesten A, Sjögren K, Isaksson O, Bergstrom G, Mohan S, et al. Liver-derived IGF-I regulates kidney size, sodium reabsorption, and renal IGF-II expression. J Endocrinol. 2007;193:359-66 pubmed
    ..However, the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice did not develop kidney failure or nephrosclerosis. One may speculate that liver-derived endocrine IGF-I induces renal IGF-II expression, resulting in symmetrical renal growth. ..
  9. Svensson J, Sjögren K, Fäldt J, Andersson N, Isaksson O, Jansson J, et al. Liver-derived IGF-I regulates mean life span in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22640 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes earlier reported to modulate stress response and collagen aging showed consistent regulation, providing mechanisms that could underlie the increased mean life span in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice. ..

More Information


  1. Kawai M, Delany A, Green C, Adamo M, Rosen C. Nocturnin suppresses igf1 expression in bone by targeting the 3' untranslated region of igf1 mRNA. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4861-70 pubmed publisher
    IGF-I is an anabolic factor that mediates GH and PTH actions in bone. Expression of skeletal Igf1 differs for inbred strains of mice, and Igf expression levels correlate directly with bone mass...
  2. Wu Y, Brodt P, Sun H, Mejia W, Novosyadlyy R, Nunez N, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I regulates the liver microenvironment in obese mice and promotes liver metastasis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:57-67 pubmed publisher
  3. Fritton J, Emerton K, Sun H, Kawashima Y, Mejia W, Wu Y, et al. Growth hormone protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in states of low circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Interactions between estrogen and the GH/IGF-1 system as related to bone remodeling provide a pathway to minimize degeneration of bone tissue structure and osteoporotic fracture. ..
  4. Yakar S, Canalis E, Sun H, Mejia W, Kawashima Y, Nasser P, et al. Serum IGF-1 determines skeletal strength by regulating subperiosteal expansion and trait interactions. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:1481-92 pubmed publisher
  5. Charalambous M, Ferron S, da Rocha S, Murray A, Rowland T, Ito M, et al. Imprinted gene dosage is critical for the transition to independent life. Cell Metab. 2012;15:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows that appropriate dosage control at imprinted loci can act as a critical determinant in postnatal survival during phases of physiological adaptation. ..
  6. Cao J, Kurimoto P, Boudignon B, Rosen C, Lima F, Halloran B. Aging impairs IGF-I receptor activation and induces skeletal resistance to IGF-I. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1271-9 pubmed
  7. Vendrame C, Carvalho M, Rios F, Manuli E, Petitto Assis F, Goto H. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on Leishmania amazonensis promastigote arginase activation and reciprocal inhibition of NOS2 pathway in macrophage in vitro. Scand J Immunol. 2007;66:287-96 pubmed
  8. Barton E, DeMeo J, Lei H. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I E-peptides are required for isoform-specific gene expression and muscle hypertrophy after local IGF-I production. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:1069-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The igf1 gene not only produces IGF-I, but also generates multiple carboxy-terminal extensions, the E-peptides, through ..
  9. Cannata D, Lann D, Wu Y, Elis S, Sun H, Yakar S, et al. Elevated circulating IGF-I promotes mammary gland development and proliferation. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5751-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that both local and endocrine IGF-I play roles in mammary gland development and that elevated circulating IGF-I accelerates mammary epithelial proliferation. ..
  10. Lau K, Baylink D, Zhou X, Rodriguez D, Bonewald L, Li Z, et al. Osteocyte-derived insulin-like growth factor I is essential for determining bone mechanosensitivity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305:E271-81 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to determine whether deficient Igf1 expression in osteocytes would affect loading-induced osteogenic response...
  11. Temmerman L, Slonimsky E, Rosenthal N. Class 2 IGF-1 isoforms are dispensable for viability, growth and maintenance of IGF-1 serum levels. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2010;20:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We also uncover a vital requirement of IGF-1 for perinatal viability, previously obscured by modifiers in heterogeneous genetic backgrounds. ..
  12. Iresjö B, Svensson J, Ohlsson C, Lundholm K. Liver-derived endocrine IGF-I is not critical for activation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis following oral feeding. BMC Physiol. 2013;13:7 pubmed publisher
    ..05), but less so in IGF-I (-/-) knockouts (p?<?0.08). This study demonstrates that re-synthesis of muscle proteins following starvation is not critically dependent on endocrine liver-derived IGF-I. ..
  13. Sunters A, Armstrong V, Zaman G, Kypta R, Kawano Y, Lanyon L, et al. Mechano-transduction in osteoblastic cells involves strain-regulated estrogen receptor alpha-mediated control of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor sensitivity to Ambient IGF, leading to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent Wnt/LRP5 r. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8743-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This cascade requires prostanoid/nitric oxide production and is independent of Wnt/LRP5. ..
  14. Zhu L, Pollard J. Estradiol-17beta regulates mouse uterine epithelial cell proliferation through insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15847-51 pubmed
    ..Once the IGF1 pathway is activated, inhibition of ER signaling demonstrates that it is independent of ER...
  15. Wu Y, Sun H, Yakar S, LeRoith D. Elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in serum rescue the severe growth retardation of IGF-I null mice. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that tissue IGF-I is necessary for the development of the female reproductive system and cannot be compensated by elevated levels of serum IGF-I. ..
  16. Llorens Martín M, Torres Aleman I, Trejo J. Exercise modulates insulin-like growth factor 1-dependent and -independent effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behaviour. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The short-term anxiolytic-like effect of exercise was IGF1-dependent and indeed, the recall of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory is impaired by blocking serum IGF1 (as ..
  17. Shai S, Sukhanov S, Higashi Y, Vaughn C, Rosen C, Delafontaine P. Low circulating insulin-like growth factor I increases atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H1898-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data establish a link between lower circulating IGF-I and increased atherosclerosis that has important clinical implications. ..
  18. Yakar S, Courtland H, Clemmons D. IGF-1 and bone: New discoveries from mouse models. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:2543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we present new and old findings from mouse models of the IGF system and discuss their clinical relevance to normal and pathological skeletal physiology. ..
  19. Courtland H, Elis S, Wu Y, Sun H, Rosen C, Jepsen K, et al. Serum IGF-1 affects skeletal acquisition in a temporal and compartment-specific manner. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14762 pubmed publisher
  20. Leduc M, Hageman R, Meng Q, Verdugo R, Tsaih S, Churchill G, et al. Identification of genetic determinants of IGF-1 levels and longevity among mouse inbred strains. Aging Cell. 2010;9:823-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The most significant locus was the QTL on Chr 10, which contains the Igf1 gene and which had a LOD score of 31.8...
  21. Trejo J, Piriz J, Llorens Martin M, Fernandez A, Bolos M, LeRoith D, et al. Central actions of liver-derived insulin-like growth factor I underlying its pro-cognitive effects. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:1118-28 pubmed
    ..Declining levels of serum IGF-I during aging may therefore contribute to age-associated cognitive loss. ..
  22. Bailey Downs L, Mitschelen M, Sosnowska D, Toth P, Pinto J, Ballabh P, et al. Liver-specific knockdown of IGF-1 decreases vascular oxidative stress resistance by impairing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response: a novel model of vascular aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012;67:313-29 pubmed publisher
    ..in the vasculature, we utilized a novel mouse model with a liver-specific adeno-associated viral knockdown of the Igf1 gene using Cre-lox technology (Igf1(f/f) + MUP-iCre-AAV8), which exhibits a significant decrease in circulating IGF-..
  23. Sheng M, Zhou X, Bonewald L, Baylink D, Lau K. Disruption of the insulin-like growth factor-1 gene in osteocytes impairs developmental bone growth in mice. Bone. 2013;52:133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in developmental bone growth by assessing the bone phenotype of osteocyte Igf1 conditional knockout (KO) mice, generated by crossing the Dmp1-driven Cre-expressing transgenic mice with Igf1 ..
  24. Csiszar A, Labinskyy N, Perez V, Recchia F, Podlutsky A, Mukhopadhyay P, et al. Endothelial function and vascular oxidative stress in long-lived GH/IGF-deficient Ames dwarf mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H1882-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus GH and IGF-I promote antioxidant phenotypic changes in the endothelial cells, whereas Ames dwarfism leads to vascular oxidative stress. ..
  25. Govoni K, Wergedal J, Florin L, Angel P, Baylink D, Mohan S. Conditional deletion of insulin-like growth factor-I in collagen type 1alpha2-expressing cells results in postnatal lethality and a dramatic reduction in bone accretion. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5706-15 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, both local and endocrine IGF-I actions are involved in regulating growth of various tissues including bone, but they act via different mechanisms. ..
  26. Johannesson B, Sattler S, Semenova E, Pastore S, Kennedy Lydon T, Sampson R, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-1 induces regulatory T cell-mediated suppression of allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:977-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar therapeutic effects can be achieved with systemic or topical delivery of IGF-1, implicating this growth factor as a promising new therapeutic option for the treatment of ACD. ..
  27. Courtland H, DeMambro V, Maynard J, Sun H, Elis S, Rosen C, et al. Sex-specific regulation of body size and bone slenderness by the acid labile subunit. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:2059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This study revealed age- and sex-specific dependencies of body size and bone size on the ALS. These findings may explain the heterogeneity in growth and BMD measurements reported in human ALS-deficient patients. ..
  28. Sukhanov S, Higashi Y, Shai S, Blackstock C, Galvez S, Vaughn C, et al. Differential requirement for nitric oxide in IGF-1-induced anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and anti-atherosclerotic effects. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus IGF-1's anti-oxidant effect is dependent on its ability to increase NO but is distinct from its anti-atherosclerotic effect which is NO-independent. ..
  29. Pfeffer L, Brisson B, Lei H, Barton E. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I E-peptides modulate cell entry of the mature IGF-I protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3810-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is a critical protein for cell development and growth. Alternative splicing of the igf1 gene gives rise to multiple isoforms...
  30. Rodriguez de la Rosa L, Fernandez Sanchez L, Germain F, Murillo Cuesta S, Varela Nieto I, de la Villa P, et al. Age-related functional and structural retinal modifications in the Igf1-/- null mouse. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..role of IGF-I in retinal physiology, we have studied the morphology and electrophysiology of the retina of the Igf1(-/-) mice in comparison with that of the Igf1(+/-) and Igf1(+/+) animals during aging...
  31. Yuan R, Tsaih S, Petkova S, Marin de Evsikova C, Xing S, Marion M, et al. Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels. Aging Cell. 2009;8:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..is the initial paper of a series, the study design, median lifespans, and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels at 6, 12, and 18 months are described for the first cohort of 32 females and 32 males of each strain...
  32. Hewitt S, Li Y, Li L, Korach K. Estrogen-mediated regulation of Igf1 transcription and uterine growth involves direct binding of estrogen receptor alpha to estrogen-responsive elements. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2676-85 pubmed publisher
    Estrogen enables uterine proliferation, which depends on synthesis of the IGF1 growth factor...
  33. Okano T, Xuan S, Kelley M. Insulin-like growth factor signaling regulates the timing of sensory cell differentiation in the mouse cochlea. J Neurosci. 2011;31:18104-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also provide new insights regarding the pathological processes that underlie auditory defects in the absence of IGF signaling in both humans and mice. ..
  34. Shai S, Sukhanov S, Higashi Y, Vaughn C, Kelly J, Delafontaine P. Smooth muscle cell-specific insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression in Apoe-/- mice does not alter atherosclerotic plaque burden but increases features of plaque stability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1916-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that stimulation of VSMC IGF-1 signaling does not alter total atherosclerotic plaque burden and may improve atherosclerotic plaque stability. ..
  35. Günschmann C, Stachelscheid H, Akyuz M, Schmitz A, Missero C, Bruning J, et al. Insulin/IGF-1 controls epidermal morphogenesis via regulation of FoxO-mediated p63 inhibition. Dev Cell. 2013;26:176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the present study reveals a critical role for IIS-dependent control of p63 activity in coordination of ACD and stratification during epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  36. Hede M, Salimova E, Piszczek A, Perlas E, Winn N, Nastasi T, et al. E-peptides control bioavailability of IGF-1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51152 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the E-peptides control IGF-1 bioavailability by preventing systemic circulation, offering a potentially powerful way to tether IGF-1 and other therapeutic proteins to the site of synthesis and/or administration. ..
  37. Imrie H, Abbas A, Viswambharan H, Rajwani A, Cubbon R, Gage M, et al. Vascular insulin-like growth factor-I resistance and diet-induced obesity. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular IGF-I resistance may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent or slow the accelerated vasculopathy seen in humans with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  38. Stratikopoulos E, Szabolcs M, Dragatsis I, Klinakis A, Efstratiadis A. The hormonal action of IGF1 in postnatal mouse growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19378-83 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), which is a member of a major growth-promoting signaling system, is produced by many tissues and functions throughout embryonic and postnatal development in an autocrine/paracrine fashion...
  39. Bitoun E, Finelli M, Oliver P, Lee S, Davies K. AF4 is a critical regulator of the IGF-1 signaling pathway during Purkinje cell development. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15366-74 pubmed publisher
  40. Svensson J, Kindblom J, Shao R, Moverare Skrtic S, Lagerquist M, Andersson N, et al. Liver-derived IGF1 enhances the androgenic response in prostate. J Endocrinol. 2008;199:489-97 pubmed publisher
    Both IGF1 and androgens are major enhancers of prostate growth and are implicated in the development of prostate hyperplasia and cancer...
  41. Colombini B, Benelli G, Nocella M, Musaro A, Cecchi G, Bagni M. Mechanical properties of intact single fibres from wild-type and MLC/mIgf-1 transgenic mouse muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2009;30:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the other parameters, static stiffness in TG fibres was about 24% smaller than in WT fibres suggesting a possible effect of Igf-1 overexpression on its mechanism. ..
  42. Govoni K, Lee S, Chung Y, Behringer R, Wergedal J, Baylink D, et al. Disruption of insulin-like growth factor-I expression in type IIalphaI collagen-expressing cells reduces bone length and width in mice. Physiol Genomics. 2007;30:354-62 pubmed
    ..20). In conclusion, IGF-I from cells expressing procollagen type IIalphaI regulates bone accretion that occurs during postnatal growth period. ..
  43. von der Thüsen J, Borensztajn K, Moimas S, van Heiningen S, Teeling P, Van Berkel T, et al. IGF-1 has plaque-stabilizing effects in atherosclerosis by altering vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:924-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that IGF-1 in atherosclerotic plaques may have a role in preventing plaque instability, not only by modulating smooth muscle cell turnover, but also by altering smooth muscle cell phenotype. ..
  44. Coleman M, DeMayo F, Yin K, Lee H, Geske R, Montgomery C, et al. Myogenic vector expression of insulin-like growth factor I stimulates muscle cell differentiation and myofiber hypertrophy in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:12109-16 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that sustained overexpression of IGF-I in skeletal muscle elicits myofiber hypertrophy and provides the basis for manipulation of muscle physiology utilizing skeletal alpha-actin-based vectors. ..
  45. Adesanya O, Zhou J, Samathanam C, Powell Braxton L, Bondy C. Insulin-like growth factor 1 is required for G2 progression in the estradiol-induced mitotic cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3287-91 pubmed
    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been proposed as a "G1-progression factor" and as a mediator of estradiol's (E2) mitogenic effects on the uterus...
  46. O Kusky J, Ye P, D Ercole A. Insulin-like growth factor-I promotes neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus during postnatal development. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8435-42 pubmed
  47. Barton E, Morris L, Musaro A, Rosenthal N, Sweeney H. Muscle-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor I counters muscle decline in mdx mice. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:137-48 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a combination of promoting muscle regenerative capacity and preventing muscle necrosis could be an effective treatment for the secondary symptoms caused by the primary loss of dystrophin. ..
  48. Galvin C, Hardiman O, Nolan C. IGF-1 receptor mediates differentiation of primary cultures of mouse skeletal myoblasts. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;200:19-29 pubmed
  49. Tang Z, Yu R, Lu Y, Parlow A, Liu J. Age-dependent onset of liver-specific IGF-I gene deficiency and its persistence in old age: implications for postnatal growth and insulin resistance in LID mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E288-95 pubmed
  50. Liao L, Dearth R, Zhou S, Britton O, Lee A, Xu J. Liver-specific overexpression of the insulin-like growth factor-I enhances somatic growth and partially prevents the effects of growth hormone deficiency. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3877-88 pubmed
    ..Higher circulating levels of IGF-I can stimulate somatic growth and lean mass and improve glucose tolerance. ..
  51. Welch S, Plank D, Witt S, Glascock B, Schaefer E, Chimenti S, et al. Cardiac-specific IGF-1 expression attenuates dilated cardiomyopathy in tropomodulin-overexpressing transgenic mice. Circ Res. 2002;90:641-8 pubmed
  52. Delahunty K, Shultz K, Gronowicz G, Koczon Jaremko B, Adamo M, Horton L, et al. Congenic mice provide in vivo evidence for a genetic locus that modulates serum insulin-like growth factor-I and bone acquisition. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3915-23 pubmed
    ..3-Mb region containing approximately 148 genes, including Igf1 and Elk-3(ETS domain protein)...
  53. Kasukawa Y, Baylink D, Wergedal J, Amaar Y, Srivastava A, Guo R, et al. Lack of insulin-like growth factor I exaggerates the effect of calcium deficiency on bone accretion in mice. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4682-9 pubmed
  54. Miyakoshi N, Kasukawa Y, Linkhart T, Baylink D, Mohan S. Evidence that anabolic effects of PTH on bone require IGF-I in growing mice. Endocrinology. 2001;142:4349-56 pubmed
    ..These data to our knowledge provide the first direct evidence that the anabolic effects of PTH on bone formation in vivo require IGF-I action in growing mice. ..
  55. Baker J, Liu J, Robertson E, Efstratiadis A. Role of insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and postnatal growth. Cell. 1993;75:73-82 pubmed
  56. Liu J, Grinberg A, Westphal H, Sauer B, Accili D, Karas M, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I affects perinatal lethality and postnatal development in a gene dosage-dependent manner: manipulation using the Cre/loxP system in transgenic mice. Mol Endocrinol. 1998;12:1452-62 pubmed
    ..This variability allows for postnatal survival and will enable one to begin to explore the role of the endocrine vs. paracrine effects of IGF-I. ..
  57. Schmid C. Insulin-like growth factors. Cell Biol Int. 1995;19:445-57 pubmed
    The insulin-like growth factors I and II are single chain polypeptides homologous to proinsulin. IGF I and IGF II contribute to cell regulation and stimulate protein synthesis via signaling through type 1 receptors which are homologous ..
  58. He J, Rosen C, Adams D, Kream B. Postnatal growth and bone mass in mice with IGF-I haploinsufficiency. Bone. 2006;38:826-35 pubmed
    We examined the influence of IGF-I haploinsufficiency on growth, bone mass and osteoblast differentiation in Igf1 heterozygous knockout (HET) mice...
  59. Jiang J, Lichtler A, Gronowicz G, Adams D, Clark S, Rosen C, et al. Transgenic mice with osteoblast-targeted insulin-like growth factor-I show increased bone remodeling. Bone. 2006;39:494-504 pubmed
    ..Thus, broad overexpression of IGF-I in cells of the osteoblast lineage increased indices of bone formation and resorption. ..
  60. Yakar S, Liu J, Fernandez A, Wu Y, Schally A, Frystyk J, et al. Liver-specific igf-1 gene deletion leads to muscle insulin insensitivity. Diabetes. 2001;50:1110-8 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence of the role of circulating IGF-I as an important component of overall insulin action in peripheral tissues. ..
  61. Baker J, Hardy M, Zhou J, Bondy C, Lupu F, Bellve A, et al. Effects of an Igf1 gene null mutation on mouse reproduction. Mol Endocrinol. 1996;10:903-18 pubmed
    Both sexes of adult mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the Igf1 gene, encoding insulin-like growth factor 1, are infertile dwarfs (approximately 30% of normal size)...
  62. Ruan W, Kleinberg D. Insulin-like growth factor I is essential for terminal end bud formation and ductal morphogenesis during mammary development. Endocrinology. 1999;140:5075-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IGF-I, when given along with E2, is responsible for ductal morphogenesis. ..