Gene Symbol: Id3
Description: inhibitor of DNA binding 3
Alias: Hlh462, Idb3, bHLHb25, DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-3, ID-like protein inhibitor HLH 462, inhibitor of differentiation 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Id3

Top Publications

  1. Li H, Dai M, Zhuang Y. A T cell intrinsic role of Id3 in a mouse model for primary Sjogren's syndrome. Immunity. 2004;21:551-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic basis of this autoimmune disease is poorly understood. Id3 is an immediate early-response gene in growth regulation and is involved in TCR-mediated T cell selection during T ..
  2. Quong M, Martensson A, Langerak A, Rivera R, Nemazee D, Murre C. Receptor editing and marginal zone B cell development are regulated by the helix-loop-helix protein, E2A. J Exp Med. 2004;199:1101-12 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Id3-deficient splenocytes show a decline in the proportion of marginal zone B cells...
  3. ALONZO E, Gottschalk R, Das J, Egawa T, Hobbs R, Pandolfi P, et al. Development of promyelocytic zinc finger and ThPOK-expressing innate gamma delta T cells is controlled by strength of TCR signaling and Id3. J Immunol. 2010;184:1268-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This study defines the factors that control the propensity of the immune system to produce potentially disease-causing T cell subsets. ..
  4. Kaneko K, Li X, Zhang X, Lamberti J, Jamieson S, Thistlethwaite P. Endothelial expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1a is required for atrioventricular valve formation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85:2090-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that these processes are temporally linked to expression of the transcription factors Id1 and Id3. Endocardial cushion formation is dependent on cell-specific expression of Bmpr1a...
  5. Verykokakis M, Boos M, Bendelac A, Adams E, Pereira P, Kee B. Inhibitor of DNA binding 3 limits development of murine slam-associated adaptor protein-dependent "innate" gammadelta T cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9303 pubmed publisher
    b>Id3 is a dominant antagonist of E protein transcription factor activity that is induced by signals emanating from the alphabeta and gammadelta T cell receptor (TCR)...
  6. Li J, Maruyama T, Zhang P, Konkel J, Hoffman V, Zamarron B, et al. Mutation of inhibitory helix-loop-helix protein Id3 causes ?? T-cell lymphoma in mice. Blood. 2010;116:5615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that mice with deficiency in inhibitory helix-loop-helix protein Id3 (Id3(-/-)) developed ?? T-cell lymphoma that resembled human ?? T-cell lymphoma...
  7. Maruyama T, Li J, Vaque J, Konkel J, Wang W, Zhang B, et al. Control of the differentiation of regulatory T cells and T(H)17 cells by the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that deletion of the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 resulted in the defective generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells)...
  8. Lauritsen J, Wong G, Lee S, Lefebvre J, Ciofani M, Rhodes M, et al. Marked induction of the helix-loop-helix protein Id3 promotes the gammadelta T cell fate and renders their functional maturation Notch independent. Immunity. 2009;31:565-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-early growth response gene (Egr)-inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3) pathway plays a defining role in this process...
  9. Guo Z, Li H, Han M, Xu T, Wu X, Zhuang Y. Modeling Sjögren's syndrome with Id3 conditional knockout mice. Immunol Lett. 2011;135:34-42 pubmed publisher
    The Id3 gene has been shown to play important roles in the development and function of broad tissue types including B and T cells. Id3 deficient mice develop autoimmune disease similar to human Sjögren's syndrome...

More Information


  1. Zhao Q, Beck A, Vitale J, Schneider J, Gao S, Chang C, et al. Developmental ablation of Id1 and Id3 genes in the vasculature leads to postnatal cardiac phenotypes. Dev Biol. 2011;349:53-64 pubmed publisher
    The Id1 and Id3 genes play major roles during cardiac development, despite their expression being confined to non-myocardial layers (endocardium-endothelium-epicardium)...
  2. Christy B, Sanders L, Lau L, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Nathans D. An Id-related helix-loop-helix protein encoded by a growth factor-inducible gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:1815-9 pubmed
    An mRNA encoding a helix-loop-helix protein that we have named HLH462 is induced in mouse 3T3 cells as part of the immediate early transcriptional response to growth factors and other signaling agents...
  3. Lyden D, Young A, Zagzag D, Yan W, Gerald W, O REILLY R, et al. Id1 and Id3 are required for neurogenesis, angiogenesis and vascularization of tumour xenografts. Nature. 1999;401:670-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that targeted disruption of the dominant negative helix-loop-helix proteins Id1 and Id3 in mice results in premature withdrawal of neuroblasts from the cell cycle and expression of neural-specific ..
  4. Yan W, Young A, Soares V, Kelley R, Benezra R, Zhuang Y. High incidence of T-cell tumors in E2A-null mice and E2A/Id1 double-knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:7317-27 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that E2A may be essential for maintaining the homeostasis of T lymphocytes during their constant renewal in adult life. ..
  5. Haks M, Lefebvre J, Lauritsen J, Carleton M, Rhodes M, Miyazaki T, et al. Attenuation of gammadeltaTCR signaling efficiently diverts thymocytes to the alphabeta lineage. Immunity. 2005;22:595-606 pubmed
    ..Our data support a model whereby gammadelta versus alphabeta lineage commitment is controlled by TCR signal strength, which depends critically on the ERK MAPK-Egr pathway. ..
  6. Miyazaki M, Rivera R, Miyazaki K, Lin Y, Agata Y, Murre C. The opposing roles of the transcription factor E2A and its antagonist Id3 that orchestrate and enforce the naive fate of T cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:992-1001 pubmed publisher
    It is established that the transcription factor E2A and its antagonist Id3 modulate the checkpoints consisting of the precursor to the T cell antigen receptor (pre-TCR) and the TCR...
  7. Yashiro Ohtani Y, He Y, Ohtani T, Jones M, Shestova O, Xu L, et al. Pre-TCR signaling inactivates Notch1 transcription by antagonizing E2A. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1665-76 pubmed publisher
    ..successful beta-selection, pre-TCR signaling rapidly inhibits Notch1 transcription via signals that up-regulate Id3, an E2A inhibitor...
  8. Pan L, Sato S, Frederick J, Sun X, Zhuang Y. Impaired immune responses and B-cell proliferation in mice lacking the Id3 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:5969-80 pubmed
    ..b>Id3 is an immediate-early gene responding to growth and mitogenic signals in many cell types including B cells...
  9. Verykokakis M, Boos M, Bendelac A, Kee B. SAP protein-dependent natural killer T-like cells regulate the development of CD8(+) T cells with innate lymphocyte characteristics. Immunity. 2010;33:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we showed that Id3(-/-) CD8(+) T cells had an innate-like phenotype and required SAP for their development...
  10. Ueda Hayakawa I, Mahlios J, Zhuang Y. Id3 restricts the developmental potential of gamma delta lineage during thymopoiesis. J Immunol. 2009;182:5306-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that functional loss of Id3 results in a significant increase of gammadelta T cell production from progenitor cells undergoing TCRbeta ..
  11. Ruzinova M, Schoer R, Gerald W, Egan J, Pandolfi P, Rafii S, et al. Effect of angiogenesis inhibition by Id loss and the contribution of bone-marrow-derived endothelial cells in spontaneous murine tumors. Cancer Cell. 2003;4:277-89 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of these factors phenocopies loss of Id in in vivo angiogenesis assays. ..
  12. Rivera R, Johns C, Quan J, Johnson R, Murre C. Thymocyte selection is regulated by the helix-loop-helix inhibitor protein, Id3. Immunity. 2000;12:17-26 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Id3 is required for major histocompatability (MHC) class I- and class II-restricted thymocyte positive selection...
  13. Barone M, Pepperkok R, Peverali F, Philipson L. Id proteins control growth induction in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:4985-8 pubmed
    Id1, Id2, and Id3 (HLH462) dimerize with members of the basic helix-loop-helix protein family, but due to the absence of the basic region, the resulting heterodimers cannot bind DNA...
  14. Du Y, Xiao Q, Yip H. Regulation of retinal progenitor cell differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein 4 is mediated by the smad/id cascade. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3764-73 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSIONS. These results suggest that Id genes are one of the potential targets of BMP signaling in the differentiation of RPCs. ..
  15. Bagavant H, Scindia Y, Nackiewicz D, Nandula S, Doran A, Cutchins A, et al. Deficiency of a transcriptional regulator, inhibitor of differentiation 3, induces glomerulonephritis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice: a model linking hyperlipidemia and renal disease. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:651-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Introducing deficiency of inhibitor of differentiation 3 (Id3) in ApoE(-/-) mice further exacerbates atherosclerosis...
  16. Kramer J, Holodick N, Vizconde T, Raman I, Yan M, Li Q, et al. Analysis of IgM antibody production and repertoire in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. J Leukoc Biol. 2016;99:321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..from the spleen, cervical lymph nodes, and submandibular glands of a primary Sjögren's syndrome mouse model (Id3(-/-)). Enzyme-linked immunospot and proliferation assays were performed with stimulated B cells...
  17. Iwasaki K, Hayashi K, Fujioka T, Sobue K. Rho/Rho-associated kinase signal regulates myogenic differentiation via myocardin-related transcription factor-A/Smad-dependent transcription of the Id3 gene. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21230-41 pubmed publisher increase in MRTF-A, which forms a complex with Smad1/4, strikingly activates the expression level of the Id3 gene; the Id3 gene product is a potent inhibitor of myogenic differentiation...
  18. Israel M, Hernandez M, Florio M, Andres Barquin P, Mantani A, Carter J, et al. Id gene expression as a key mediator of tumor cell biology. Cancer Res. 1999;59:1726s-1730s pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that not only the inappropriate proliferation of tumors but also the anaplastic characteristics that contribute to their malignant behavior may be regulated by Id gene expression. ..
  19. Stafford D, Dichmann D, Chang J, Harland R. Deletion of the sclerotome-enriched lncRNA PEAT augments ribosomal protein expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:101-106 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-seq on PEAT mutant embryos showed that loss of PEAT modestly increases bone morphogenetic protein target gene expression and also elevates the expression of a large subset of ribosomal protein mRNAs. ..
  20. Larabee S, Coia H, Jones S, Cheung E, Gallicano G. miRNA-17 members that target Bmpr2 influence signaling mechanisms important for embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro and gastrulation in embryos. Stem Cells Dev. 2015;24:354-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This suppression influences fate decisions of cells by affecting genes downstream of BMPR2 as well as mesoderm invasion through regulation of actin dynamics. ..
  21. Cutchins A, Harmon D, Kirby J, Doran A, Oldham S, Skaflen M, et al. Inhibitor of differentiation-3 mediates high fat diet-induced visceral fat expansion. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:317-24 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitor of differentiation-3 (Id3) has been implicated in promoting angiogenesis, a key determinant of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced visceral adiposity...
  22. Ellmeier W, Aguzzi A, Kleiner E, Kurzbauer R, Weith A. Mutually exclusive expression of a helix-loop-helix gene and N-myc in human neuroblastomas and in normal development. EMBO J. 1992;11:2563-71 pubmed
    ..2-p36.12. Its predicted protein is 95.8% identical to the mouse HLH462 protein and has clear homology to the mouse Id and Drosophila emc proteins...
  23. Yeung S, Yip H. Developmental expression patterns and localization of DNA-binding protein inhibitor (Id3) in the mouse retina. Neuroreport. 2005;16:673-6 pubmed
    b>Id3 (inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation), a member of the Id helix-loop-helix protein family, has long been studied as a positive regulator of proliferation and a negative regulator of differentiation...
  24. Herron B, Liddell R, Parker A, Grant S, Kinne J, Fisher J, et al. A mutation in stratifin is responsible for the repeated epilation (Er) phenotype in mice. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1210-2 pubmed
    ..Er/+ mice expressed a truncated Sfn protein, which probably contributes to the defects in Er/Er and Er/+ epidermis and to cancer development in Er/+ mice. ..
  25. Chen B, Lim R. Physical and functional interactions between the transcriptional inhibitors Id3 and ITF-2b. Evidence toward a novel mechanism regulating muscle-specific gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:2459-63 pubmed
    ..isoform of the ITF-2 transcription factor, ITF-2b, that interacts with the transcriptional inhibitor Id3/HLH462. The interaction was confirmed in vitro, and inside intact myogenic C2C12 cells...
  26. Zhang B, Dai M, Li Q, Zhuang Y. Tracking proliferative history in lymphocyte development with cre-mediated sister chromatid recombination. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003887 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been shown that numbers of V?1.1 T cells were dramatically increased in the lymphoid organs of Id3 deficient mice...
  27. Verykokakis M, Krishnamoorthy V, Iavarone A, Lasorella A, Sigvardsson M, Kee B. Essential functions for ID proteins at multiple checkpoints in invariant NKT cell development. J Immunol. 2013;191:5973-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrated that ID2 and ID3 redundantly promoted iNKT cell lineage specification involving the induction of the signature transcription factor ..
  28. Caronia G, Wilcoxon J, Feldman P, Grove E. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the developing telencephalon controls formation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and modifies fear-related behavior. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6291-301 pubmed publisher
  29. Miura S, Mishina Y. Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hgs) is involved in BMP signaling through phosphorylation of SMADS and TAK1 in early mouse embryo. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that HGS is critical to localize TAK1 to early endosome for transducing BMP signaling for proper development. Our data revealed a new mechanism to modify BMP signaling by Hgs during early mouse development. ..
  30. Zhang L, Shi S, Zhang J, Zhou F, Ten Dijke P. Wnt/?-catenin signaling changes C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by inducing Id3 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;419:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt3a induced Id3 expression in a ?-catenin-dependent manner. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) also potently induced Id3 expression...
  31. Mohamed J, Lopez M, Cox G, Boriek A. Ankyrin repeat domain protein 2 and inhibitor of DNA binding 3 cooperatively inhibit myoblast differentiation by physical interaction. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24560-8 pubmed publisher
    ..that the primary myoblasts of mdm (muscular dystrophy with myositis) mice (pMB(mdm)) overexpress ANKRD2 and ID3 (inhibitor of DNA binding 3) proteins and are unable to differentiate into myotubes upon myogenic induction...
  32. Kusunoki T, Sugai M, Katakai T, Omatsu Y, Iyoda T, Inaba K, et al. TH2 dominance and defective development of a CD8+ dendritic cell subset in Id2-deficient mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:136-42 pubmed
    ..Id2 is an indispensable regulator of the TH1/TH2 balance, possibly through the proper development of CD8alpha+ DCs, and could be a novel target to treat allergic diseases. ..
  33. Hata K, Yoshimoto T, Mizuguchi J. CD40 ligand rescues inhibitor of differentiation 3-mediated G1 arrest induced by anti-IgM in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:2453-61 pubmed
    ..Following stimulation with anti-IgM, expression of Id3 was up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels; this up-regulation could be reversed by CD40L treatment...
  34. Garrett Engele C, Tasch M, Hwang H, Fero M, Perlmutter R, Clurman B, et al. A mechanism misregulating p27 in tumors discovered in a functional genomic screen. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e219 pubmed
    ..inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3) was isolated and validated as a transcriptional repressor of p27...
  35. Kee B. Id3 induces growth arrest and caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in B lymphocyte progenitors. J Immunol. 2005;175:4518-27 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that the E-protein antagonist Id3 induces apoptosis of both primary and transformed BLPs through a caspase-2-dependent mechanism that does not ..
  36. Doran A, Lipinski M, Oldham S, Garmey J, Campbell K, Skaflen M, et al. B-cell aortic homing and atheroprotection depend on Id3. Circ Res. 2012;110:e1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitor of differentiation-3 (Id3) is important for atheroprotection in mice and polymorphism in the human ID3 gene has been implicated as a ..
  37. Shaked Y, Henke E, Roodhart J, Mancuso P, Langenberg M, Colleoni M, et al. Rapid chemotherapy-induced acute endothelial progenitor cell mobilization: implications for antiangiogenic drugs as chemosensitizing agents. Cancer Cell. 2008;14:263-73 pubmed publisher
  38. Mahlios J, Zhuang Y. Contribution of IL-13 to early exocrinopathy in Id3-/- mice. Mol Immunol. 2011;49:227-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Id3-/- mice represent a model for T cell mediated primary Sjogren's syndrome (PSS)...
  39. Jones Mason M, Zhao X, Kappes D, Lasorella A, Iavarone A, Zhuang Y. E protein transcription factors are required for the development of CD4(+) lineage T cells. Immunity. 2012;36:348-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, deletion of the E protein inhibitors Id2 and Id3 allowed CD4(+) T cell development but blocked CD8(+) lineage development...
  40. Miyazaki M, Miyazaki K, Chen S, Chandra V, Wagatsuma K, Agata Y, et al. The E-Id protein axis modulates the activities of the PI3K-AKT-mTORC1-Hif1a and c-myc/p19Arf pathways to suppress innate variant TFH cell development, thymocyte expansion, and lymphomagenesis. Genes Dev. 2015;29:409-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Id2 and Id3 suppressed the development and expansion of innate variant follicular helper T (TFH) cells...
  41. Owens A, Subramanian V, Moorleghen J, Guo Z, McNamara C, Cassis L, et al. Angiotensin II induces a region-specific hyperplasia of the ascending aorta through regulation of inhibitor of differentiation 3. Circ Res. 2010;106:611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of mRNA and protein throughout the aorta revealed a much higher abundance of the inhibitor of differentiation 3 (Id3) in the ascending aorta compared to all other regions...
  42. Rauch K, Hils M, Lupar E, Minguet S, Sigvardsson M, Rottenberg M, et al. Id3 Maintains Foxp3 Expression in Regulatory T Cells by Controlling a Transcriptional Network of E47, Spi-B, and SOCS3. Cell Rep. 2016;17:2827-2836 pubmed publisher
    ..Under homeostatic conditions, Treg cells expressed high levels of the E47 antagonist Id3, thus restricting E47 activity and maintaining Foxp3 expression...
  43. Hasegawa T, Takeuchi A, Miyaishi O, Isobe K, de Crombrugghe B. Cloning and characterization of a transcription factor that binds to the proximal promoters of the two mouse type I collagen genes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:4915-23 pubmed
    ..We speculate that BFCOL1 participates in the transcriptional control of the two type I collagen genes. ..
  44. Perry H, Oldham S, Fahl S, Que X, Gonen A, Harmon D, et al. Helix-loop-helix factor inhibitor of differentiation 3 regulates interleukin-5 expression and B-1a B cell proliferation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that Apoe(-/-) mice globally deficient in the helix-loop-helix protein inhibitor of differentiation 3 (Id3) develop early diet-induced atherosclerosis...
  45. Thal M, Carvalho T, He T, Kim H, Gao H, Hagman J, et al. Ebf1-mediated down-regulation of Id2 and Id3 is essential for specification of the B cell lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cells fails to activate Ebf1, but rather leads to a dramatic induction of the E2A inhibitory factors, Id2 and Id3. In contrast, enforced expression of Ebf1 in IL-7Ralpha(-/-) bone marrow potently down-regulates Id2 and Id3 mRNA ..
  46. Nackiewicz D, Dey P, Szczerba B, Mohammad S, Kaplan J, McNamara C, et al. Inhibitor of differentiation 3, a transcription factor, regulates hyperlipidemia-associated kidney disease. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2014;126:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously reported a role for inhibitor of differentiation 3 (ID3), a transcription factor, in regulating kidney disease in hyperlipidemia...
  47. Wu B, Wang Y, Lui W, Langworthy M, Tompkins K, Hatzopoulos A, et al. Nfatc1 coordinates valve endocardial cell lineage development required for heart valve formation. Circ Res. 2011;109:183-92 pubmed publisher
  48. Brinkmeier M, Davis S, Carninci P, MacDonald J, Kawai J, Ghosh D, et al. Discovery of transcriptional regulators and signaling pathways in the developing pituitary gland by bioinformatic and genomic approaches. Genomics. 2009;93:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are exciting candidates for regulators of pituitary development and function. ..
  49. Gloury R, Zotos D, Zuidscherwoude M, Masson F, Liao Y, Hasbold J, et al. Dynamic changes in Id3 and E-protein activity orchestrate germinal center and plasma cell development. J Exp Med. 2016;213:1095-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we reveal a new layer of complexity by demonstrating that dynamic changes in Id3 and E-protein activity govern both GC and plasma cell differentiation...
  50. Konishi H, Ogawa T, Nakagomi S, Inoue K, Tohyama M, Kiyama H. Id1, Id2 and Id3 are induced in rat melanotrophs of the pituitary gland by dopamine suppression under continuous stress. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR, Western blotting and in situ hybridization confirmed the significant inductions of Id1, Id2 and Id3 in the IL of CS rats...
  51. Nakatsukasa H, Zhang D, Maruyama T, Chen H, Cui K, Ishikawa M, et al. The DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulates IL-9 production in CD4(+) T cells. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:1077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We found here that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulated TH9 differentiation, as deletion of Id3 increased IL-9 production from CD4(+) T cells...
  52. Lasorella A, Benezra R, Iavarone A. The ID proteins: master regulators of cancer stem cells and tumour aggressiveness. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:77-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of ID proteins to function as central 'hubs' for the coordination of multiple cancer hallmarks has established these transcriptional regulators as therapeutic targets and biomarkers in specific types of human tumours. ..
  53. Zhao Q, Chang C, Gonzalez J, Alzahrani K, Button J, Fraidenraich D. Combined Id1 and Id3 Deletion Leads to Severe Erythropoietic Disturbances. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154480 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a model to test this compensation in the adult. We report that global Id3 ablation with Tie2Cre-mediated conditional ablation of Id1 in both hematopoietic and endothelial cells (Id cDKO) ..
  54. Park K, He X, Lee H, Hua X, Li Y, WIEST D, et al. TCR-mediated ThPOK induction promotes development of mature (CD24-) gammadelta thymocytes. EMBO J. 2010;29:2329-41 pubmed publisher
  55. Bohrer C, Pfurr S, Mammadzada K, Schildge S, Plappert L, Hils M, et al. The balance of Id3 and E47 determines neural stem/precursor cell differentiation into astrocytes. EMBO J. 2015;34:2804-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that genetic depletion of the transcriptional regulator Id3 decreased the number of astrocytes generated from SVZ-derived adult NSPCs in the cortical lesion area after ..
  56. Forni P, Bharti K, Flannery E, Shimogori T, Wray S. The indirect role of fibroblast growth factor-8 in defining neurogenic niches of the olfactory/GnRH systems. J Neurosci. 2013;33:19620-34 pubmed publisher
  57. Li Y, Gordon J, Manley N, Litingtung Y, Chiang C. Bmp4 is required for tracheal formation: a novel mouse model for tracheal agenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;322:145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding sheds light on human tracheal malformations by providing a novel mouse model implicating Bmp signaling, non-canonical Erk activation and cellular proliferation. ..
  58. Ji Y, Pos Z, Rao M, Klebanoff C, Yu Z, Sukumar M, et al. Repression of the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 by Blimp-1 limits the formation of memory CD8+ T cells. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:1230-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Blimp-1 bound to and repressed the promoter of the gene encoding the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 in SLECs...
  59. Benezra R, Rafii S, Lyden D. The Id proteins and angiogenesis. Oncogene. 2001;20:8334-41 pubmed
    ..This section of the review issue will focus on the key observations which have led to these conclusions, speculations about potential mechanisms and the outlook for potential therapeutic interventions. ..
  60. de Candia P, Benera R, Solit D. A role for Id proteins in mammary gland physiology and tumorigenesis. Adv Cancer Res. 2004;92:81-94 pubmed
    ..By binding to basic HLH transcription factors, Id proteins regulate gene expression. Id1 and Id3 have extensive sequence homology and similar patterns of expression during embryogenesis and in adult tissues...
  61. Ko M, Ahn J, Lee C, Chung H, Jeon S, Chung H, et al. E2A/HEB and Id3 proteins control the sensitivity to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in thymocytes by regulating the SRG3 expression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21916-23 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown that T cell receptor (TCR) signals rapidly induce Id3, a dominant negative antagonist of E2A activity and allow thymocytes to survive selection events in the thymus...
  62. Peddada S, Yasui D, LaSalle J. Inhibitors of differentiation (ID1, ID2, ID3 and ID4) genes are neuronal targets of MeCP2 that are elevated in Rett syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2003-14 pubmed
    ..identified all four known members of the inhibitors of differentiation or inhibitors of DNA-binding (ID1, ID2, ID3 and ID4) subfamily of helix-loop-helix genes as novel neuronal targets of MeCP2...
  63. Lee J, Kim K, Kim J, Jin H, Choi H, Lee S, et al. Id helix-loop-helix proteins negatively regulate TRANCE-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Blood. 2006;107:2686-93 pubmed
    ..Expression levels of Id1, Id2, and Id3 genes are significantly reduced by TRANCE during osteoclastogenesis...
  64. Melnikova I, Christy B. Muscle cell differentiation is inhibited by the helix-loop-helix protein Id3. Cell Growth Differ. 1996;7:1067-79 pubmed
    Id3 (originally named HLH462) belongs to the Id family of the helix-loop-helix transcription factors...
  65. Zheng K, Li H, Zhu Y, Zhu Q, Qiu M. MicroRNAs are essential for the developmental switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the early patterning and development of motor neurons were not affected in the mutant spinal cord tissue. ..
  66. Davis S, Camper S. Noggin regulates Bmp4 activity during pituitary induction. Dev Biol. 2007;305:145-60 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates the importance of attenuating the activity of Bmp signaling during pituitary induction in order to maintain the proper balance of signaling factors necessary for pituitary organogenesis. ..
  67. Moskowitz I, Kim J, Moore M, Wolf C, Peterson M, Shendure J, et al. A molecular pathway including Id2, Tbx5, and Nkx2-5 required for cardiac conduction system development. Cell. 2007;129:1365-76 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a molecular pathway including Tbx5, Nkx2-5, and Id2 coordinates specification of ventricular myocytes into the ventricular conduction system lineage. ..
  68. Doran A, Lehtinen A, Meller N, Lipinski M, Slayton R, Oldham S, et al. Id3 is a novel atheroprotective factor containing a functionally significant single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with intima-media thickness in humans. Circ Res. 2010;106:1303-11 pubmed publisher
    The gene encoding the helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id3 (inhibitor of differentiation-3) is located within atherosclerosis susceptibility loci of both mice and humans, yet its influence on atherosclerosis is not known...
  69. Ho C, Bernard D. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 acts via inhibitor of DNA binding proteins to synergistically regulate follicle-stimulating hormone beta transcription with activin A. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..largely confirmed the results of the array analyses, and inhibitors of DNA binding 1, 2, and 3 (Id1, Id2, and Id3) were selected for functional analyses...
  70. Cappellari O, Benedetti S, Innocenzi A, Tedesco F, Moreno Fortuny A, Ugarte G, et al. Dll4 and PDGF-BB convert committed skeletal myoblasts to pericytes without erasing their myogenic memory. Dev Cell. 2013;24:586-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Even if overexpressed, Myf5 does not trigger myogenesis because Notch induces Id3, partially sequestering Myf5 and inhibiting MEF2 expression...
  71. Doan L, Javier A, Furr N, Nguyen K, Cho K, Monuki E. A Bmp reporter with ultrasensitive characteristics reveals that high Bmp signaling is not required for cortical hem fate. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44009 pubmed publisher
  72. Kramer J, Klimatcheva E, Rothstein T. CXCL13 is elevated in Sjögren's syndrome in mice and humans and is implicated in disease pathogenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;94:1079-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CXCL13 may be pathogenically involved in SS and may serve as a new marker and a potential therapeutic target. ..
  73. Glasgow S, Zhu W, Stolt C, Huang T, Chen F, LoTurco J, et al. Mutual antagonism between Sox10 and NFIA regulates diversification of glial lineages and glioma subtypes. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1322-9 pubmed publisher
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    ..Remarkably, in the absence of Foxg1, additional inactivation of the medial fates promoter Emx2, although not suppressing cortical specification, conversely rescues overproduction of Reelin(on) neurons. ..
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    ..established an animal model for radiodermatitis, and found that X-ray irradiation induced the expression of ID3 in hairless mouse skin by cDNA microarray...
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    ..Thus, these results suggest a molecular mechanism whereby attenuated Notch levels coupled with reduced proneurogenic activity in progenitors leads to increased gliogenesis and decreased neurogenesis in the Ascl1-deficient retina. ..
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    ..the transcription factors Bcl6, E2A and TCF-1 but was inhibited by the transcriptional regulators Blimp1, Id2 and Id3. Blimp1 and E2A directly regulated Cxcr5 expression and, together with Bcl6 and TCF-1, formed a transcriptional ..
  78. Maeda Y, Tsuji K, Nifuji A, Noda M. Inhibitory helix-loop-helix transcription factors Id1/Id3 promote bone formation in vivo. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:337-44 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, examined the role of Id1 and Id3 in the regulation of bone metabolism in vivo...
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    ..Reducing the levels of other Id family members (Id1 and Id3) in Gfi-1(-/-) mice did not rescue impaired HPC function or erythropoiesis...
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    ..Notably, we observed that PC3/Tis21 can associate to the promoter of Id3, an inhibitor of proneural gene activity, and negatively regulates its expression, indicating that PC3/Tis21 acts ..
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    ..saliva in three genes predicted depression in a cohort of maltreated children: DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-3 (ID3), Glutamate NMDA Receptor (GRIN1), and Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP)...
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    ..In this study, we show that Id1, Id2, and Id3 increase self-renewing and proliferation potential of cortical neural stem cells (NSCs) while inhibiting neuronal ..
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    ..The antiadipogenic effect of RFamide neuropeptides was linked with the overexpression of Id3 gene and the inhibition by NPAF remained after neuropeptide removal and further incubation of 3T3 cells with ..
  84. Alejandre Alcazar M, Shalamanov P, Amarie O, Sevilla Pérez J, Seeger W, Eickelberg O, et al. Temporal and spatial regulation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in late lung development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2825-35 pubmed
    ..BMP signaling, assessed by Smad1/5 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and induction of id1, id2, and id3 gene expression, was evident throughout late lung development...