Gene Symbol: Id2
Description: inhibitor of DNA binding 2
Alias: AI255428, C78922, Idb2, bHLHb26, DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-2, inhibitor of differentiation 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Id2

Top Publications

  1. Jen Y, Manova K, Benezra R. Each member of the Id gene family exhibits a unique expression pattern in mouse gastrulation and neurogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:92-106 pubmed
    ..5 dpc onward, whereas Id2 is expressed in tissues derived from trophoblasts. Id4 expression is absent during this period of development...
  2. Bogunovic M, Ginhoux F, Helft J, Shang L, Hashimoto D, Greter M, et al. Origin of the lamina propria dendritic cell network. Immunity. 2009;31:513-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the lamina propria DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DCs as key sentinels of the gut immune system. ..
  3. Fukuyama S, Hiroi T, Yokota Y, Rennert P, Yanagita M, Kinoshita N, et al. Initiation of NALT organogenesis is independent of the IL-7R, LTbetaR, and NIK signaling pathways but requires the Id2 gene and CD3(-)CD4(+)CD45(+) cells. Immunity. 2002;17:31-40 pubmed
    ..NALT as well as PP and PLN are completely absent in Id2(-/-) mice...
  4. Sun X, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Baltimore D. Id proteins Id1 and Id2 selectively inhibit DNA binding by one class of helix-loop-helix proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:5603-11 pubmed
    ..We have isolated and characterized the gene and cDNA clones for a new Id protein, designated Id2. The Id2 protein contains a helix-loop-helix motif similar to that of the previously described Id protein (referred ..
  5. Duffield G, Watson N, Mantani A, Peirson S, Robles Murguia M, Loros J, et al. A role for Id2 in regulating photic entrainment of the mammalian circadian system. Curr Biol. 2009;19:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Id2 was identified in DNA microarray screens for rhythmically expressed genes [3-5], and further analysis revealed a ..
  6. Jones Mason M, Zhao X, Kappes D, Lasorella A, Iavarone A, Zhuang Y. E protein transcription factors are required for the development of CD4(+) lineage T cells. Immunity. 2012;36:348-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, deletion of the E protein inhibitors Id2 and Id3 allowed CD4(+) T cell development but blocked CD8(+) lineage development...
  7. Gonda H, Sugai M, Nambu Y, Katakai T, Agata Y, Mori K, et al. The balance between Pax5 and Id2 activities is the key to AID gene expression. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1427-37 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the DNA-binding activity of Pax5 is decreased in Id2-overexpressing B cells and enhanced in Id2(-/-) B cells...
  8. Sugai M, Gonda H, Kusunoki T, Katakai T, Yokota Y, Shimizu A. Essential role of Id2 in negative regulation of IgE class switching. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:25-30 pubmed
    ..B cells lacking Id2 have increased E2A activity, which leads to specific enhancement of germline transcription of the immunoglobulin ..
  9. Wang S, Sdrulla A, Johnson J, Yokota Y, Barres B. A role for the helix-loop-helix protein Id2 in the control of oligodendrocyte development. Neuron. 2001;29:603-14 pubmed
    ..We show here that oligodendrocyte lineage cells express the helix-loop-helix proteins Mash1 and Id2. Although Mash1 has been found to regulate neuronal development, we found that in the absence of Mash1 ..

More Information


  1. Havrda M, Harris B, Mantani A, Ward N, Paolella B, Cuzon V, et al. Id2 is required for specification of dopaminergic neurons during adult olfactory neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14074-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We have characterized the process of olfactory neurogenesis in adult mice lacking inhibitor of DNA binding 2(-/-) (Id2(-/-))...
  2. Moro K, Yamada T, Tanabe M, Takeuchi T, Ikawa T, Kawamoto H, et al. Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells. Nature. 2010;463:540-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are T(H)2-type innate lymphocytes, and we propose that these cells be called 'natural helper cells'. ..
  3. Tachibana M, Tenno M, Tezuka C, Sugiyama M, Yoshida H, Taniuchi I. Runx1/Cbf?2 complexes are required for lymphoid tissue inducer cell differentiation at two developmental stages. J Immunol. 2011;186:1450-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Two transcription factors, the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2 and the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor ?t (Ror?t), have been shown to be crucial for LTi cell development...
  4. Yokota Y, Mansouri A, Mori S, Sugawara S, Adachi S, Nishikawa S, et al. Development of peripheral lymphoid organs and natural killer cells depends on the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2. Nature. 1999;397:702-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Id2 is indispensable for normal development of mice. Id2-/- mice lack lymph nodes and Peyer's patches...
  5. Eberl G, Marmon S, Sunshine M, Rennert P, Choi Y, Littman D. An essential function for the nuclear receptor RORgamma(t) in the generation of fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:64-73 pubmed
    ..This early LTi cell-mediated activation of lymph node and Peyer's patch mesenchyma forms the necessary platform for the subsequent development of mature lymphoid tissues. ..
  6. Hou T, Ward S, Murad J, Watson N, Israel M, Duffield G. ID2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2) is a rhythmically expressed transcriptional repressor required for circadian clock output in mouse liver. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31735-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Id2 is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene expressed in a circadian manner in multiple tissues with a phase-locked relationship with canonical clock genes...
  7. Monticelli L, Yang Y, Knell J, D Cruz L, Cannarile M, Engel I, et al. Transcriptional regulator Id2 controls survival of hepatic NKT cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19461-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the absence of the transcriptional regulator Id2 resulted in a severe, intrinsic defect in the accumulation of hepatic iNKT cells...
  8. Cannarile M, Lind N, Rivera R, Sheridan A, Camfield K, Wu B, et al. Transcriptional regulator Id2 mediates CD8+ T cell immunity. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:1317-25 pubmed
    ..Here we show that inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), an antagonist of E protein transcription factors, was upregulated in CD8(+) T cells during infection and that ..
  9. Boos M, Yokota Y, Eberl G, Kee B. Mature natural killer cell and lymphoid tissue-inducing cell development requires Id2-mediated suppression of E protein activity. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1119-30 pubmed
    The Id2 transcriptional repressor is essential for development of natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue-inducing (LTi) cells, and secondary lymphoid tissues...
  10. Samanta J, Kessler J. Interactions between ID and OLIG proteins mediate the inhibitory effects of BMP4 on oligodendroglial differentiation. Development. 2004;131:4131-42 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of Id4 or Id2 but not Id1 or Id3 in cultured progenitor cells reproduced both the inhibitory effects of BMP4 treatment on OL ..
  11. Eberl G, Littman D. Thymic origin of intestinal alphabeta T cells revealed by fate mapping of RORgammat+ cells. Science. 2004;305:248-51 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that intestinal RORgammat+ cells are local organizers of mucosal lymphoid tissue. ..
  12. Kim J, Takeuchi M, Yokota Y. Impairment of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in Id2 deficient mice. Gut. 2004;53:480-6 pubmed
    b>Id2, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, regulates cell differentiation. Id2-/- mice exhibit a variety of phenotypes in the immune system...
  13. Park K, Waki H, Villanueva C, Monticelli L, Hong C, Kang S, et al. Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 is a small molecule-inducible modulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression and adipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitor of DNA biding 2 (Id2) was identified as a gene rapidly induced by harmine but not by PPARgamma agonists...
  14. Becker Herman S, Lantner F, Shachar I. Id2 negatively regulates B cell differentiation in the spleen. J Immunol. 2002;168:5507-13 pubmed
    ..b>Id2 is a helix-loop-helix protein that lacks a DNA-binding region; and therefore, inhibits basic helix-loop-helix ..
  15. Ward S, Fernando S, Hou T, Duffield G. The transcriptional repressor ID2 can interact with the canonical clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 and mediate inhibitory effects on mPer1 expression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38987-9000 pubmed publisher
    b>ID2 is a rhythmically expressed HLH transcriptional repressor. Deletion of Id2 in mice results in circadian phenotypes, highlighted by disrupted locomotor activity rhythms and an enhanced photoentrainment response...
  16. Mori S, Inoshima K, Shima Y, Schmidt E, Yokota Y. Forced expression of cyclin D1 does not compensate for Id2 deficiency in the mammary gland. FEBS Lett. 2003;551:123-7 pubmed
    b>Id2 and cyclin D1 share several biological activities, including inhibition of differentiation, stimulation of the G1-S transition in the cell cycle and stimulation of tumorigenesis...
  17. Rangel Moreno J, Moyron Quiroz J, Carragher D, Kusser K, Hartson L, Moquin A, et al. Omental milky spots develop in the absence of lymphoid tissue-inducer cells and support B and T cell responses to peritoneal antigens. Immunity. 2009;30:731-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the milky spots of the omentum function as unique secondary lymphoid organs that promote immunity to peritoneal antigens...
  18. Satoh Takayama N, Lesjean Pottier S, Vieira P, Sawa S, Eberl G, Vosshenrich C, et al. IL-7 and IL-15 independently program the differentiation of intestinal CD3-NKp46+ cell subsets from Id2-dependent precursors. J Exp Med. 2010;207:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Gut CD3(-)NKp46(+) cells were related to LTi and NK cells in requiring the transcriptional inhibitor Id2 for normal development. Overexpression of IL-15 in intestinal epithelial cells expanded NK1...
  19. Kusunoki T, Sugai M, Katakai T, Omatsu Y, Iyoda T, Inaba K, et al. TH2 dominance and defective development of a CD8+ dendritic cell subset in Id2-deficient mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:136-42 pubmed
    ..We sought to characterize the immunologic status of mice lacking Id2, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors...
  20. Gokhan S, Marin Husstege M, Yung S, Fontanez D, Casaccia Bonnefil P, Mehler M. Combinatorial profiles of oligodendrocyte-selective classes of transcriptional regulators differentially modulate myelin basic protein gene expression. J Neurosci. 2005;25:8311-21 pubmed
    ..e., Olig1 and Olig2, Mash1), associated inhibitory HLH (i.e., Id2 and Id4), high-mobility group domain (i.e., Sox10), and homeodomain (i.e., Nkx2...
  21. Lasorella A, Noseda M, Beyna M, Yokota Y, Iavarone A. Id2 is a retinoblastoma protein target and mediates signalling by Myc oncoproteins. Nature. 2000;407:592-8 pubmed
    In mammalian cells, Id proteins coordinate proliferation and differentiation. Id2 is a dominant-negative antagonist of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and proteins of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family...
  22. Rawlins E, Clark C, Xue Y, Hogan B. The Id2+ distal tip lung epithelium contains individual multipotent embryonic progenitor cells. Development. 2009;136:3741-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we used an Id2-CreER(T2) knock-in mouse strain to lineage trace the distal epithelial tip cells during either the pseudoglandular ..
  23. Jackson J, Hu Y, Liu R, Masson F, D Amico A, Carotta S, et al. Id2 expression delineates differential checkpoints in the genetic program of CD8?+ and CD103+ dendritic cell lineages. EMBO J. 2011;30:2690-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Dendritic cells (DCs) have critical roles in the induction of the adaptive immune response. The transcription factors Id2, Batf3 and Irf-8 are required for many aspects of murine DC differentiation including development of CD8?(+) and ..
  24. Iavarone A, King E, Dai X, Leone G, Stanley E, Lasorella A. Retinoblastoma promotes definitive erythropoiesis by repressing Id2 in fetal liver macrophages. Nature. 2004;432:1040-5 pubmed
    ..Loss of Id2, a helix-loop-helix protein that mediates the lethality of Rb-deficient embryos, rescues the defects of Rb-..
  25. Karaya K, Mori S, Kimoto H, Shima Y, Tsuji Y, Kurooka H, et al. Regulation of Id2 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:1924-34 pubmed
    Mice deficient for Id2, a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, exhibit a defect in lactation due to impaired lobuloalveolar development during pregnancy, similar to the mice lacking the CCAAT ..
  26. Gascoyne D, Long E, Veiga Fernandes H, de Boer J, Williams O, Seddon B, et al. The basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 is essential for natural killer cell development. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..a cell-intrinsic manner 'downstream' of the interleukin 15 receptor (IL-15R) and through the transcription factor Id2. E4bp4(-/-) mice may provide a model for definitive analysis of the contribution of NK cells to immune responses ..
  27. Ikawa T, Fujimoto S, Kawamoto H, Katsura Y, Yokota Y. Commitment to natural killer cells requires the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:5164-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the progenitor activity of FT cells from Id2-/- mice that exhibit defective NK cell development...
  28. Yun K, Mantani A, Garel S, Rubenstein J, Israel M. Id4 regulates neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation in vivo. Development. 2004;131:5441-8 pubmed
    ..These observations, together with evidence for the premature differentiation of early cortical stem cells, indicate that Id4 has a unique and complex function in regulating neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. ..
  29. Ginhoux F, Liu K, Helft J, Bogunovic M, Greter M, Hashimoto D, et al. The origin and development of nonlymphoid tissue CD103+ DCs. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3115-30 pubmed publisher
    ..exclusively from pre-DCs under the control of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) ligand, inhibitor of DNA protein 2 (Id2), and IFN regulatory protein 8 (IRF8)...
  30. Mori S, Nishikawa S, Yokota Y. Lactation defect in mice lacking the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2. EMBO J. 2000;19:5772-81 pubmed
    ..Mammary glands of Id2(-/-) female mice reveal severely impaired lobulo-alveolar development during pregnancy...
  31. Hollnagel A, Oehlmann V, Heymer J, Ruther U, Nordheim A. Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19838-45 pubmed
    ..Besides Id3, also the Id1 and Id2 genes were activated by BMP4 in both ES cells and a range of different cell lines...
  32. Hacker C, Kirsch R, Ju X, Hieronymus T, Gust T, Kuhl C, et al. Transcriptional profiling identifies Id2 function in dendritic cell development. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:380-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we found that the helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id2 is up-regulated during DC development in vitro and crucial for the development of distinct DC subsets in vivo...
  33. Huang J, Vogel G, Yu Z, Almazan G, Richard S. Type II arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 regulates gene expression of inhibitors of differentiation/DNA binding Id2 and Id4 during glial cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..progenitor and C6 glioma cells expressed high levels of the inhibitors of differentiation/DNA binding, Id2 and Id4, known repressors of glial cell differentiation...
  34. Miro X, Zhou X, Boretius S, Michaelis T, Kubisch C, Alvarez Bolado G, et al. Haploinsufficiency of the murine polycomb gene Suz12 results in diverse malformations of the brain and neural tube. Dis Model Mech. 2009;2:412-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work strongly suggests that brain malformations such as CM can result from altered epigenetic regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation in the brain. ..
  35. Seré K, Baek J, Ober Blöbaum J, Muller Newen G, Tacke F, Yokota Y, et al. Two distinct types of Langerhans cells populate the skin during steady state and inflammation. Immunity. 2012;37:905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..from Gr-1(hi) monocytes under inflammatory conditions and occurred independently of the transcription factor Id2. Long-term LCs arose from bone marrow in steady state and were critically dependent on Id2...
  36. Klose C, Mahlakõiv T, Moeller J, Rankin L, Flamar A, Kabata H, et al. The neuropeptide neuromedin U stimulates innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation. Nature. 2017;549:282-286 pubmed publisher
  37. Armentano M, Chou S, Tomassy G, Leingartner A, O Leary D, Studer M. COUP-TFI regulates the balance of cortical patterning between frontal/motor and sensory areas. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1277-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that COUP-TFI is required for balancing patterning of neocortex into frontal/motor and sensory areas by acting in its expression domain to repress frontal/motor area identities and to specify sensory area identities. ..
  38. Torihashi S, Kuwahara M, Ogaeri T, Zhu P, Kurahashi M, Fujimoto T. Gut-like structures from mouse embryonic stem cells as an in vitro model for gut organogenesis preserving developmental potential after transplantation. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2618-26 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that Id2-expressing epithelium developed first, alpha-smooth muscle actin appeared around the periphery, and finally, the ..
  39. Matsumoto M. Role of TNF ligand and receptor family in the lymphoid organogenesis defined by gene targeting. J Med Invest. 1999;46:141-50 pubmed
  40. Itahana Y, Singh J, Sumida T, Coppe J, Parrinello S, Bennington J, et al. Role of Id-2 in the maintenance of a differentiated and noninvasive phenotype in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2003;63:7098-105 pubmed
  41. Mukhopadhyay P, Rezzoug F, Webb C, Pisano M, Greene R. Suppression of chondrogenesis by Id helix-loop-helix proteins in murine embryonic orofacial tissue. Differentiation. 2009;77:462-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression patterns of Id1, Id2, Id3 and Id4 were examined in developing murine orofacial tissue in vivo, as well as in murine embryonic maxillary ..
  42. Hayakawa Y, Ariyama H, Stancikova J, Sakitani K, Asfaha S, Renz B, et al. Mist1 Expressing Gastric Stem Cells Maintain the Normal and Neoplastic Gastric Epithelium and Are Supported by a Perivascular Stem Cell Niche. Cancer Cell. 2015;28:800-814 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting Cxcr4, ILCs, or Wnt5a inhibits diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis, providing targets within the neoplastic gastric stem cell niche. ..
  43. Kopecky B, Jahan I, Fritzsch B. Correct timing of proliferation and differentiation is necessary for normal inner ear development and auditory hair cell viability. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:132-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data indicate that Myc is an integral component of the evolutionary transformation process that resulted in the organ of Corti development. ..
  44. Ding B, Liu C, Huang Y, Yu J, Kong W, Lengyel P. p204 protein overcomes the inhibition of the differentiation of P19 murine embryonal carcinoma cells to beating cardiac myocytes by Id proteins. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14893-906 pubmed
    ..This was in consequence of the binding of Id1, Id2, or Id3 protein to the Gata4 and Nkx2...
  45. Wikenheiser Brokamp K. Retinoblastoma family proteins: insights gained through genetic manipulation of mice. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:767-80 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the phenotypic consequences of Rb family ablation in mice, and discusses how these findings contribute to the increasingly complex picture of Rb family function in development and tumor suppression. ..
  46. Ho C, Zhou X, Mishina Y, Bernard D. Mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) stimulated inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3) transcription. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;332:242-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we have defined a general mechanism whereby BMP2 regulates Id3/ID3 transcription in different cell types and in different species. ..
  47. Krüger M, Braun T. The neuronal basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NSCL-1 is dispensable for normal neuronal development. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:792-800 pubmed
    ..Our results argue against a simple functional redundancy within the NSCL gene family. ..
  48. Konishi H, Ogawa T, Nakagomi S, Inoue K, Tohyama M, Kiyama H. Id1, Id2 and Id3 are induced in rat melanotrophs of the pituitary gland by dopamine suppression under continuous stress. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR, Western blotting and in situ hybridization confirmed the significant inductions of Id1, Id2 and Id3 in the IL of CS rats...
  49. Nitta H, Ishikawa I. Analysis of the genetic control of antibody response to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by immunoblotting inbred strains of mice. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1993;8:141-5 pubmed
    ..This 65 kDa antigen was also highly reactive with some human sera from early-onset periodontitis patients. Further analysis of this antigen is required. ..
  50. Zheng Y, Zhang H, Wang Y, Li X, Lu P, Dong F, et al. Loss of Dnmt3b accelerates MLL-AF9 leukemia progression. Leukemia. 2016;30:2373-2384 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that Dnmt3b plays a tumor suppressive role in MLL-AF9 AML progression, thereby providing new insights into the roles of DNA methylation in leukemia development. ..
  51. Zhou J, Fan L, Li X, Calvet J, Li X. TNFα signaling regulates cystic epithelial cell proliferation through Akt/mTOR and ERK/MAPK/Cdk2 mediated Id2 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131043 pubmed publisher
    ..of the TNFα cytokine family, activated either the PI3K pathway, leading to AKT and mTOR mediated the increase of Id2 protein, or MAPK and Cdk2 to induce Id2 nuclear translocation...
  52. Muniz L, Pacer M, Lira S, Furtado G. A critical role for dendritic cells in the formation of lymphatic vessels within tertiary lymphoid structures. J Immunol. 2011;187:828-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a critical role for CD11c(+) DCs in the induction of lymphangiogenesis in tertiary lymphoid structures...
  53. Agapova O, Person E, Harbour J. Id2 deficiency promotes metastasis in a mouse model of ocular cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2010;27:91-6 pubmed publisher
    The inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) basic helix-loop-helix protein interacts genetically and physically with the pocket proteins (Rb, p107 and p130) and has been implicated as an oncogene...
  54. Russell R, Lasorella A, Dettin L, Iavarone A. Id2 drives differentiation and suppresses tumor formation in the intestinal epithelium. Cancer Res. 2004;64:7220-5 pubmed
    Oncogenic signals elevate expression of Id2 in multiple tumor types. When deregulated, Id2 inactivates the tumor suppressor proteins retinoblastoma, p107, and p130...
  55. Du Y, Yip H. The expression and roles of inhibitor of DNA binding helix-loop-helix proteins in the developing and adult mouse retina. Neuroscience. 2011;175:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the expression of the Id family may play an important role in regulating retinal progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. ..
  56. Itahana Y, Piens M, Fong S, Singh J, Sumida T, Desprez P. Expression of Id and ITF-2 genes in the mammary gland during pregnancy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:826-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore Id-1 and Id-2, but not the ubiquitous bHLH proteins, appear to represent the key factors whose expression is modulated during different stages of pregnancy in mouse mammary glands. ..
  57. Havrda M, Paolella B, Ward N, Holroyd K. Behavioral abnormalities and Parkinson's-like histological changes resulting from Id2 inactivation in mice. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:819-27 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Id2 is a transcription factor expressed in the developing central nervous system...
  58. Oliver C, Khaled W, Frend H, Nichols J, Watson C. The Stat6-regulated KRAB domain zinc finger protein Zfp157 regulates the balance of lineages in mammary glands and compensates for loss of Gata-3. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1086-97 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Gata-3⁺ lineage was associated with increased expression of the inhibitor of helix-loop-helix protein Id2. Surprisingly, Gata-3 becomes dispensable in the absence of Zfp157, as mice deficient for both Zfp157 and Gata-3 ..
  59. Trabosh V, Divito K, D Aguda B, Simbulan Rosenthal C, Rosenthal D. Sequestration of E12/E47 and suppression of p27KIP1 play a role in Id2-induced proliferation and tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1252-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Id2 is a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription regulators known to antagonize basic HLH transcription factors and proteins of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor family and is implicated in the regulation of ..
  60. Herriges M, Swarr D, Morley M, Rathi K, Peng T, Stewart K, et al. Long noncoding RNAs are spatially correlated with transcription factors and regulate lung development. Genes Dev. 2014;28:1363-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal that lncRNAs play an important role in foregut and lung endoderm development by regulating multiple aspects of gene transcription, often through regulation of transcription factor expression. ..
  61. D Cruz L, Stradner M, Yang C, Goldrath A. E and Id proteins influence invariant NKT cell sublineage differentiation and proliferation. J Immunol. 2014;192:2227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, expression of the negative regulators of E proteins, Id2 and Id3, defined distinct iNKT cell sublineages...
  62. Zhang B, Lin Y, Dai M, Zhuang Y. Id3 and Id2 act as a dual safety mechanism in regulating the development and population size of innate-like ?? T cells. J Immunol. 2014;192:1055-1063 pubmed publisher
    ..Using quantitative trait linkage analysis, we identified Id2, a homolog of Id3, to be the major modifier of Id3 in limiting V?1.1(+)V?6.3(+) T cell expansion. The V?1.1(+)V?6...
  63. Tokuriki A, Iyoda T, Inaba K, Ikuta K, Fujimoto S, Kumakiri M, et al. Dual role for Id2 in chemical carcinogen-induced skin tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1645-50 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) is a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and is involved in the control of cellular differentiation and proliferation...
  64. Miyashita Lin E, Hevner R, Wassarman K, Martinez S, Rubenstein J. Early neocortical regionalization in the absence of thalamic innervation. Science. 1999;285:906-9 pubmed
    ..This provides evidence that patterning mechanisms intrinsic to the neocortex specify the basic organization of its functional subdivisions. ..
  65. Harmelink C, Peng Y, Debenedittis P, Chen H, Shou W, Jiao K. Myocardial Mycn is essential for mouse ventricular wall morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2013;373:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..cardiomyocyte proliferation through regulating expression of cell cycle regulators (including CCND1, CCND2, and ID2) and promotes cardiomyocyte growth through regulating expression of p70S6K...
  66. Borges L, Iacovino M, Koyano Nakagawa N, Baik J, Garry D, Kyba M, et al. Expression levels of endoglin distinctively identify hematopoietic and endothelial progeny at different stages of yolk sac hematopoiesis. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1893-901 pubmed publisher
  67. Bulfone A, Wang F, Hevner R, Anderson S, Cutforth T, Chen S, et al. An olfactory sensory map develops in the absence of normal projection neurons or GABAergic interneurons. Neuron. 1998;21:1273-82 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the establishment of a topographic map is not dependent upon cues provided by, or synapse formation with, the major neuronal cell types in the olfactory bulb. ..
  68. Lim J, Kim W, Kim J, Park S. Induction of Id2 expression by cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5. J Cell Biochem. 2008;103:182-94 pubmed
    ..Here, we observed a marked induction of Id2 during cardiomyocyte differentiation from P19CL6 murine embryonic teratocarcinoma stem cells, prompting us to ..
  69. Stewart H, Zoidl G, Rossner M, Brennan A, Zoidl C, Nave K, et al. Helix-loop-helix proteins in Schwann cells: a study of regulation and subcellular localization of Ids, REB, and E12/47 during embryonic and postnatal development. J Neurosci Res. 1997;50:684-701 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that HLH transcription factors act as regulators of Schwann cell development and point to the existence of as yet unidentified cell type-specific bHLH proteins in these cells. ..
  70. Male V, Nisoli I, Kostrzewski T, Allan D, Carlyle J, Lord G, et al. The transcription factor E4bp4/Nfil3 controls commitment to the NK lineage and directly regulates Eomes and Id2 expression. J Exp Med. 2014;211:635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these were Eomes and Id2, which are expressed later in development than E4bp4...
  71. Manuel M, Georgala P, Carr C, Chanas S, Kleinjan D, Martynoga B, et al. Controlled overexpression of Pax6 in vivo negatively autoregulates the Pax6 locus, causing cell-autonomous defects of late cortical progenitor proliferation with little effect on cortical arealization. Development. 2007;134:545-55 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Pax6 levels are stabilized by autoregulation, that the proliferation of cortical progenitors is sensitive to altered Pax6 levels and that cortical arealization is not. ..
  72. Li X, Luo Y, Starremans P, McNamara C, Pei Y, Zhou J. Polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 regulate the cell cycle through the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1202-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the ADPKD protein polycystin-2 (PC2) regulates the cell cycle through direct interaction with Id2, a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein family that is known to regulate cell proliferation and ..
  73. Bishop K, Garel S, Nakagawa Y, Rubenstein J, O Leary D. Emx1 and Emx2 cooperate to regulate cortical size, lamination, neuronal differentiation, development of cortical efferents, and thalamocortical pathfinding. J Comp Neurol. 2003;457:345-60 pubmed
    ..The more severe phenotypes in Emx double mutants suggest that Emx1 and Emx2 cooperate to regulate multiple features of cortical development. ..
  74. Yu P, Zhang Y, Shields L, Zheng Y, Hu X, Hill R, et al. Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 promotes sensory axonal growth after SCI. Exp Neurol. 2011;231:38-44 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated whether neuronal inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), a regulator of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, can activate the intrinsic neuritogenetic mode of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in adult ..
  75. Yang L, Ma X, Lyone A, Zou J, Blackburn M, Pan J, et al. Proper expression of helix-loop-helix protein Id2 is important to chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Biochem J. 2009;419:635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Inverse-PCR analysis of this clone revealed that the retroviral DNA was inserted into the promoter region of mouse Id2 (inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 2) gene...