Gene Symbol: Id1
Description: inhibitor of DNA binding 1
Alias: AI323524, D2Wsu140e, Idb1, bHLHb24, DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-1, inhibitor of differentiation 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Id1

Top Publications

  1. Hernandez M, Andres Barquin P, Israel M. Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding a helix-loop-helix protein, mouse ID1B: tissue-specific expression of ID1A and ID1B genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1308:28-30 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the most carboxyl terminal predicted amino acid sequences of ID1 proteins reveals 100% identity for ID1A, but the predicted Id1B proteins of several species are different.
  2. Yan W, Young A, Soares V, Kelley R, Benezra R, Zhuang Y. High incidence of T-cell tumors in E2A-null mice and E2A/Id1 double-knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:7317-27 pubmed
    ..The DNA binding activities of E2A proteins are directly inhibited upon dimerization with the Id1 gene product...
  3. Kim D, Peng X, Sun X. Massive apoptosis of thymocytes in T-cell-deficient Id1 transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:8240-53 pubmed
    b>Id1 is an inhibitor of a group of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, collectively called E proteins, which includes E12, E47, E2-2, and HEB. We have generated transgenic mice in which Id1 is specifically expressed in T cells...
  4. Kaneko K, Li X, Zhang X, Lamberti J, Jamieson S, Thistlethwaite P. Endothelial expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1a is required for atrioventricular valve formation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85:2090-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that these processes are temporally linked to expression of the transcription factors Id1 and Id3. Endocardial cushion formation is dependent on cell-specific expression of Bmpr1a...
  5. Sun X. Constitutive expression of the Id1 gene impairs mouse B cell development. Cell. 1994;79:893-900 pubmed
    ..The Id proteins are inhibitors of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. In the B cell lineage, the Id1 and Id2 genes are expressed in pro-B cells and down-regulated during differentiation...
  6. Benezra R, Rafii S, Lyden D. The Id proteins and angiogenesis. Oncogene. 2001;20:8334-41 pubmed
    ..This section of the review issue will focus on the key observations which have led to these conclusions, speculations about potential mechanisms and the outlook for potential therapeutic interventions. ..
  7. Lee J, Kim K, Kim J, Jin H, Choi H, Lee S, et al. Id helix-loop-helix proteins negatively regulate TRANCE-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Blood. 2006;107:2686-93 pubmed
    ..Expression levels of Id1, Id2, and Id3 genes are significantly reduced by TRANCE during osteoclastogenesis...
  8. Nishiyama K, Takaji K, Kataoka K, Kurihara Y, Yoshimura M, Kato A, et al. Id1 gene transfer confers angiogenic property on fully differentiated endothelial cells and contributes to therapeutic angiogenesis. Circulation. 2005;112:2840-50 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated whether fully differentiated endothelial cells (ECs) modified with gene transfer of Id1, a helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in angiogenesis, have the potential to contribute to therapeutic ..
  9. Saisanit S, Sun X. Regulation of the pro-B-cell-specific enhancer of the Id1 gene involves the C/EBP family of proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:844-50 pubmed
    The Id1 protein acts as a negative regulator in early-B-cell differentiation by antagonizing the function of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors...

More Information


  1. Lasorella A, Benezra R, Iavarone A. The ID proteins: master regulators of cancer stem cells and tumour aggressiveness. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:77-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of ID proteins to function as central 'hubs' for the coordination of multiple cancer hallmarks has established these transcriptional regulators as therapeutic targets and biomarkers in specific types of human tumours. ..
  2. Benezra R, Davis R, Lockshon D, Turner D, Weintraub H. The protein Id: a negative regulator of helix-loop-helix DNA binding proteins. Cell. 1990;61:49-59 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that HLH proteins lacking a basic region may negatively regulate other HLH proteins through the formation of nonfunctional heterodimeric complexes. ..
  3. Leeanansaksiri W, Wang H, Gooya J, Renn K, Abshari M, Tsai S, et al. IL-3 induces inhibitor of DNA-binding protein-1 in hemopoietic progenitor cells and promotes myeloid cell development. J Immunol. 2005;174:7014-21 pubmed
    ..We found that the helix-loop-helix transcription factor inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1 (Id1) is not expressed in hemopoietic stem cells (HSC), but is increased in more committed myeloid progenitors...
  4. Maeda Y, Tsuji K, Nifuji A, Noda M. Inhibitory helix-loop-helix transcription factors Id1/Id3 promote bone formation in vivo. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:337-44 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, examined the role of Id1 and Id3 in the regulation of bone metabolism in vivo...
  5. Nam H, Benezra R. High levels of Id1 expression define B1 type adult neural stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5:515-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that high expression of Id1, a dominant-negative helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator, identifies a rare population of GFAP(+) astrocytes ..
  6. Barrett L, Granot Z, Coker C, Iavarone A, Hambardzumyan D, Holland E, et al. Self-renewal does not predict tumor growth potential in mouse models of high-grade glioma. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:11-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Using PDGF- and KRAS-driven murine models of gliomagenesis, we show that high Id1 expression (Id1(high)) identifies tumor cells with high self-renewal capacity, while low Id1 expression (Id1(low)) ..
  7. Ruzinova M, Schoer R, Gerald W, Egan J, Pandolfi P, Rafii S, et al. Effect of angiogenesis inhibition by Id loss and the contribution of bone-marrow-derived endothelial cells in spontaneous murine tumors. Cancer Cell. 2003;4:277-89 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that loss of Id1 in tumor endothelial cells results in downregulation of several proangiogenic genes, including alpha6 and beta4 ..
  8. Wang H, Perry S, Sun X. Id1 attenuates Notch signaling and impairs T-cell commitment by elevating Deltex1 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4640-52 pubmed publisher
    Complete inhibition of E protein transcription factors by Id1 blocks the developmental transition of CD4/CD8 double-negative 1 (DN1; CD44(+) CD25(-)) thymocytes to the DN2 (CD44(+) CD25(+)) stage...
  9. Suh H, Ji M, Gooya J, Lee M, Klarmann K, Keller J. Cell-nonautonomous function of Id1 in the hematopoietic progenitor cell niche. Blood. 2009;114:1186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that hematopoiesis was dysregulated in Id1(-/-) mice...
  10. Nishiyama K, Takaji K, Uchijima Y, Kurihara Y, Asano T, Yoshimura M, et al. Protein kinase A-regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Id1 during angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17200-9 pubmed
    b>Id1, an inhibitory partner of basic-helix-loop-helix transcriptional factors, has recently been recognized as a potent contributor to angiogenesis...
  11. Cochrane S, Zhao Y, Welner R, Sun X. Balance between Id and E proteins regulates myeloid-versus-lymphoid lineage decisions. Blood. 2009;113:1016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Id1-GFP knockin mice, we show that transcription of the Id1 gene begins to be up-regulated at the granulocyte-..
  12. Sun X, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Baltimore D. Id proteins Id1 and Id2 selectively inhibit DNA binding by one class of helix-loop-helix proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:5603-11 pubmed
    ..contains a helix-loop-helix motif similar to that of the previously described Id protein (referred to here as Id1), but the two proteins are different elsewhere...
  13. Qi Z, Sun X. Hyperresponse to T-cell receptor signaling and apoptosis of Id1 transgenic thymocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7313-23 pubmed
    ..Expression of their inhibitor, Id1, abolishes the function of both transcription factors in a dose-dependent manner...
  14. Romero Lanman E, Pavlovic S, Amlani B, Chin Y, Benezra R. Id1 maintains embryonic stem cell self-renewal by up-regulation of Nanog and repression of Brachyury expression. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:384-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Id1(-/-) ES cells have a defect in self-renewal and a propensity to differentiate...
  15. Jankovic V, Ciarrocchi A, Boccuni P, DeBlasio T, Benezra R, Nimer S. Id1 restrains myeloid commitment, maintaining the self-renewal capacity of hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1260-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Id1, a dominant-negative regulator of E protein transcription factors, maintains HSC self-renewal by preserving the ..
  16. Fraidenraich D, Stillwell E, Romero E, Wilkes D, Manova K, Basson C, et al. Rescue of cardiac defects in id knockout embryos by injection of embryonic stem cells. Science. 2004;306:247-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, ES cells have the potential to reverse congenital defects through Id-dependent local and long-range effects in a mammalian embryo. ..
  17. Lyden D, Young A, Zagzag D, Yan W, Gerald W, O REILLY R, et al. Id1 and Id3 are required for neurogenesis, angiogenesis and vascularization of tumour xenografts. Nature. 1999;401:670-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that targeted disruption of the dominant negative helix-loop-helix proteins Id1 and Id3 in mice results in premature withdrawal of neuroblasts from the cell cycle and expression of neural-..
  18. Riechmann V, van Crüchten I, Sablitzky F. The expression pattern of Id4, a novel dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein, is distinct from Id1, Id2 and Id3. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:749-55 pubmed
    ..Dominant negative (dn) HLH proteins (Id1, Id2, Id3 and emc) also contain the HLH-dimerization domain but lack the DNA-binding basic region...
  19. Yang Y, Liou H, Sun X. Id1 potentiates NF-kappaB activation upon T cell receptor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:34989-96 pubmed
    ..Expression of Id1, one of their inhibitors, severely impairs T cell development in transgenic mice...
  20. Zhang H, Lawson W, Polosukhin V, Pozzi A, Blackwell T, Litingtung Y, et al. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 promotes endothelial survival in a bleomycin model of lung injury in mice. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:1113-26 pubmed
    ..However, the specific role of Id1 in lung injury has not been investigated...
  21. Perry S, Zhao Y, Nie L, Cochrane S, Huang Z, Sun X. Id1, but not Id3, directs long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem-cell maintenance. Blood. 2007;110:2351-60 pubmed
    ..mouse model where the sequence for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted downstream of the Id1 promoter, we were able to track Id1 expression on an individual cell basis and detected Id1 expression in long-term ..
  22. Connerney J, Andreeva V, Leshem Y, Muentener C, Mercado M, Spicer D. Twist1 dimer selection regulates cranial suture patterning and fusion. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1345-57 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the expression patterns of Twist1 and Id1 within the cranial sutures, we hypothesized that Twist1 forms homodimers in the osteogenic fronts and T/E ..
  23. Satyanarayana A, Klarmann K, Gavrilova O, Keller J. Ablation of the transcriptional regulator Id1 enhances energy expenditure, increases insulin sensitivity, and protects against age and diet induced insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis. FASEB J. 2012;26:309-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We screened mouse tissues for the expression of Id1 and found that Id1 protein is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), ..
  24. Tournay O, Benezra R. Transcription of the dominant-negative helix-loop-helix protein Id1 is regulated by a protein complex containing the immediate-early response gene Egr-1. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2418-30 pubmed
    The expression of Id1, a helix-loop-helix protein which inhibits the activity of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, is down-regulated during cellular differentiation and cell cycle withdrawal both in tissue culture models and ..
  25. Zhao Q, Beck A, Vitale J, Schneider J, Gao S, Chang C, et al. Developmental ablation of Id1 and Id3 genes in the vasculature leads to postnatal cardiac phenotypes. Dev Biol. 2011;349:53-64 pubmed publisher
    The Id1 and Id3 genes play major roles during cardiac development, despite their expression being confined to non-myocardial layers (endocardium-endothelium-epicardium)...
  26. Shaked Y, Ciarrocchi A, Franco M, Lee C, Man S, Cheung A, et al. Therapy-induced acute recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells to tumors. Science. 2006;313:1785-7 pubmed
    ..These findings also provide a mechanistic rationale for the enhanced efficacy of VDAs when combined with antiangiogenic drugs. ..
  27. Tanaka A, Itoh F, Nishiyama K, Takezawa T, Kurihara H, Itoh S, et al. Inhibition of endothelial cell activation by bHLH protein E2-2 and its impairment of angiogenesis. Blood. 2010;115:4138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we demonstrate that E2-2 interacts with Id1 and provide evidence that this interaction potentiates angiogenesis...
  28. Zhao Q, Chang C, Gonzalez J, Alzahrani K, Button J, Fraidenraich D. Combined Id1 and Id3 Deletion Leads to Severe Erythropoietic Disturbances. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154480 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that global Id3 ablation with Tie2Cre-mediated conditional ablation of Id1 in both hematopoietic and endothelial cells (Id cDKO) extends viability to 1 year but leads to multi-lineage ..
  29. Zhang N, Yantiss R, Nam H, Chin Y, Zhou X, Scherl E, et al. ID1 is a functional marker for intestinal stem and progenitor cells required for normal response to injury. Stem Cell Reports. 2014;3:716-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ID1 maintains the stem cell potential of embryonic, neural, and long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells...
  30. Moskowitz I, Kim J, Moore M, Wolf C, Peterson M, Shendure J, et al. A molecular pathway including Id2, Tbx5, and Nkx2-5 required for cardiac conduction system development. Cell. 2007;129:1365-76 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a molecular pathway including Tbx5, Nkx2-5, and Id2 coordinates specification of ventricular myocytes into the ventricular conduction system lineage. ..
  31. Levay A, Peacock J, Lu Y, Koch M, Hinton R, Kadler K, et al. Scleraxis is required for cell lineage differentiation and extracellular matrix remodeling during murine heart valve formation in vivo. Circ Res. 2008;103:948-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our studies have identified an in vivo requirement for scx during valvulogenesis and demonstrate its role in cell lineage differentiation and matrix distribution in remodeling valve structures. ..
  32. Gasco S, Rando A, Zaragoza P, García Redondo A, Calvo A, Osta R. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells as novel prognostic biomarkers of longevity in a murine model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;311:C910-C919 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results, both CLPs and CMPs could be considered prognostic biomarkers of longevity in this animal model, opening the door to future studies in human patients for their potential clinical use. ..
  33. Jen Y, Manova K, Benezra R. Expression patterns of Id1, Id2, and Id3 are highly related but distinct from that of Id4 during mouse embryogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:235-52 pubmed
    ..1994] Nucleic Acids Res. 22:749-755). Currently, there are four members in the dnHLH family, Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4...
  34. Kee Y, Bronner Fraser M. Temporally and spatially restricted expression of the helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator Id1 during avian embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2001;109:331-5 pubmed
    We isolated the chick orthologue of the Id1 helix-loop-helix gene and analyzed its expression pattern during early chick embryo development by whole-mount in situ hybridization...
  35. Sun R, Chen W, Zhao X, Li T, Song Q. Acheron regulates vascular endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis together with Id1 during wound healing. Cell Biochem Funct. 2011;29:636-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation showed that Acheron forms a ternary complex with ?1 integrin and Id1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells following stimulation with serious trauma serum...
  36. Liu H, Jia D, Li A, Chau J, He D, Ruan X, et al. p53 regulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation via BMP-Smad1 signaling and Id1. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:913-27 pubmed publisher
    ..via the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-Smad1 pathway and its target gene inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1)...
  37. Mass E, Ballesteros I, Farlik M, Halbritter F, Günther P, Crozet L, et al. Specification of tissue-resident macrophages during organogenesis. Science. 2016;353: pubmed publisher
  38. Yang Y, Wang H, Sun X. Id1 induces apoptosis through inhibition of RORgammat expression. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:20 pubmed publisher
    ..E protein functions can be repressed by their naturally occurring inhibitors, Id proteins (Id1-4). Transgenic expression of Id1 blocks T cell development and causes massive apoptosis of developing thymocytes...
  39. Akerfeldt M, Laybutt D. Inhibition of Id1 augments insulin secretion and protects against high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Diabetes. 2011;60:2506-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased expression of the helix-loop-helix protein Id1 has been found in islets of diabetic mice and in vitro models of ?-cell dysfunction...
  40. Williams S, Maecker H, French D, Liu J, Gregg A, Silverstein L, et al. USP1 deubiquitinates ID proteins to preserve a mesenchymal stem cell program in osteosarcoma. Cell. 2011;146:918-30 pubmed publisher
    ..USP1 bound, deubiquitinated, and thereby stabilized ID1, ID2, and ID3. A subset of primary human osteosarcomas coordinately overexpressed USP1 and ID proteins...
  41. Peng Y, Kang Q, Luo Q, Jiang W, Si W, Liu B, et al. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation helix-loop-helix proteins mediate bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32941-9 pubmed
  42. Ishimura A, Ng J, Taira M, Young S, Osada S. Man1, an inner nuclear membrane protein, regulates vascular remodeling by modulating transforming growth factor beta signaling. Development. 2006;133:3919-28 pubmed
    ..These results have revealed a novel role for Man1 in angiogenesis and provide the first evidence that vascular remodeling can be regulated at the INM through the interaction between Man1 and Smads. ..
  43. Weng H, Kim C, Valavanis C, Wang Z, Schwartz L. Acheron, an novel LA antigen family member, binds to CASK and forms a complex with Id transcription factors. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2009;14:273-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which Acheron may regulate development and pathology. ..
  44. Castañón E, Soltermann A, López I, Román M, Ecay M, Collantes M, et al. The inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1) enables lung cancer liver colonization through activation of an EMT program in tumor cells and establishment of the pre-metastatic niche. Cancer Lett. 2017;402:43-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Id1 promotes carcinogenesis and metastasis, and predicts prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-adenocarcionoma patients...
  45. Nigmatullina L, Norkin M, Dzama M, Messner B, Sayols S, Soshnikova N. Id2 controls specification of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cell progenitors during gut development. EMBO J. 2017;36:869-885 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, adult ISCs from Id2-deficient mice display a distinct transcriptional signature, supporting an essential role for Id2 in the correct specification of ISCs. ..
  46. Zhu Q, Kim Y, Wang D, Oh S, Luo K. SnoN facilitates ALK1-Smad1/5 signaling during embryonic angiogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:937-50 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Thus, SnoN is essential for TGF-?/BMP9-dependent biological processes by its ability to both positively and negatively modulate the activities of Smad-dependent pathways. ..
  47. Tan R, Lee Y, Chen X. Id-1 plays a key role in cell adhesion in neural stem cells through the preservation of RAP1 signaling. Cell Adh Migr. 2012;6:1-3 pubmed publisher
  48. Sakuma K, Nakao R, Aoi W, Inashima S, Fujikawa T, Hirata M, et al. Cyclosporin A treatment upregulates Id1 and Smad3 expression and delays skeletal muscle regeneration. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;110:269-80 pubmed
    ..In CsA-treated mice, the level of Id1 mRNA was elevated at day 9 relative to the placebo-treated mice...
  49. Chan A, Jensen K, Skokos D, Doty S, Lederman H, Kaplan R, et al. Id1 represses osteoclast-dependent transcription and affects bone formation and hematopoiesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7955 pubmed publisher
    ..An Id1(-/-) mouse model was used to assess the role of Id1 in the bone marrow microenvironment...
  50. Volpert O, Pili R, Sikder H, Nelius T, Zaichuk T, Morris C, et al. Id1 regulates angiogenesis through transcriptional repression of thrombospondin-1. Cancer Cell. 2002;2:473-83 pubmed
    ..In order to identify downstream effectors of Id1 involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, we performed PCR-select subtractive hybridization on wild-type and Id1 ..
  51. Bai G, Sheng N, Xie Z, Bian W, Yokota Y, Benezra R, et al. Id sustains Hes1 expression to inhibit precocious neurogenesis by releasing negative autoregulation of Hes1. Dev Cell. 2007;13:283-97 pubmed
    ..By contrast, Hes1 expression decreases, proneural gene expression expands, and neurogenesis occurs precociously in Id1;Id3 double knockout mice and in Id1-3 RNAi-electroporated chick embryos...
  52. Laxmanan S, Robertson S, Wang E, Lau J, Briscoe D, Mukhopadhyay D. Vascular endothelial growth factor impairs the functional ability of dendritic cells through Id pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:193-198 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, by using DCs derived from Id1(-/-) mice that are defective in Flt-1 signaling, we demonstrated that the inhibitory function of VEGF on DC ..
  53. Vinals F, Ventura F. Myogenin protein stability is decreased by BMP-2 through a mechanism implicating Id1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45766-72 pubmed
    ..Forced expression of Id1, either by transient transfection or under the control of an inducible system, causes degradation of myogenin in ..
  54. Lin L, Zhou Z, Zheng L, Alber S, Watkins S, Ray P, et al. Cross talk between Id1 and its interactive protein Dril1 mediate fibroblast responses to transforming growth factor-beta in pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..of disease progression, we investigated the role of the transcriptional regulator inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1) in the setting of lung fibrosis...
  55. Stewart H, Zoidl G, Rossner M, Brennan A, Zoidl C, Nave K, et al. Helix-loop-helix proteins in Schwann cells: a study of regulation and subcellular localization of Ids, REB, and E12/47 during embryonic and postnatal development. J Neurosci Res. 1997;50:684-701 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have analyzed the expression of the dominant negative HLH genes, Id1 to Id4 and the class A gene REB, during Schwann cell development...
  56. Desprez P, Lin C, Thomasset N, Sympson C, Bissell M, Campisi J. A novel pathway for mammary epithelial cell invasion induced by the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4577-88 pubmed
    ..This Id-1-regulated invasive phenotype could contribute to involution of the mammary gland and possibly to the development of invasive breast cancer. ..
  57. Hao F, Pysz M, Curry K, Haas K, Seedhouse S, Black A, et al. Protein kinase C? signaling regulates inhibitor of DNA binding 1 in the intestinal epithelium. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18104-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the Id1 transcriptional repressor has pro-proliferative and tumorigenic properties in this tissue...
  58. Sikder H, Huso D, Zhang H, Wang B, Ryu B, Hwang S, et al. Disruption of Id1 reveals major differences in angiogenesis between transplanted and autochthonous tumors. Cancer Cell. 2003;4:291-9 pubmed
    Id genes regulate tumor angiogenesis and loss of Id1 inhibits tumor xenograft growth in mice. Here we evaluate the role of Id1 in a more clinically relevant tumor model system using a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol...
  59. Aranha M, Sola S, Low W, Steer C, Rodrigues C. Caspases and p53 modulate FOXO3A/Id1 signaling during mouse neural stem cell differentiation. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:748-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Akt represses differentiation by up-regulating the inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1), through phosphorylation of its repressor FOXO3A...
  60. Davies O, Lin C, Radzisheuskaya A, Zhou X, Taube J, Blin G, et al. Tcf15 primes pluripotent cells for differentiation. Cell Rep. 2013;3:472-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that Tcf15 expression is dependent on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, providing an explanation for how FGF can prime for differentiation without driving cells out of the pluripotent state. ..
  61. Jen Y, Manova K, Benezra R. Each member of the Id gene family exhibits a unique expression pattern in mouse gastrulation and neurogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:92-106 pubmed situ hybridization analysis to examine the patterns of expression of all the members of the Id gene family (Id1-4) during murine gastrulation and neurogenesis...
  62. Nakatani M, Ito J, Koyama R, Iijima M, Yoshimoto N, Niimi T, et al. Scaffold protein enigma homolog 1 overcomes the repression of myogenesis activation by inhibitor of DNA binding 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;474:413-420 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that ENH1 interacted with Id2 in C2C12 cells and mice satellite cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ENH1 plays an important role in the activation of myogenesis through the repression of Id2 activity. ..
  63. Colasante G, Simonet J, Calogero R, Crispi S, Sessa A, Cho G, et al. ARX regulates cortical intermediate progenitor cell expansion and upper layer neuron formation through repression of Cdkn1c. Cereb Cortex. 2015;25:322-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified ARX as a direct regulator of Cdkn1c transcription. Together these data support a model where ARX regulates the expansion of cortical progenitor cells through repression of Cdkn1c. ..
  64. Plummer P, Freeman R, Taft R, Vider J, Sax M, Umer B, et al. MicroRNAs regulate tumor angiogenesis modulated by endothelial progenitor cells. Cancer Res. 2013;73:341-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, targeting miR-10b and miR-196b led to significant defects in angiogenesis-mediated tumor growth in mice. Targeting these miRNAs may constitute a novel strategy for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. ..
  65. Hollnagel A, Oehlmann V, Heymer J, Ruther U, Nordheim A. Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19838-45 pubmed
    ..Besides Id3, also the Id1 and Id2 genes were activated by BMP4 in both ES cells and a range of different cell lines...
  66. Du Y, Xiao Q, Yip H. Regulation of retinal progenitor cell differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein 4 is mediated by the smad/id cascade. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3764-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Results also revealed that BMPs and BMPRIb were co-localized with inhibitors of differentiation (Id) (mainly Id1 and -3) in RGCs in the adult mouse retina...
  67. Berse M, Bounpheng M, Huang X, Christy B, Pollmann C, Dubiel W. Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Id1 and Id3 is mediated by the COP9 signalosome. J Mol Biol. 2004;343:361-70 pubmed mammalian two-hybrid analysis that the transcriptional regulators and substrates of the ubiquitin system Id1 and Id3, but not Id2 and Id4, bind to the CSN subunit CSN5...
  68. Papaspyridonos M, Matei I, Huang Y, do Rosario Andre M, Brazier Mitouart H, Waite J, et al. Id1 suppresses anti-tumour immune responses and promotes tumour progression by impairing myeloid cell maturation. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6840 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that upregulation of the Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1), in response to tumour-derived factors, such as TGFβ, is responsible for the switch from ..
  69. Bensellam M, Montgomery M, Luzuriaga J, Chan J, Laybutt D. Inhibitor of differentiation proteins protect against oxidative stress by regulating the antioxidant-mitochondrial response in mouse beta cells. Diabetologia. 2015;58:758-70 pubmed publisher
    ..MIN6 cells were cultured in H2O2 or ribose to induce oxidative stress. ID1, ID3 and small MAF proteins (MAFF, MAFG and MAFK) were inhibited using small interfering RNA...
  70. Aloia L, Gutierrez A, Caballero J, Di Croce L. Direct interaction between Id1 and Zrf1 controls neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:63-70 pubmed publisher
    Id proteins are dominant-negative regulators within the HLH family of proteins. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Id1 and Id3 maintain the pluripotent state by preventing neural differentiation...
  71. Park E, Kim J, Primack B, Weinstock D, Moreau L, Parmar K, et al. Inactivation of Uaf1 causes defective homologous recombination and early embryonic lethality in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4360-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate the important regulatory role of the USP1-UAF1 complex in HR repair through its regulation of the FANCD2-Ub and PCNA-Ub cellular pools. ..
  72. William D, Saitta B, Gibson J, Traas J, Markov V, Gonzalez D, et al. Identification of oscillatory genes in somitogenesis from functional genomic analysis of a human mesenchymal stem cell model. Dev Biol. 2007;305:172-86 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that human and mouse in vitro models can recapitulate oscillatory expression observed in embryo and that a number of genes in multiple developmental pathways display dynamic expression in vitro. ..
  73. Ouchi Y, Baba Y, Koso H, Taketo M, Iwamoto T, Aburatani H, et al. ?-Catenin signaling regulates the timing of cell differentiation in mouse retinal progenitor cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:770-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, ?-catenin signaling regulates the timing of differentiation in RPCs by inhibiting premature differentiation of them partly through the regulation of Id3 expression. ..
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    b>Id1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inhibits the function of basic HLH E protein transcription factors in lymphoid cells, has been implicated in diet- and age-induced obesity by unknown mechanisms...
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