Icos

Summary

Gene Symbol: Icos
Description: inducible T cell co-stimulator
Alias: AILIM, CCLP, CRP-1, Ly115, inducible T-cell costimulator, CD28 and CTLA-4-like protein, CD28-related protein 1, activation-inducible lymphocyte immunomediatory molecule
Species: mouse
Products:     Icos

Top Publications

  1. Park H, Li Z, Yang X, Chang S, Nurieva R, Wang Y, et al. A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1133-41 pubmed
    ..This process required the costimulatory molecules CD28 and ICOS but was independent of the cytokines and transcription factors required for T helper type 1 or type 2 ..
  2. Tafuri A, Shahinian A, Bladt F, Yoshinaga S, Jordana M, Wakeham A, et al. ICOS is essential for effective T-helper-cell responses. Nature. 2001;409:105-9 pubmed
    ..b>ICOS, an inducible co-stimulator with homology to CD28, is expressed on activated, but not resting T cells, and shows T-..
  3. Arimura Y, Kato H, Dianzani U, Okamoto T, Kamekura S, Buonfiglio D, et al. A co-stimulatory molecule on activated T cells, H4/ICOS, delivers specific signals in T(h) cells and regulates their responses. Int Immunol. 2002;14:555-66 pubmed
    We examined the co-stimulatory activity of H4/ICOS on murine activated CD4(+) T cells and found that the cross-linking of H4/ICOS enhanced their proliferation, in addition to raising IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 production to levels ..
  4. Yoshinaga S, Whoriskey J, Khare S, Sarmiento U, Guo J, Horan T, et al. T-cell co-stimulation through B7RP-1 and ICOS. Nature. 1999;402:827-32 pubmed
    ..The receptor, which is related to CD28 and is the homologue of the human protein ICOS, is expressed on activated T cells and resting memory T cells...
  5. Mahajan S, Cervera A, Macleod M, Fillatreau S, Perona Wright G, Meek S, et al. The role of ICOS in the development of CD4 T cell help and the reactivation of memory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1796-808 pubmed
    We have addressed the role of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) in the development of T cell help for B cells and in the generation, survival and reactivation of memory CD4 T cells and B cells...
  6. Moore T, Clay B, Ferreira C, Williams J, Rogozinska M, Cannon J, et al. Protective effector memory CD4 T cells depend on ICOS for survival. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16529 pubmed publisher
    ..Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is highly expressed on memory CD4 T cells and has been shown to augment proliferation and survival of activated ..
  7. Chen Y, Shen S, Gorentla B, Gao J, Zhong X. Murine regulatory T cells contain hyperproliferative and death-prone subsets with differential ICOS expression. J Immunol. 2012;188:1698-707 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate further that the surviving and proliferative Treg are ICOS(+) whereas the death-prone Treg are ICOS(-)...
  8. Kopf M, Coyle A, Schmitz N, Barner M, Oxenius A, Gallimore A, et al. Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) controls T helper cell subset polarization after virus and parasite infection. J Exp Med. 2000;192:53-61 pubmed
    ..Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) is an inducible costimulator structurally and functionally related to CD28...
  9. McAdam A, Greenwald R, Levin M, Chernova T, Malenkovich N, Ling V, et al. ICOS is critical for CD40-mediated antibody class switching. Nature. 2001;409:102-5 pubmed
    The inducible co-stimulatory molecule (ICOS) is a CD28 homologue implicated in regulating T-cell differentiation...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Smith K, Brewer J, Webb P, Coyle A, Gutierrez Ramos C, Garside P. Inducible costimulatory molecule-B7-related protein 1 interactions are important for the clonal expansion and B cell helper functions of naive, Th1, and Th2 T cells. J Immunol. 2003;170:2310-5 pubmed
    ..Inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) is a CD28 family member expressed on T cells rapidly following activation that augments both Th1 and Th2 T cell ..
  2. Elsner R, Ernst D, Baumgarth N. Single and coexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR5 identifies CD4 T helper cells in distinct lymph node niches during influenza virus infection. J Virol. 2012;86:7146-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that ICOS but not CXCR5 marks T cells with B helper activity induced by influenza virus infection and identifies germinal ..
  3. Yagi J, Arimura Y, Dianzani U, Uede T, Okamoto T, Uchiyama T. Regulatory roles of IL-2 and IL-4 in H4/inducible costimulator expression on activated CD4+ T cells during Th cell development. J Immunol. 2003;171:783-94 pubmed
    We found a tight correlation among the levels of H4/inducible costimulator (ICOS) expression, IL-4 production, and GATA-3 induction, using activated CD4(+) T cells obtained from six different murine strains...
  4. Wilson E, Zaph C, Mohrs M, Welcher A, Siu J, Artis D, et al. B7RP-1-ICOS interactions are required for optimal infection-induced expansion of CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. J Immunol. 2006;177:2365-72 pubmed
    Although initial reports linked the costimulatory molecule ICOS preferentially with the development of Th2 cells, there is evidence that it is not required for protective type 2 immunity to helminths and that it contributes to Th1 and Th2 ..
  5. Vidric M, Bladt A, Dianzani U, Watts T. Role for inducible costimulator in control of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1050-61 pubmed
    Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is expressed on activated T cells and plays a key role in sustaining and enhancing the effector function of CD4 T cells...
  6. Tesciuba A, Subudhi S, Rother R, Faas S, Frantz A, Elliot D, et al. Inducible costimulator regulates Th2-mediated inflammation, but not Th2 differentiation, in a model of allergic airway disease. J Immunol. 2001;167:1996-2003 pubmed
    A novel costimulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells, inducible costimulator (ICOS), and its ligand, B7-related protein-1 (B7RP-1), were recently identified...
  7. Akbari O, Freeman G, Meyer E, Greenfield E, Chang T, Sharpe A, et al. Antigen-specific regulatory T cells develop via the ICOS-ICOS-ligand pathway and inhibit allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Nat Med. 2002;8:1024-32 pubmed
    ..the development of T(R) cells, in a process that required T-cell costimulation via the inducible costimulator (ICOS-ICOS-ligand pathway...
  8. Burmeister Y, Lischke T, Dahler A, Mages H, Lam K, Coyle A, et al. ICOS controls the pool size of effector-memory and regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:774-82 pubmed
    b>ICOS is an important regulator of T cell effector function. ICOS-deficient patients as well as knockout mice show severe defects in T cell-dependent B cell responses...
  9. Humphreys I, Edwards L, Snelgrove R, Rae A, Coyle A, Hussell T. A critical role for ICOS co-stimulation in immune containment of pulmonary influenza virus infection. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:2928-38 pubmed
    ..b>ICOS is a late co-stimulatory molecule expressed by T cells 12-24 h after activation...
  10. Schenk A, Gorbacheva V, Rabant M, Fairchild R, Valujskikh A. Effector functions of donor-reactive CD8 memory T cells are dependent on ICOS induced during division in cardiac grafts. Am J Transplant. 2009;9:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have tested the role of ICOS co-stimulation in eliciting effector function from these memory T cells...
  11. Schaefer J, Montufar Solis D, Vigneswaran N, Klein J. ICOS promotes IL-17 synthesis in colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes in IL-10-/- mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate a direct correlation between ICOS expression and IL-17 production in cIELs. IL-10(-/-) mice had increased numbers of cIELs and greater colon weight...
  12. Bauquet A, Jin H, Paterson A, Mitsdoerffer M, Ho I, Sharpe A, et al. The costimulatory molecule ICOS regulates the expression of c-Maf and IL-21 in the development of follicular T helper cells and TH-17 cells. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:167-75 pubmed publisher
    The inducible costimulatory molecule ICOS has been suggested to be important in the development of interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)-17 cells) and of follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells)...
  13. Gajewska B, Tafuri A, Swirski F, Walker T, Johnson J, Shea T, et al. B7RP-1 is not required for the generation of Th2 responses in a model of allergic airway inflammation but is essential for the induction of inhalation tolerance. J Immunol. 2005;174:3000-5 pubmed
    The recently described ICOS-B7RP-1 costimulatory pathway has been implicated in the generation of effector Th2 responses and, hence, has become an attractive therapeutic target for allergic diseases...
  14. Löhning M, Hutloff A, Kallinich T, Mages H, Bonhagen K, Radbruch A, et al. Expression of ICOS in vivo defines CD4+ effector T cells with high inflammatory potential and a strong bias for secretion of interleukin 10. J Exp Med. 2003;197:181-93 pubmed
    The studies performed to date analyzed the overall participation of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) in model diseases, but did not yield information on the nature and function of ICOS-expressing T cells in vivo...
  15. Busse M, Krech M, Meyer Bahlburg A, Hennig C, Hansen G. ICOS mediates the generation and function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells conveying respiratory tolerance. J Immunol. 2012;189:1975-82 pubmed publisher
    Costimulatory molecules like ICOS are crucial in mediating T cell differentiation and function after allergen contact and thereby strongly affect the immunologic decision between tolerance or allergy development...
  16. Watanabe M, Nakajima S, Ohnuki K, Ogawa S, Yamashita M, Nakayama T, et al. AP-1 is involved in ICOS gene expression downstream of TCR/CD28 and cytokine receptor signaling. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:1850-62 pubmed publisher
    It has been proposed that sustained ICOS expression in chronic inflammatory immune conditions, such as autoimmunity and allergy, contributes to symptom exacerbation...
  17. Dong C, Juedes A, Temann U, Shresta S, Allison J, Ruddle N, et al. ICOS co-stimulatory receptor is essential for T-cell activation and function. Nature. 2001;409:97-101 pubmed
    ..The inducible co-stimulatory molecule (ICOS), a third member of the CD28/CTLA4 family, is expressed on activated T cells...
  18. Loke P, Zang X, Hsuan L, Waitz R, Locksley R, Allen J, et al. Inducible costimulator is required for type 2 antibody isotype switching but not T helper cell type 2 responses in chronic nematode infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9872-7 pubmed
    Inducible costimulator (ICOS) has been suggested to perform an important role in T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses, germinal center formation, and isotype switching...
  19. Watanabe M, Watanabe S, Hara Y, Harada Y, Kubo M, Tanabe K, et al. ICOS-mediated costimulation on Th2 differentiation is achieved by the enhancement of IL-4 receptor-mediated signaling. J Immunol. 2005;174:1989-96 pubmed
    b>ICOS is the third member of the CD28 family molecules and plays a critical role in many T cell-dependent immune responses...
  20. Shilling R, Clay B, Tesciuba A, Berry E, Lu T, Moore T, et al. CD28 and ICOS play complementary non-overlapping roles in the development of Th2 immunity in vivo. Cell Immunol. 2009;259:177-84 pubmed publisher
    Previous work has shown ICOS can function independently of CD28, but whether either molecule can compensate for the other in vivo is not known...
  21. Scales H, Ierna M, Gutierrez Ramos J, Coyle A, Garside P, Lawrence C. Effect of inducible costimulator blockade on the pathological and protective immune responses induced by the gastrointestinal helminth Trichinella spiralis. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:2854-62 pubmed
    ..Inducible costimulator (ICOS), a homologue of CD28, interacts with B7-related protein 1, and has been shown to be important in T-B cell ..
  22. Guo F, Iclozan C, Suh W, Anasetti C, Yu X. CD28 controls differentiation of regulatory T cells from naive CD4 T cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:2285-91 pubmed
    ..We studied whether and how CD28 and ICOS control the differentiation of Tregs from naive T cells...
  23. Akbari O, Stock P, Meyer E, Freeman G, Sharpe A, Umetsu D, et al. ICOS/ICOSL interaction is required for CD4+ invariant NKT cell function and homeostatic survival. J Immunol. 2008;180:5448-56 pubmed
    ..In a mouse model of asthma, we demonstrated that the induction of AHR required ICOS costimulation of iNKT cells...
  24. Ozkaynak E, Gao W, Shemmeri N, Wang C, Gutierrez Ramos J, Amaral J, et al. Importance of ICOS-B7RP-1 costimulation in acute and chronic allograft rejection. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:591-6 pubmed
    ..We found that both antibody to inducible costimulator (anti-ICOS) and an ICOS-Ig fusion protein suppressed intragraft T cell activation and cytokine expression and prolonged ..
  25. Redpath S, Van Der Werf N, Cervera A, MacDonald A, Gray D, Maizels R, et al. ICOS controls Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell expansion, maintenance and IL-10 production during helminth infection. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..As recent evidence implicates the co-stimulatory receptor ICOS in defining Foxp3(+) Treg-cell functions, we investigated the role of ICOS in helminth-induced Foxp3(+) Treg-cell ..
  26. Moore T, Clay B, Cannon J, Histed A, Shilling R, Sperling A. Inducible costimulator controls migration of T cells to the lungs via down-regulation of CCR7 and CD62L. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:843-50 pubmed publisher
    We and others reported that inducible costimulator-deficient (ICOS(-/-)) mice manifest a defect in Th2-mediated airway inflammation, which was attributed to reduced Th2 differentiation in the absence of ICOS signaling...
  27. Clay B, Shilling R, Bandukwala H, Moore T, Cannon J, Welcher A, et al. Inducible costimulator expression regulates the magnitude of Th2-mediated airway inflammation by regulating the number of Th2 cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7525 pubmed publisher
    Inducible Costimulator (ICOS) is an important regulator of Th2 lymphocyte function and a potential immunotherapeutic target for allergy and asthma...
  28. Gigoux M, Shang J, Pak Y, Xu M, Choe J, Mak T, et al. Inducible costimulator promotes helper T-cell differentiation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20371-6 pubmed publisher
    The T-cell costimulatory receptors, CD28 and the inducible costimulator (ICOS), are required for the generation of follicular B helper T cells (T(FH)) and germinal center (GC) reaction...
  29. Ling V, Wu P, Finnerty H, Bean K, Spaulding V, Fouser L, et al. Cutting edge: identification of GL50, a novel B7-like protein that functionally binds to ICOS receptor. J Immunol. 2000;164:1653-7 pubmed
    ..Of the CD28, CTLA4, and ICOS fusion constructs tested, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated only mouse ICOS-IgG binding to mGL50 cell ..
  30. Watanabe M, Takagi Y, Kotani M, Hara Y, Inamine A, Hayashi K, et al. Down-regulation of ICOS ligand by interaction with ICOS functions as a regulatory mechanism for immune responses. J Immunol. 2008;180:5222-34 pubmed
    Although it is well-known that the ICOS-ICOS ligand (ICOSL) costimulatory pathway is important for many immune responses, recent accumulated evidence suggests that dysregulation of this pathway may lead to and/or exaggerate autoimmune ..
  31. Prevot N, Briet C, Lassmann H, Tardivel I, Roy E, Morin J, et al. Abrogation of ICOS/ICOS ligand costimulation in NOD mice results in autoimmune deviation toward the neuromuscular system. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we provide evidence that the Icos and Icosl genes contribute to the diabetes process...
  32. Bonhagen K, Liesenfeld O, Stadecker M, Hutloff A, Erb K, Coyle A, et al. ICOS+ Th cells produce distinct cytokines in different mucosal immune responses. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:392-401 pubmed
    ..Activated T cells express the inducible costimulator (ICOS). We examined the co-expression of ICOS with Th cytokines in mucosal immune responses...
  33. Mages H, Hutloff A, Heuck C, Buchner K, Himmelbauer H, Oliveri F, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of murine ICOS and identification of B7h as ICOS ligand. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:1040-7 pubmed
    Human ICOS (huICOS) is a T cell-specific molecule structurally related to CD28 and CTLA-4 with potent co-stimulatory activities on T cell proliferation, cytokine induction and T cell help for B cells...
  34. Kornete M, Sgouroudis E, Piccirillo C. ICOS-dependent homeostasis and function of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in islets of nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 2012;188:1064-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, abrogation of the ICOS pathway in NOD neonates or BDC2.5-NOD (BDC2...
  35. Dong C, Temann U, Flavell R. Cutting edge: critical role of inducible costimulator in germinal center reactions. J Immunol. 2001;166:3659-62 pubmed
    Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is a new member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family that is expressed on activated and germinal center (GC) T cells...
  36. Suh W, Tafuri A, Berg Brown N, Shahinian A, Plyte S, Duncan G, et al. The inducible costimulator plays the major costimulatory role in humoral immune responses in the absence of CD28. J Immunol. 2004;172:5917-23 pubmed
    ..Mice that are deficient in the inducible costimulator (ICOS) also have defects in cytokine production and germinal center response...
  37. Miyamoto K, Kingsley C, Zhang X, Jabs C, Izikson L, Sobel R, et al. The ICOS molecule plays a crucial role in the development of mucosal tolerance. J Immunol. 2005;175:7341-7 pubmed
    The ICOS molecule stimulates production of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10, suggesting an important role for ICOS in controlling IL-10-producing regulatory T cells and peripheral T cell tolerance...
  38. Akiba H, Takeda K, Kojima Y, Usui Y, Harada N, Yamazaki T, et al. The role of ICOS in the CXCR5+ follicular B helper T cell maintenance in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;175:2340-8 pubmed
    b>ICOS is a new member of the CD28 family of costimulatory molecules that is expressed on activated T cells. Its ligand B7RP-1 is constitutively expressed on B cells...
  39. Vocanson M, Rozieres A, Hennino A, Poyet G, Gaillard V, Renaudineau S, et al. Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is a marker for highly suppressive antigen-specific T cells sharing features of TH17/TH1 and regulatory T cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:280-9, 289.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..High levels of inducible costimulator (ICOS) expression defined a population of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) (forkhead box protein 3) Treg cells that presented ..
  40. Pepper M, Pagán A, Igyarto B, Taylor J, Jenkins M. Opposing signals from the Bcl6 transcription factor and the interleukin-2 receptor generate T helper 1 central and effector memory cells. Immunity. 2011;35:583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Th1 effector memory and follicular helper-like central memory cells are produced from early effector cell populations that diverge in response to signals from the IL-2 receptor, Bcl6, and B cells. ..
  41. Tada Y, Koarada S, Tomiyoshi Y, Morito F, Mitamura M, Haruta Y, et al. Role of inducible costimulator in the development of lupus in MRL/lpr mice. Clin Immunol. 2006;120:179-88 pubmed
    Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is a costimulatory molecule expressed in activated T cells and plays an important role in T-cell-dependent immune responses...
  42. Ansari M, Fiorina P, Dada S, Guleria I, Ueno T, Yuan X, et al. Role of ICOS pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in NOD mice. Clin Immunol. 2008;126:140-7 pubmed
    ..The ICOS-B7h pathway plays a role in alloimmune responses, but its function in autoimmunity against islet cells is ..
  43. Chang J, Hu H, Jin J, Puebla Osorio N, Xiao Y, Gilbert B, et al. TRAF3 regulates the effector function of regulatory T cells and humoral immune responses. J Exp Med. 2014;211:137-51 pubmed publisher
    ..TRAF3 signaling in Treg cells was required to maintain high level expression of inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), which in turn was required for TFR cell generation and inhibition of antibody responses...
  44. Du J, Shen X, Ji X, Chen G, Bai X, Zuo F, et al. Apoptosis of peripheral T cells in rodent cardiac allograft recipients induced by donor-specific transfusion with impaired inducible costimulator/B7 homologous protein allorecognition. Transplant Proc. 2013;45:564-8 pubmed publisher
    ..recipients, which were treated by donor specific transfusion combined with blockade of Inducible costimulator (ICOS)/B7 homologous protein (B7h) costimulation...
  45. Linterman M, Denton A, Divekar D, Zvetkova I, Kane L, Ferreira C, et al. CD28 expression is required after T cell priming for helper T cell responses and protective immunity to infection. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study demonstrates that CD28 persistence is required for helper T cell polarization in response to infection, describing a novel function for CD28 that is distinct from its role in T cell priming. ..
  46. Mittrücker H, Kursar M, Kohler A, Yanagihara D, Yoshinaga S, Kaufmann S. Inducible costimulator protein controls the protective T cell response against Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 2002;169:5813-7 pubmed
    The inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) was recently identified as a costimulatory molecule for T cells...
  47. Flesch I. Inducible costimulator (ICOS). J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2002;16:214-6 pubmed
  48. Li J, Heinrichs J, Leconte J, Haarberg K, Semple K, Liu C, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent signaling pathways contribute to ICOS-mediated T cell costimulation in acute graft-versus-host disease in mice. J Immunol. 2013;191:200-7 pubmed publisher
    We and others have previously shown that ICOS plays an important role in inducing acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation...
  49. Rehage N, Davydova E, Conrad C, Behrens G, Maiser A, Stehklein J, et al. Binding of NUFIP2 to Roquin promotes recognition and regulation of ICOS mRNA. Nat Commun. 2018;9:299 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-transcriptional repression of human ICOS by endogenous Roquin proteins requires two neighboring non-canonical stem-loops in the ICOS 3'-UTR...
  50. Deenick E, Chan A, Ma C, Gatto D, Schwartzberg P, Brink R, et al. Follicular helper T cell differentiation requires continuous antigen presentation that is independent of unique B cell signaling. Immunity. 2010;33:241-53 pubmed publisher
  51. Arjunaraja S, Massari P, Wetzler L, Lees A, Colino J, Snapper C. The nature of an in vivo anti-capsular polysaccharide response is markedly influenced by the composition and/or architecture of the bacterial subcapsular domain. J Immunol. 2012;188:569-77 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this response was ICOS independent and failed to generate a boosted PPS-specific secondary IgG response...
  52. Colino J, Duke L, Snapper C. Noncovalent association of protein and capsular polysaccharide on bacteria-sized latex beads as a model for polysaccharide-specific humoral immunity to intact gram-positive extracellular bacteria. J Immunol. 2013;191:3254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..similar to conjugate, induced in mice boosted PPS14-specific IgG secondary responses, dependent on T cells and ICOS-dependent costimulation, and in which priming could be achieved with PspA alone...
  53. Feito M, Vaschetto R, Criado G, Sánchez A, Chiocchetti A, Jiménez Periañez A, et al. Mechanisms of H4/ICOS costimulation: effects on proximal TCR signals and MAP kinase pathways. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:204-14 pubmed
    H4/ICOS is a costimulatory molecule related to CD28. Its effects on early TCR signals have been analyzed in mouse CD4(+) Th2 cells, expressing H4/ICOS at higher levels than Th1 clones...
  54. Hastey C, Elsner R, Barthold S, Baumgarth N. Delays and diversions mark the development of B cell responses to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:5612-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the study indicates that B. burgdorferi might evade B cell immunity by interfering with its response kinetics and quality...
  55. Tezuka K, Tsuji T, Hirano D, Tamatani T, Sakamaki K, Kobayashi Y, et al. Identification and characterization of rat AILIM/ICOS, a novel T-cell costimulatory molecule, related to the CD28/CTLA4 family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;276:335-45 pubmed
    Activation-inducible lymphocyte immuno-mediatory molecule (AILIM) is an inducible cell surface glycoprotein expressed on thymocytes and activated lymphocytes...
  56. Okano K, Nitta K, Ogawa S, Horita S, Habiro K, Nihei H, et al. Effects of double blockade of CD28 and inducible-costimulator signaling on anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis. J Lab Clin Med. 2004;144:183-92 pubmed
    ..serum creatinine) by CTLA4 immunoglobulin or anti-activation-inducible lymphocyte immunomodulatory molecule (AILIM) mAb as an anti-ICOS mAb...
  57. Wu Q, Gardiner G, Berry E, Wagner S, Lu T, Clay B, et al. ICOS-expressing lymphocytes promote resolution of CD8-mediated lung injury in a mouse model of lung rejection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72955 pubmed publisher
    ..Using CC10-OVA.RAG(-/-) mice, we found that CD4(+) T cells and ICOS(+/+) T cells were required for protection against lethal lung injury, while neutrophil depletion was not protective...
  58. Fontenot J, Rasmussen J, Gavin M, Rudensky A. A function for interleukin 2 in Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1142-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, IL-2 signaling seems to be critically required for maintaining the homeostasis and competitive fitness of T(reg) cells in vivo. ..
  59. Maazi H, Patel N, Sankaranarayanan I, Suzuki Y, Rigas D, Soroosh P, et al. ICOS:ICOS-ligand interaction is required for type 2 innate lymphoid cell function, homeostasis, and induction of airway hyperreactivity. Immunity. 2015;42:538-51 pubmed publisher
    ..ILC2s express ICOS, a T cell costimulatory molecule with a currently unknown function...
  60. Watanabe S, Ogawa S, Hara Y, Tanabe K, Toma H, Abe R. Expression level of costimulatory receptor ICOS is critical for determining the polarization of helper T cell function. Transpl Immunol. 2006;15:255-63 pubmed
    We found that inducible costimulator (ICOS)-deficient spleen cells have a defect in the ability to induce Th2-mediated chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), whereas they were fully capable of inducing Th1-mediated acute GVHD...
  61. Harada Y, Ohgai D, Watanabe R, Okano K, Koiwai O, Tanabe K, et al. A single amino acid alteration in cytoplasmic domain determines IL-2 promoter activation by ligation of CD28 but not inducible costimulator (ICOS). J Exp Med. 2003;197:257-62 pubmed
    The CD28 family molecules, CD28, and inducible costimulator (ICOS) all provide positive costimulatory signals. However, unlike CD28, ICOS does not costimulate IL-2 secretion...
  62. Gondek D, Lu L, Quezada S, Sakaguchi S, Noelle R. Cutting edge: contact-mediated suppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells involves a granzyme B-dependent, perforin-independent mechanism. J Immunol. 2005;174:1783-6 pubmed
    ..In summary, GZ-B is one of the key mechanisms through which CD4+CD25+ Treg induce cell contact-mediated suppression. ..
  63. Afek A, Harats D, Roth A, Keren G, George J. A functional role for inducible costimulator (ICOS) in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2005;183:57-63 pubmed
    ..Inducible costimulator (ICOS) is a newly discovered T cell molecule with a dual role in immune mediated disorders...
  64. Lu H, Kaplan B, Ngaotepprutaram T, Kaminski N. Suppression of T cell costimulator ICOS by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:322-9 pubmed publisher
    Inducible costimulator (ICOS), a prototypic T cell costimulator, is induced on activated T cells. ICOS regulates T cell activation and Th cell differentiation and is principally involved in humoral immune responses...