Gene Symbol: Hspg2
Description: perlecan (heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2)
Alias: AI852380, Pcn, Plc, per, basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, HSPG
Species: mouse
Products:     Hspg2

Top Publications

  1. Noonan D, Horigan E, Ledbetter S, Vogeli G, Sasaki M, Yamada Y, et al. Identification of cDNA clones encoding different domains of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:16379-87 pubmed
    ..The sequence DSGEY was found four times in this domain and could be heparan sulfate attachment sites. ..
  2. Iozzo R, Cohen I, Grassel S, Murdoch A. The biology of perlecan: the multifaceted heparan sulphate proteoglycan of basement membranes and pericellular matrices. Biochem J. 1994;302 ( Pt 3):625-39 pubmed
  3. French M, Smith S, Akanbi K, Sanford T, Hecht J, Farach Carson M, et al. Expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan, during mouse embryogenesis and perlecan chondrogenic activity in vitro. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:1103-15 pubmed
    Expression of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), perlecan (Pln), mRNA, and protein has been examined during murine development...
  4. Miller J, Stevens E, Smith D, Wight T, Wrenshall L. Perlecan: a major IL-2-binding proteoglycan in murine spleen. Immunol Cell Biol. 2008;86:192-9 pubmed
    ..Identification of perlecan as a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan that binds IL-2 has implications for both the localization and regulation of IL-2 in vivo. ..
  5. Miosge N, Simniok T, Sprysch P, Herken R. The collagen type XVIII endostatin domain is co-localized with perlecan in basement membranes in vivo. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:285-96 pubmed
    ..At least in part, perlecan appears to be an adaptor molecule for the endostatin domain in basement membranes in vivo. ..
  6. Tran Lundmark K, Tran P, Paulsson Berne G, Fridén V, Soininen R, Tryggvason K, et al. Heparan sulfate in perlecan promotes mouse atherosclerosis: roles in lipid permeability, lipid retention, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Circ Res. 2008;103:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..perlecan HS chains using apoE null (ApoE0) mice that were cross-bred with mice expressing HS-deficient perlecan (Hspg2(Delta3/Delta3))...
  7. Noakes P, Miner J, Gautam M, Cunningham J, Sanes J, Merlie J. The renal glomerulus of mice lacking s-laminin/laminin beta 2: nephrosis despite molecular compensation by laminin beta 1. Nat Genet. 1995;10:400-6 pubmed
    ..Laminin beta 2-deficient mice may provide a model for human congenital or idiopathic nephrotic syndromes...
  8. Sharma B, Handler M, Eichstetter I, Whitelock J, Nugent M, Iozzo R. Antisense targeting of perlecan blocks tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1599-608 pubmed
    ..Thus, perlecan is a potent inducer of tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo and therapeutic interventions targeting this key modulator of tumor progression may improve cancer treatment. ..
  9. Brown A, Alicknavitch M, D Souza S, Daikoku T, Kirn Safran C, Marchetti D, et al. Heparanase expression and activity influences chondrogenic and osteogenic processes during endochondral bone formation. Bone. 2008;43:689-99 pubmed publisher
    ..that HPSE facilitates cartilage replacement by bone at the chondro-osseous junction by removing the HS component of proteoglycans, such as perlecan/HSPG2, that otherwise prevent osteogenic cells from remodeling hypertrophic cartilage.

More Information


  1. Girós A, Morante J, Gil Sanz C, Fairen A, Costell M. Perlecan controls neurogenesis in the developing telencephalon. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:29 pubmed
    ..Less mitotic cells in the early medial ganglionic eminences, and impaired cell cycle progression in the late neocortex, suggests insufficient recruitment and signaling by neurogenic morphogens, such as SHH or FGF2. ..
  2. Costell M, Carmona R, Gustafsson E, González Iriarte M, Fassler R, Muñoz Chápuli R. Hyperplastic conotruncal endocardial cushions and transposition of great arteries in perlecan-null mice. Circ Res. 2002;91:158-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, perlecan is involved in the control of the outflow tract mesenchymal population size, underscoring the importance of the extracellular matrix in cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  3. Sasse P, Malan D, Fleischmann M, Roell W, Gustafsson E, Bostani T, et al. Perlecan is critical for heart stability. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;80:435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that perlecan plays an important role in maintaining the integrity during cardiac development and is important for heart function in the adult heart after injury. ..
  4. Garl P, Wenzlau J, Walker H, Whitelock J, Costell M, Weiser Evans M. Perlecan-induced suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation is mediated through increased activity of the tumor suppressor PTEN. Circ Res. 2004;94:175-83 pubmed
    ..Our data show PTEN is a potent endogenously produced inhibitor of SMC growth and increased PTEN activity mediates perlecan-induced suppression of SMC proliferation. ..
  5. Costell M, Gustafsson E, Aszodi A, Morgelin M, Bloch W, Hunziker E, et al. Perlecan maintains the integrity of cartilage and some basement membranes. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1109-22 pubmed
  6. Noonan D, Fulle A, Valente P, Cai S, Horigan E, Sasaki M, et al. The complete sequence of perlecan, a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, reveals extensive similarity with laminin A chain, low density lipoprotein-receptor, and the neural cell adhesion molecule. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:22939-47 pubmed
    ..The variety of domains in perlecan suggest multiple interactions with other molecules. ..
  7. Haubst N, Georges Labouesse E, De Arcangelis A, Mayer U, Gotz M. Basement membrane attachment is dispensable for radial glial cell fate and for proliferation, but affects positioning of neuronal subtypes. Development. 2006;133:3245-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, although BM attachment seems dispensable for precursor cells, an intact BM is required for adequate neuronal composition of the cerebral cortex. ..
  8. Ishijima M, Suzuki N, Hozumi K, Matsunobu T, Kosaki K, Kaneko H, et al. Perlecan modulates VEGF signaling and is essential for vascularization in endochondral bone formation. Matrix Biol. 2012;31:234-45 pubmed publisher
    Perlecan (Hspg2) is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in basement membranes and cartilage...
  9. Costell M, Sasaki T, Mann K, Yamada Y, Timpl R. Structural characterization of recombinant domain II of the basement membrane proteoglycan perlecan. FEBS Lett. 1996;396:127-31 pubmed
    ..The domain also showed N-glycosylation of a single acceptor site and 7-8 O-linked oligosaccharides. The latter were located mainly in the link region within proline-rich sequences. ..
  10. Smith S, French M, Julian J, Paria B, Dey S, Carson D. Expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) in the mouse blastocyst is regulated during normal and delayed implantation. Dev Biol. 1997;184:38-47 pubmed
    ..Moreover, perlecan protein expression also is attenuated during delayed implantation and appears to increase in response to nidatory estrogen, perhaps via the increased translation of preexisting perlecan mRNA. ..
  11. Rossi M, Morita H, Sormunen R, Airenne S, Kreivi M, Wang L, et al. Heparan sulfate chains of perlecan are indispensable in the lens capsule but not in the kidney. EMBO J. 2003;22:236-45 pubmed
    Mice lacking exon 3 of perlecan (Hspg2) gene were generated by gene targeting. Exon deletion does not alter the expression or the reading frame but causes loss of attachment sites for three heparan sulfate (HS) side chains...
  12. Willem M, Miosge N, Halfter W, Smyth N, Jannetti I, Burghart E, et al. Specific ablation of the nidogen-binding site in the laminin gamma1 chain interferes with kidney and lung development. Development. 2002;129:2711-22 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that an interaction between two basement membrane proteins is required for early kidney morphogenesis in vivo. ..
  13. Kostka G, Giltay R, Bloch W, Addicks K, Timpl R, Fassler R, et al. Perinatal lethality and endothelial cell abnormalities in several vessel compartments of fibulin-1-deficient mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7025-34 pubmed
    ..The data indicate a strong but restricted abnormality in some endothelial compartments which, together with some kidney and lung defects, may be responsible for early death. ..
  14. Tran P, Tran Lundmark K, Soininen R, Tryggvason K, Thyberg J, Hedin U. Increased intimal hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell proliferation in transgenic mice with heparan sulfate-deficient perlecan. Circ Res. 2004;94:550-8 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the endogenous HS side-chains of perlecan contribute to SMC growth control both in vitro and during intimal hyperplasia, possibly by sequestering heparin-binding mitogens such as FGF-2. ..
  15. Tapanadechopone P, Hassell J, Rigatti B, Couchman J. Localization of glycosaminoglycan substitution sites on domain V of mouse perlecan. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;265:680-90 pubmed
    ..When this sequence was absent, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate substitution was deleted, and the likely site for this galactosaminoglycan substitution was ser-gly-ala-gly (serine residue 3250) on domain V. ..
  16. Arikawa Hirasawa E, Watanabe H, Takami H, Hassell J, Yamada Y. Perlecan is essential for cartilage and cephalic development. Nat Genet. 1999;23:354-8 pubmed
    ..We have disrupted the gene encoding perlecan (Hspg2) in mice. Approximately 40% of Hspg2-/- mice died at embryonic day (E) 10.5 with defective cephalic development...
  17. De Arcangelis A, Mark M, Kreidberg J, Sorokin L, Georges Labouesse E. Synergistic activities of alpha3 and alpha6 integrins are required during apical ectodermal ridge formation and organogenesis in the mouse. Development. 1999;126:3957-68 pubmed
    ..The presence of novel phenotypes in double mutant embryos demonstrates the synergism between alpha3 and alpha6 integrins and their essential roles in multiple processes during embryogenesis. ..
  18. Woodall B, Nyström A, Iozzo R, Eble J, Niland S, Krieg T, et al. Integrin alpha2beta1 is the required receptor for endorepellin angiostatic activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2335-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the angiostatic effects of endorepellin in vivo are mediated by a specific interaction of endorepellin with the alpha2beta1 integrin receptor. ..
  19. Handler M, Yurchenco P, Iozzo R. Developmental expression of perlecan during murine embryogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:130-45 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the results indicate that perlecan may play crucial roles not only in vasculogenesis but also in the maturation and maintenance of differentiated tissues, including cartilage. ..
  20. Rodgers K, Sasaki T, Aszodi A, Jacenko O. Reduced perlecan in mice results in chondrodysplasia resembling Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:515-28 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining, biochemistry, size measurements, skeletal studies and histology revealed Hspg2 transcriptional changes in C1532Yneo mice, leading to reduced perlecan secretion and a skeletal disease phenotype ..
  21. Gustafsson E, Aszodi A, Ortega N, Hunziker E, Denker H, Werb Z, et al. Role of collagen type II and perlecan in skeletal development. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;995:140-50 pubmed
    ..Likewise, intercrossing of perlecan mutants onto an MMP-9-null background could not rescue the ultrastructural abnormalities of the perlecan-deficient cartilage. ..
  22. Rautavuoma K, Takaluoma K, Sormunen R, Myllyharju J, Kivirikko K, Soininen R. Premature aggregation of type IV collagen and early lethality in lysyl hydroxylase 3 null mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14120-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that the premature aggregation of collagen IV is due to the absence of the hydroxylysine-linked carbohydrates, which thus play an essential role in its supramolecular assembly. ..
  23. Wright K, Lyon K, Leung H, Leahy D, Ma L, Ginty D. Dystroglycan organizes axon guidance cue localization and axonal pathfinding. Neuron. 2012;76:931-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a novel role for glycosylated dystroglycan as a key determinant of axon guidance cue distribution and function in the mammalian nervous system. ..
  24. Hall M, Gofflot F, Iseki S, Morriss Kay G. Effects of the curly tail genotype on neuroepithelial integrity and cell proliferation during late stages of primary neurulation. J Anat. 2001;199:645-55 pubmed
    ..Minor histological and proliferation abnormalities are present in all ct/ct embryos, regardless of phenotype. ..
  25. Sigoillot S, Bourgeois F, Karmouch J, Molgó J, Dobbertin A, Chevalier C, et al. Neuromuscular junction immaturity and muscle atrophy are hallmarks of the ColQ-deficient mouse, a model of congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency. FASEB J. 2016;30:2382-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Chevalier, C., Houlgatte, R., Léger, J., Legay, C. Neuromuscular junction immaturity and muscle atrophy are hallmarks of the ColQ-deficient mouse, a model of congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency. ..
  26. Hart M, Li L, Tokunaga T, Lindsey J, Hassell J, Snow A, et al. Overproduction of perlecan core protein in cultured cells and transgenic mice. J Pathol. 2001;194:262-9 pubmed
    Heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) and amyloid P component are the only macromolecules consistently associated with all varieties of amyloid, irrespective of the type of amyloid protein, suggesting that HSPG may play a pathogenetic role ..
  27. Sasaki T, Göhring W, Miosge N, Abrams W, Rosenbloom J, Timpl R. Tropoelastin binding to fibulins, nidogen-2 and other extracellular matrix proteins. FEBS Lett. 1999;460:280-4 pubmed
    ..The colocalization of these proteins emphasizes the potential for in vivo interactions. ..
  28. Hayes A, Shu C, Lord M, Little C, Whitelock J, Melrose J. Pericellular colocalisation and interactive properties of type VI collagen and perlecan in the intervertebral disc. Eur Cell Mater. 2016;32:40-57 pubmed
    ..These cross-bridges were significantly less abundant in the heparin sulphate deficient Hspg2 exon 3 null mouse IVD than in wild type...
  29. Gersdorff N, Muller M, Otto S, Poschadel R, Hübner S, Miosge N. Basement membrane composition in the early mouse embryo day 7. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1140-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, laminin-1 might be the only laminin isoform in the early mouse embryo that, together with the other main BM components, nidogens, collagen type IV, and perlecan, is synthesized by all three germ layers. ..
  30. Muriel J, Xu X, Kramer J, Vogel B. Selective assembly of fibulin-1 splice variants reveals distinct extracellular matrix networks and novel functions for perlecan/UNC-52 splice variants. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2632-40 pubmed
  31. Müller P, Schulz R, Maretto S, Costello I, Srinivas S, Bikoff E, et al. The fibronectin leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein Flrt2 is required in the epicardium to promote heart morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:1297-308 pubmed publisher
    ..When acting alone, either of these proteins is sufficient to rescue functional activities in the AVE and the developing epicardium. ..
  32. Inoue T, Ogawa M, Mikoshiba K, Aruga J. Zic deficiency in the cortical marginal zone and meninges results in cortical lamination defects resembling those in type II lissencephaly. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4712-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the Zic genes play critical roles in cortical development through regulating the proliferation of meningeal cells and the pial BM assembly. ..
  33. Stum M, Girard E, Bangratz M, Bernard V, Herbin M, Vignaud A, et al. Evidence of a dosage effect and a physiological endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency in the first mouse models mimicking Schwartz-Jampel syndrome neuromyotonia. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3166-79 pubmed publisher
    ..However, physiological endplate AChE deficiency was not associated with spontaneous activity at rest on EMG in the diaphragm, suggesting that additional changes are required to generate such activity characteristic of SJS. ..
  34. Smirnov S, Barzaghi P, McKee K, Ruegg M, Yurchenco P. Conjugation of LG domains of agrins and perlecan to polymerizing laminin-2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41449-57 pubmed
    ..Such interactions may contribute to the assembly of aneural AChR clusters that precede neural agrin release as well as affect later NMJ development. ..
  35. Jasuja R, Allen B, Pappano W, Rapraeger A, Greenspan D. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans potentiate chordin antagonism of bone morphogenetic protein signaling and are necessary for cellular uptake of chordin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51289-97 pubmed
    ..g. syndecans), but not to basement membranes containing the HSPG perlecan...
  36. Shu C, Smith S, Melrose J. The heparan sulphate deficient Hspg2 exon 3 null mouse displays reduced deposition of TGF-?1 in skin compared to C57BL/6 wild type mice. J Mol Histol. 2016;47:365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This was an observational study where we examined the role of perlecan HS on the deposition of TGF-?1 in C57BL/6 and Hspg2(?3-/?3-) perlecan exon 3 null mouse skin...
  37. Bénézech C, White A, Mader E, Serre K, Parnell S, Pfeffer K, et al. Ontogeny of stromal organizer cells during lymph node development. J Immunol. 2010;184:4521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the signals and cellular interactions that induce the maturation of stromal cells and ultimately lead to the formation of lymphoid tissues. ..
  38. Coulson Thomas V, Chang S, Yeh L, Coulson Thomas Y, Yamaguchi Y, Esko J, et al. Loss of corneal epithelial heparan sulfate leads to corneal degeneration and impaired wound healing. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:3004-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Corneal epithelial cells require HS for maintaining corneal homeostasis, and the loss of epithelial HS leads to both impaired wound healing and impaired corneal stratification. ..
  39. Shay E, Greer C, Treloar H. Dynamic expression patterns of ECM molecules in the developing mouse olfactory pathway. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1837-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These appear to restrict axons to the pathway while promoting axon outgrowth within. Thus, ECM molecules are present in dynamic spatio-temporal positions to affect OSN axons as they navigate to the olfactory bulb and establish synapses. ..
  40. Mammoto T, Mammoto A, Torisawa Y, Tat T, Gibbs A, Derda R, et al. Mechanochemical control of mesenchymal condensation and embryonic tooth organ formation. Dev Cell. 2011;21:758-69 pubmed publisher
  41. Lee B, Clarke D, Al Ahmad A, Kahle M, Parham C, Auckland L, et al. Perlecan domain V is neuroprotective and proangiogenic following ischemic stroke in rodents. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3005-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that perlecan domain V represents a promising approach for stroke treatment. ..
  42. Schulze B, Mann K, Battistutta R, Wiedemann H, Timpl R. Structural properties of recombinant domain III-3 of perlecan containing a globular domain inserted into an epidermal-growth-factor-like motif. Eur J Biochem. 1995;231:551-6 pubmed
    ..Together the data demonstrated a proper folding of recombinant domain III-3 similar to its structure in the native protein and provided the first structural evidence for a novel globular protein motif L4 based on an EGF-like scaffold. ..
  43. Gustafsson E, Almonte Becerril M, Bloch W, Costell M. Perlecan maintains microvessel integrity in vivo and modulates their formation in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53715 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these findings suggest that perlecan supports the maintenance of brain and skin subendothelial BMs and promotes vasculo- and angiogenesis by modulating FGF-2 function. ..
  44. Lowe D, Lepori Bui N, Fomin P, Sloofman L, Zhou X, Farach Carson M, et al. Deficiency in perlecan/HSPG2 during bone development enhances osteogenesis and decreases quality of adult bone in mice. Calcif Tissue Int. 2014;95:29-38 pubmed publisher
    Perlecan/HSPG2 (Pln) is a large heparan sulfate proteoglycan abundant in the extracellular matrix of cartilage and the lacunocanalicular space of adult bones...
  45. Kikkawa Y, Virtanen I, Miner J. Mesangial cells organize the glomerular capillaries by adhering to the G domain of laminin alpha5 in the glomerular basement membrane. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:187-96 pubmed
    ..Our results elucidate a mechanism whereby mesangial cells organize the glomerular capillaries by adhering to the G domain of laminin alpha5 in the GBM. ..
  46. Arikawa Hirasawa E, Rossi S, Rotundo R, Yamada Y. Absence of acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junctions of perlecan-null mice. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:119-23 pubmed
  47. Kallunki P, Eddy R, Byers M, Kestila M, Shows T, Tryggvason K. Cloning of human heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, assignment of the gene (HSPG2) to 1p36.1----p35 and identification of a BamHI restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genomics. 1991;11:389-96 pubmed
    ..The HSPG cDNA clone was used to assign the gene (HSPG2) to the p36.1----p35 region of chromosome 1 using both somatic cell hybrid and in situ hybridization...
  48. Li Y, Pinzon Duarte G, Dattilo M, Claudepierre T, Koch M, Brunken W. The expression and function of netrin-4 in murine ocular tissues. Exp Eye Res. 2012;96:24-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Ntn4-/- mice may serve as a good model in which to study the role of netrins in vivo of the pathobiologic vascular remodeling in the retina and cornea. ..
  49. Szabova L, Son M, Shi J, Sramko M, Yamada S, Swaim W, et al. Membrane-type MMPs are indispensable for placental labyrinth formation and development. Blood. 2010;116:5752-61 pubmed publisher
  50. Shi Y, Tu Y, De Maria A, Mecham R, Bassnett S. Development, composition, and structural arrangements of the ciliary zonule of the mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:2504-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The development and arrangement of the murine ciliary zonule are similar to those of humans, and consequently the mouse eye may be a useful model in which to study ocular complications of MS. ..
  51. Sivakamasundari V, Kraus P, Sun W, Hu X, Lim S, Prabhakar S, et al. A developmental transcriptomic analysis of Pax1 and Pax9 in embryonic intervertebral disc development. Biol Open. 2017;6:187-199 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight how early IVD development is regulated spatio-temporally and have implications for understanding kyphoscoliosis. ..
  52. Ning L, Xu Z, Furuya N, Nonaka R, Yamada Y, Arikawa Hirasawa E. Perlecan inhibits autophagy to maintain muscle homeostasis in mouse soleus muscle. Matrix Biol. 2015;48:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggested that perlecan inhibits the autophagic process through the activation of the mTORC1 pathway. This autophagic response may be a novel target for enhancing the efficacy of skeletal muscle atrophy treatment. ..
  53. Syu A, Ishiguro H, Inada T, Horiuchi Y, Tanaka S, Ishikawa M, et al. Association of the HSPG2 gene with neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..subjects, we identified association of a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2445142, (allelic p=2 x 10(-5)) in the HSPG2 (heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2, perlecan) gene with TD...
  54. Salmivirta K, Talts J, Olsson M, Sasaki T, Timpl R, Ekblom P. Binding of mouse nidogen-2 to basement membrane components and cells and its expression in embryonic and adult tissues suggest complementary functions of the two nidogens. Exp Cell Res. 2002;279:188-201 pubmed
    ..These findings revealed extensive coregulation of nidogen-1 and -2 expression and much more complementary functions of the two nidogens than previously recognized. ..
  55. Schéele S, Falk M, Franzén A, Ellin F, Ferletta M, Lonai P, et al. Laminin alpha1 globular domains 4-5 induce fetal development but are not vital for embryonic basement membrane assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1502-6 pubmed
    ..Yet, stem cells could not develop into polarized epiblast cells. Thus, alpha1LG4-5 provides vital signals for the conversion of stem cells to polarized epithelium. ..
  56. Celie J, Rutjes N, Keuning E, Soininen R, Heljasvaara R, Pihlajaniemi T, et al. Subendothelial heparan sulfate proteoglycans become major L-selectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ligands upon renal ischemia/reperfusion. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1865-78 pubmed
    ..examined the in vivo relevance of BM HSPGs in renal ischemia/reperfusion using mice mutated for BM HSPGs perlecan (Hspg2(Delta3/Delta3)), collagen type XVIII (Col18a1(-/-)), or both (cross-bred Hspg2(Delta3/Delta3)xCol18a1(-/-)) and ..
  57. Kvist A, Johnson A, Morgelin M, Gustafsson E, Bengtsson E, Lindblom K, et al. Chondroitin sulfate perlecan enhances collagen fibril formation. Implications for perlecan chondrodysplasias. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33127-39 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a role for perlecan chondroitin sulfate side chains in cartilage extracellular matrix assembly and provide an explanation for the perlecan-null chondrodysplasia. ..
  58. Nyström A, Shaik Z, Gullberg D, Krieg T, Eckes B, Zent R, et al. Role of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in the mechanism of endorepellin angiostatic activity. Blood. 2009;114:4897-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that SHP-1 is an essential mediator of endorepellin activity and discover a novel functional interaction between the integrin alpha2 subunit and SHP-1. ..
  59. Xu X, Li Z, Leng Y, NEU C, Calve S. Knockdown of the pericellular matrix molecule perlecan lowers in situ cell and matrix stiffness in developing cartilage. Dev Biol. 2016;418:242-7 pubmed publisher
  60. Henderson D, Ybot Gonzalez P, Copp A. Over-expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan versican is associated with defective neural crest migration in the Pax3 mutant mouse (splotch). Mech Dev. 1997;69:39-51 pubmed
    ..Pax3 may serve to negatively regulate versican expression during normal development, thereby guiding neural crest cells into their pathways of migration. ..
  61. Soto Suazo M, San Martin S, Ferro E, Zorn T. Differential expression of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the migratory pathway of the primordial germ cells of the mouse. Histochem Cell Biol. 2002;118:69-78 pubmed
  62. Flügel Koch C, Ohlmann A, Piatigorsky J, Tamm E. Disruption of anterior segment development by TGF-beta1 overexpression in the eyes of transgenic mice. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:111-25 pubmed
  63. Dierker T, Bachvarova V, Krause Y, Li J, Kjellén L, Seidler D, et al. Altered heparan sulfate structure in Glce(-/-) mice leads to increased Hedgehog signaling in endochondral bones. Matrix Biol. 2016;49:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our results strongly indicate that not only the level, but also the structure of HS is critical in regulating the distribution and signaling activity of Ihh in chondrocytes. ..
  64. Riccomagno M, Sun L, Brady C, Alexandropoulos K, Seo S, Kurokawa M, et al. Cas adaptor proteins organize the retinal ganglion cell layer downstream of integrin signaling. Neuron. 2014;81:779-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal an essential role for Cas adaptor proteins in ?1-Integrin-mediated signaling events critical for the formation of the single-cell GCL in the mammalian retina. ..
  65. Kaneko H, Ishijima M, Futami I, Tomikawa Ichikawa N, Kosaki K, Sadatsuki R, et al. Synovial perlecan is required for osteophyte formation in knee osteoarthritis. Matrix Biol. 2013;32:178-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism of osteophyte formation and its pathogenesis are unclear. Perlecan (Hspg2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is expressed in many extracellular tissues and plays critical roles in skeletal ..
  66. Yang D, McKee K, Chen Z, Mernaugh G, Strickland S, Zent R, et al. Renal collecting system growth and function depend upon embryonic ?1 laminin expression. Development. 2011;138:4535-44 pubmed publisher
  67. Lathia J, Patton B, Eckley D, Magnus T, Mughal M, Sasaki T, et al. Patterns of laminins and integrins in the embryonic ventricular zone of the CNS. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:630-43 pubmed
  68. Mashayekhi F, Sadeghi M, Rajaei F. Induction of perlecan expression and neural cell proliferation by FGF-2 in the developing cerebral cortex: an in vivo study. J Mol Neurosci. 2011;45:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also concluded that FGF-2 is an important factor in the cerebral cortical development, stimulating neuronal precursor proliferation. ..
  69. Ida Yonemochi H, Ohshiro K, Swelam W, Metwaly H, Saku T. Perlecan, a basement membrane-type heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in the enamel organ: its intraepithelial localization in the stellate reticulum. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005;53:763-72 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that perlecan is synthesized by the dental epithelial cells and is accumulated in their intercellular spaces to form the characteristic stellate reticulum, whose function is still unknown...
  70. Kiyozumi D, Osada A, Sugimoto N, Weber C, Ono Y, Imai T, et al. Identification of a novel cell-adhesive protein spatiotemporally expressed in the basement membrane of mouse developing hair follicle. Exp Cell Res. 2005;306:9-23 pubmed
    ..These results, together, indicate that QBRICK is an adhesive ligand of basement membrane distinctively recognized by cells in the embryonic skin and hair follicles through different types of integrins directed to the Arg-Gly-Asp motif. ..
  71. Ida Yonemochi H, Harada H, Ohshima H, Saku T. Reciprocal expressions between ?-dystroglycan and integrin ?1, perlecan receptors, in the murine enamel organ development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:293-302 pubmed publisher
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