Gene Symbol: Hsp90b1
Description: heat shock protein 90, beta (Grp94), member 1
Alias: ERp99, GRP94, TA-3, Targ2, Tra-1, Tra1, endoplasmin, gp96, endoplasmin, 94 kDa glucose-regulated protein, endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 99, heat shock protein 90 kDa beta member 1, polymorphic tumor rejection antigen 1, transforming growth factor alpha regulated gene 2, tumor rejection antigen (gp96) 1, tumor rejection antigen gp96
Species: mouse
Products:     Hsp90b1

Top Publications

  1. Rutkowski D, Arnold S, Miller C, Wu J, Li J, Gunnison K, et al. Adaptation to ER stress is mediated by differential stabilities of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic mRNAs and proteins. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e374 pubmed
    ..It underscores the contribution of posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms in influencing this outcome. ..
  2. Jockheck Clark A, Bowers E, Totonchy M, Neubauer J, Pizzo S, Nicchitta C. Re-examination of CD91 function in GRP94 (glycoprotein 96) surface binding, uptake, and peptide cross-presentation. J Immunol. 2010;185:6819-30 pubmed publisher
    b>GRP94 (gp96)-peptide complexes can be internalized by APCs and their associated peptides cross-presented to yield activation of CD8(+) T cells...
  3. Wanderling S, Simen B, Ostrovsky O, Ahmed N, Vogen S, Gidalevitz T, et al. GRP94 is essential for mesoderm induction and muscle development because it regulates insulin-like growth factor secretion. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3764-75 pubmed
    ..proteins are known, the physiological roles of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) are poorly understood...
  4. Luo S, Mao C, Lee B, Lee A. GRP78/BiP is required for cell proliferation and protecting the inner cell mass from apoptosis during early mouse embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5688-97 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the heterozygous Grp78 cells up-regulate the ER proteins GRP94 and protein disulfide isomerase at both the transcript and protein levels, while other UPR targets such as CHOP ..
  5. Kim S, Kim Y, Lee A. Expression of the glucose-regulated proteins (GRP94 and GRP78) in differentiated and undifferentiated mouse embryonic cells and the use of the GRP78 promoter as an expression system in embryonic cells. Differentiation. 1990;42:153-9 pubmed
    We examined the expression of GRP94 and GRP78 in embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells and during early mouse development...
  6. Yang Y, Liu B, Dai J, Srivastava P, Zammit D, Lefrancois L, et al. Heat shock protein gp96 is a master chaperone for toll-like receptors and is important in the innate function of macrophages. Immunity. 2007;26:215-26 pubmed
    b>gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for cell-surface Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Little is known about its roles in chaperoning other TLRs or in the biology of macrophage in vivo...
  7. Meunier L, Usherwood Y, Chung K, Hendershot L. A subset of chaperones and folding enzymes form multiprotein complexes in endoplasmic reticulum to bind nascent proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4456-69 pubmed
    ..large endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multiprotein complex that is comprised of the molecular chaperones BiP; GRP94; CaBP1; protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); ERdj3, a recently identified ER Hsp40 cochaperone; cyclophilin B; ERp72;..
  8. Na X, Kim H, Moyer M, Pothoulakis C, LaMont J. gp96 is a human colonocyte plasma membrane binding protein for Clostridium difficile toxin A. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2862-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The main colonocyte binding protein for TxA was identified as glycoprotein 96 (gp96) by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrum analysis...
  9. Han J, Park S, Liu B, Park B, Kim J, Jin C, et al. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1/p43 controls endoplasmic reticulum retention of heat shock protein gp96: its pathological implications in lupus-like autoimmune diseases. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:2042-54 pubmed
    ..screening of the AIMP1-binding proteins revealed that AIMP1 can form a molecular complex with heat shock protein gp96. AIMP1 enhances gp96 dimerization and the interaction between gp96 and KDEL receptor-1 (KDELR-1), which mediates ..

More Information


  1. Ostrovsky O, Eletto D, Makarewich C, Barton E, Argon Y. Glucose regulated protein 94 is required for muscle differentiation through its control of the autocrine production of insulin-like growth factors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:333-41 pubmed publisher
    The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP94 is essential for early embryonic development and in particular affects differentiation of muscle lineages...
  2. Mazzarella R, Green M. ERp99, an abundant, conserved glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum, is homologous to the 90-kDa heat shock protein (hsp90) and the 94-kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP94). J Biol Chem. 1987;262:8875-83 pubmed
    ..In addition, the N terminus of mature ERp99 is identical to that of the 94-kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP94) of mammalian cells.
  3. Mao C, Wang M, Luo B, Wey S, Dong D, Wesselschmidt R, et al. Targeted mutation of the mouse Grp94 gene disrupts development and perturbs endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10852 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is one of the most abundant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins and is the ER counterpart of the cytoplasmic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90)...
  4. Vogen S, Gidalevitz T, Biswas C, Simen B, Stein E, Gulmen F, et al. Radicicol-sensitive peptide binding to the N-terminal portion of GRP94. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40742-50 pubmed
    b>GRP94 is a molecular chaperone that carries immunologically relevant peptides from cell to cell, transferring them to major histocompatibility proteins for presentation to T cells...
  5. Zheng H, Dai J, Stoilova D, Li Z. Cell surface targeting of heat shock protein gp96 induces dendritic cell maturation and antitumor immunity. J Immunol. 2001;167:6731-5 pubmed
    b>gp96 is a residential heat shock protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that has been implicated in the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) for the initiation of adaptive immunity...
  6. Barnes J, Smoak I. Immunolocalization and heart levels of GRP94 in the mouse during post-implantation development. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1997;196:335-41 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this study examined the distribution of GRP94 within mouse embryos during the period of organogenesis and characterized levels of GRP94 within the developing ..
  7. Barton E, Park S, James J, Makarewich C, Philippou A, Eletto D, et al. Deletion of muscle GRP94 impairs both muscle and body growth by inhibiting local IGF production. FASEB J. 2012;26:3691-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Because it is critical for production of both IGF-I and IGF-II, we ablated glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in murine striated muscle to test the necessity of local IGFs for normal muscle growth...
  8. Banerjee P, Vinay D, Mathew A, Raje M, Parekh V, Prasad D, et al. Evidence that glycoprotein 96 (B2), a stress protein, functions as a Th2-specific costimulatory molecule. J Immunol. 2002;169:3507-18 pubmed
    ..Internal amino acid sequences of B2 are found to be identical with stress protein gp96. The identity of B2 as gp96 is also revealed by immunological characterization and by confocal microscopic ..
  9. Ben Mkaddem S, Pedruzzi E, Werts C, Coant N, Bens M, Cluzeaud F, et al. Heat shock protein gp96 and NAD(P)H oxidase 4 play key roles in Toll-like receptor 4-activated apoptosis during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxia stimulated the expression of the endoplasmic-resident gp96, which co-immunoprecipitated TLR4, whereas silencing gp96 mRNA expression impaired hypoxia-induced apoptosis in ..
  10. Liu B, Li Z. Endoplasmic reticulum HSP90b1 (gp96, grp94) optimizes B-cell function via chaperoning integrin and TLR but not immunoglobulin. Blood. 2008;112:1223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..As a major ER chaperone to mediate the UPR and a master chaperone for Toll-like receptors (TLRs), HSP90b1 (grp94, gp96) has long been implicated to facilitate the assembly of immunoglobulin...
  11. Ostrovsky O, Ahmed N, Argon Y. The chaperone activity of GRP94 toward insulin-like growth factor II is necessary for the stress response to serum deprivation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GRP94 interacts physically and transiently with pro-IGF-II intermediates, and its activity is essential for secretion of ..
  12. Liu B, Staron M, Hong F, Wu B, Sun S, Morales C, et al. Essential roles of grp94 in gut homeostasis via chaperoning canonical Wnt pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6877-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report that a major ER heat shock protein grp94 interacts with MesD, a critical chaperone for the Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein ..
  13. Ostrovsky O, Makarewich C, Snapp E, Argon Y. An essential role for ATP binding and hydrolysis in the chaperone activity of GRP94 in cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11600-5 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone for which only few client proteins and no cofactors are known and whose mode of action is unclear...
  14. Chen W, Tseng C, Pfaffenbach K, Kanel G, Luo B, Stiles B, et al. Liver-specific knockout of GRP94 in mice disrupts cell adhesion, activates liver progenitor cells, and accelerates liver tumorigenesis. Hepatology. 2014;59:947-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is a major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein, but its in vivo function is still emerging...
  15. Liu B, Yang Y, Qiu Z, Staron M, Hong F, Li Y, et al. Folding of Toll-like receptors by the HSP90 paralogue gp96 requires a substrate-specific cochaperone. Nat Commun. 2010;1:79 pubmed publisher
    Cytosolic HSP90 requires multiple cochaperones in folding client proteins. However, the function of gp96 (HSP90b1, grp94), an HSP90 paralogue in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is believed to be independent of cochaperones...
  16. Singh Jasuja H, Toes R, Spee P, Munz C, Hilf N, Schoenberger S, et al. Cross-presentation of glycoprotein 96-associated antigens on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules requires receptor-mediated endocytosis. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1965-74 pubmed
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) like glycoprotein (gp)96 (glucose-regulated protein 94 [grp94]) are able to induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against cells from which they originate...
  17. Baker Lepain J, Sarzotti M, Nicchitta C. Glucose-regulated protein 94/glycoprotein 96 elicits bystander activation of CD4+ T cell Th1 cytokine production in vivo. J Immunol. 2004;172:4195-203 pubmed
    Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94/gp96), the endoplasmic reticulum heat shock protein 90 paralog, elicits both innate and adaptive immune responses...
  18. Staron M, Yang Y, Liu B, Li J, Shen Y, Zuniga Pflucker J, et al. gp96, an endoplasmic reticulum master chaperone for integrins and Toll-like receptors, selectively regulates early T and B lymphopoiesis. Blood. 2010;115:2380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined role of TLRs and integrin on hematopoiesis remains unclear. gp96 (grp94, HSP90b1) is an endoplasmic reticulum master chaperone for multiple TLRs...
  19. Staron M, Wu S, Hong F, Stojanovic A, Du X, Bona R, et al. Heat-shock protein gp96/grp94 is an essential chaperone for the platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex. Blood. 2011;117:7136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..depends critically on a molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER): gp96 (also known as grp94 and HSP90b1)...
  20. Liu B, Dai J, Zheng H, Stoilova D, Sun S, Li Z. Cell surface expression of an endoplasmic reticulum resident heat shock protein gp96 triggers MyD88-dependent systemic autoimmune diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15824-9 pubmed
    ..We herein addressed this hypothesis in transgenic mice by enforcing cell surface expression of gp96, a ubiquitous heat shock protein of the endoplasmic reticulum...
  21. Liu Z, Li X, Qiu L, Zhang X, Chen L, Cao S, et al. Treg suppress CTL responses upon immunization with HSP gp96. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3110-20 pubmed publisher
    HSP gp96-based vaccines have been trialled in rodent models and, more recently, in humans...
  22. Luo B, Lam B, Lee S, Wey S, Zhou H, Wang M, et al. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein GRP94 is required for maintaining hematopoietic stem cell interactions with the adult bone marrow niche. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20364 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GRP94, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, has been reported to be essential for the expression of specific integrins ..
  23. Qu D, Mazzarella R, Green M. Analysis of the structure and synthesis of GRP94, an abundant stress protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. DNA Cell Biol. 1994;13:117-24 pubmed
    The synthesis and cotranslational modification of GRP94, an abundant, resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum belonging to the hsp90 family of stress proteins, has been studied in transient expression studies in COS cells...
  24. Picard D, Suslova E, Briand P. 2-color photobleaching experiments reveal distinct intracellular dynamics of two components of the Hsp90 complex. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3949-58 pubmed
    ..However, when Hsp90-p23 complexes are disrupted by the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin, p23 moves by free diffusion while Hsp90 maintains its low mobility because it remains bound in remodeled multicomponent complexes. ..
  25. Reed R, Berwin B, Baker J, Nicchitta C. GRP94/gp96 elicits ERK activation in murine macrophages. A role for endotoxin contamination in NF-kappa B activation and nitric oxide production. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31853-60 pubmed
    Vaccination of mice with GRP94/gp96, the endoplasmic reticulum Hsp90, elicits a variety of immune responses sufficient for tumor rejection and the suppression of metastatic tumor progression...
  26. Srivastava P, Chen Y, Old L. 5'-structural analysis of genes encoding polymorphic antigens of chemically induced tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:3807-11 pubmed
    ..rejection antigens of chemically induced sarcomas in inbred mice belong to a family of Mr 96,000 glycoproteins (gp96)...
  27. Wei P, Smeyne R, Bao D, Parris J, Morgan J. Mapping of Cbln1-like immunoreactivity in adult and developing mouse brain and its localization to the endolysosomal compartment of neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2962-78 pubmed
    ..As cbln3 is only expressed in post-mitotic, post-migratory granule cells, Cbln1 homomeric complexes in precursors and Cbln1-Cbln3 heteromeric complexes in mature granule cells may have distinct functions and turnover. ..
  28. Mimura N, Hamada H, Kashio M, Jin H, Toyama Y, Kimura K, et al. Aberrant quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum impairs the biosynthesis of pulmonary surfactant in mice expressing mutant BiP. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1475-85 pubmed
    ..Moreover, failure of this adaptive mechanism may increase pulmonary susceptibility to environmental insults, such as hypoxia and ischemia, ultimately leading to neonatal respiratory failure. ..
  29. Koyasu S, Nishida E, Miyata Y, Sakai H, Yahara I. HSP100, a 100-kDa heat shock protein, is a Ca2+-calmodulin-regulated actin-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:15083-7 pubmed
    ..identical with those of a mouse endoplasmic reticulum protein, ERp99, of a hamster glucose-regulated protein, GRP94, and of a chicken heat shock protein, HSP108, all of which have been known to have strong homology with the 90-kDa ..
  30. Anas A, de Vos A, Hoogendijk A, van Lieshout M, van Heijst J, Florquin S, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 in macrophages is essential for protective immunity during Gram-negative pneumonia. J Pathol. 2016;238:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..role of gp96 in myeloid cells in host defence during Klebsiella pneumonia, mice homozygous for the conditional Hsp90b1 allele encoding gp96 were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under control of the LysM promoter to ..
  31. Biswas C, Ostrovsky O, Makarewich C, Wanderling S, Gidalevitz T, Argon Y. The peptide-binding activity of GRP94 is regulated by calcium. Biochem J. 2007;405:233-41 pubmed
    b>GRP94 (glucose-regulated protein of 94 kDa) is a major luminal constituent of the endoplasmic reticulum with known high capacity for calcium in vivo and a peptide-binding activity in vitro...
  32. Lin J, Hemenway C. Hsp90 directly modulates the spatial distribution of AF9/MLLT3 and affects target gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11966-73 pubmed publisher
    ..AF9 is among a growing number of nuclear proteins recognized to rely on the Hsp90 complex for nuclear targeting. ..
  33. Kozak C, Adamson M, Weinberger C. Genetic mapping of gene encoding the farnesoid receptor, Fxr, to mouse Chromosome 10. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:164-5 pubmed
  34. Babalola G, Schultz R. Modulation of gene expression in the preimplantation mouse embryo by TGF-alpha and TGF-beta. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995;41:133-9 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta also stimulates the expression of the DNA polymerase alpha. TGF-alpha treatment results in the increase in expression of a gene homologous to the human HEPG2 cDNA, as well as in a decrease in expression of fibronectin. ..
  35. Liu B, Staron M, Li Z. Murine but not human basophil undergoes cell-specific proteolysis of a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39442 pubmed publisher
    ..As an essential chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors and integrins in the endoplasmic reticulum, gp96 also participates in general protein homeostasis and in the ER unfolded protein response to ensure cell survival ..
  36. Flach H, Rosenbaum M, Duchniewicz M, Kim S, Zhang S, Cahalan M, et al. Mzb1 protein regulates calcium homeostasis, antibody secretion, and integrin activation in innate-like B cells. Immunity. 2010;33:723-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to its interaction with the substrate-specific chaperone Grp94, Mzb1 augmented the function of the oxidoreductase ERp57 in favoring the expression of integrins in their ..
  37. Maki R, Eddy R, Byers M, Shows T, Srivastava P. Mapping of the genes for human endoplasmic reticular heat shock protein gp96/grp94. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1993;19:73-81 pubmed
    The murine tumor rejection antigen gp96 (TRA1, mapped to mouse chromosome 10) is a member of the heat shock protein family...
  38. Kaneko K, Xu P, Cordonier E, Chen S, Ng A, Xu Y, et al. Neuronal Rap1 Regulates Energy Balance, Glucose Homeostasis, and Leptin Actions. Cell Rep. 2016;16:3003-3015 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, neuronal Rap1 critically regulates leptin sensitivity and mediates HFD-induced obesity and hypothalamic pathology and may represent a potential therapeutic target for obesity treatment. ..
  39. Zhang Y, Wu B, Metelli A, Thaxton J, Hong F, Rachidi S, et al. GP96 is a GARP chaperone and controls regulatory T cell functions. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not clear whether GP96 (also known as GRP94), which is a master TLR and integrin chaperone, controls Treg function...
  40. Chen W, Ha D, Kanel G, Lee A. Targeted deletion of ER chaperone GRP94 in the liver results in injury, repopulation of GRP94-positive hepatocytes, and spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma development in aged mice. Neoplasia. 2014;16:617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that deletion of glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94), a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, in the bone marrow and liver leads to progenitor/stem cell expansion...
  41. Tekko T, Lilleväli K, Luuk H, Sütt S, Truu L, Ord T, et al. Initiation and developmental dynamics of Wfs1 expression in the context of neural differentiation and ER stress in mouse forebrain. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2014;35:80-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR we show that UPR-related genes (Grp78, Grp94, and Chop) display dynamic expression in the perinatal brain when Wfs1 is initiated and their expression pattern ..
  42. Bourdon J, Renzing J, Robertson P, Fernandes K, Lane D. Scotin, a novel p53-inducible proapoptotic protein located in the ER and the nuclear membrane. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:235-46 pubmed
    ..The discovery of Scotin brings to light a role of the ER in p53-dependent apoptosis. ..
  43. Shyamala G, Gauthier Y, Moore S, Catelli M, Ullrich S. Estrogenic regulation of murine uterine 90-kilodalton heat shock protein gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:3567-70 pubmed
    ..At the mRNA level, this response was greatest for HSP86 (15-fold). In contrast, estradiol had no significant effect on HSP70. ..
  44. Zawislak C, Beaulieu A, Loeb G, Karo J, Canner D, Bezman N, et al. Stage-specific regulation of natural killer cell homeostasis and response against viral infection by microRNA-155. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6967-72 pubmed publisher
    ..NK cells constitutively expressing Noxa and SOCS1 exhibit profound defects in expansion during the response to MCMV infection, suggesting that their regulation by miR-155 promotes antiviral immunity. ..
  45. Baker Lepain J, Sarzotti M, Fields T, Li C, Nicchitta C. GRP94 (gp96) and GRP94 N-terminal geldanamycin binding domain elicit tissue nonrestricted tumor suppression. J Exp Med. 2002;196:1447-59 pubmed
    In chemical carcinogenesis models, GRP94 (gp96) elicits tumor-specific protective immunity...
  46. Liu Y, Hogan B. Differential gene expression in the distal tip endoderm of the embryonic mouse lung. Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;2:229-33 pubmed
    ..5 lung buds, versus more proximal regions. Twenty genes were identified, assigned to different categories based on sequence analysis, and their distal expression confirmed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. ..
  47. Howard E, Leung S, Yuen H, Chua C, Lee D, Chan K, et al. Decreased adhesiveness, resistance to anoikis and suppression of GRP94 are integral to the survival of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2008;25:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Using proteomic studies, we observed that the GRP94 glycoprotein was suppressed in CTC...
  48. Miyata Y, Yoneda Y, Yahara I. Stimulation of CK2-dependent Grp94 phosphorylation by the nuclear localization signal peptide. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;356:191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..with that of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (Grp94) belonging to the Hsp90 family, and purified Grp94 was phosphorylated by a kinase in cell lysates in an NLS-..
  49. Srivastava P, Kozak C, Old L. Chromosomal assignment of the gene encoding the mouse tumor rejection antigen gp96. Immunogenetics. 1988;28:205-7 pubmed
  50. Li X, Liu Z, Yan X, Zhang X, Li Y, Zhao B, et al. Induction of regulatory T cells by high-dose gp96 suppresses murine liver immune hyperactivation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68997 pubmed publisher
    Immunization with high-dose heat shock protein gp96, an endoplasmic reticulum counterpart of the Hsp90 family, significantly enhances regulatory T cell (Treg) frequency and suppressive function...
  51. Binder R, Srivastava P. Peptides chaperoned by heat-shock proteins are a necessary and sufficient source of antigen in the cross-priming of CD8+ T cells. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:593-9 pubmed
  52. Martindale J, Fernandez R, Thuerauf D, Whittaker R, Gude N, Sussman M, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress gene induction and protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury in the hearts of transgenic mice with a tamoxifen-regulated form of ATF6. Circ Res. 2006;98:1186-93 pubmed
    ..markers of the UPR, the ER-targeted cytoprotective chaperones glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94 (GRP78 and GRP94), were increased, consistent with I/R-mediated UPR activation in the heart...
  53. Frasson M, Vitadello M, Brunati A, La Rocca N, Tibaldi E, Pinna L, et al. Grp94 is Tyr-phosphorylated by Fyn in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and translocates to Golgi in differentiating myoblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:239-52 pubmed publisher
    The endoplasmic-reticulum chaperone Grp94 is required for the cell surface export of molecules involved in the native immune response, in mesoderm induction and muscle development, but the signals responsible for Grp94 recruitment are ..