Hras

Summary

Gene Symbol: Hras
Description: Harvey rat sarcoma virus oncogene
Alias: H-ras, Ha-ras, Harvey-ras, Hras-1, Hras1, Kras2, c-H-ras, c-Ha-ras, c-rasHa, ras, GTPase HRas, H-Ras-1, H-ras 1 protein, Harvey rat sarcoma virus oncogene 1, c-Ha-ras p21 protein, c-Ha-ras transgene, p21ras, transforming protein P21
Species: mouse
Products:     Hras

Top Publications

  1. Oft M, Akhurst R, Balmain A. Metastasis is driven by sequential elevation of H-ras and Smad2 levels. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:487-94 pubmed
    ..Here we show that during multistage tumorigenesis, discrete expression thresholds of activated Smad2 and H-ras are sequentially surpassed, driving tumour progression through distinct phases from a differentiated squamous ..
  2. Johnson L, Greenbaum D, Cichowski K, Mercer K, Murphy E, Schmitt E, et al. K-ras is an essential gene in the mouse with partial functional overlap with N-ras. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2468-81 pubmed
    Mammalian ras genes are thought to be critical in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation and are mutated in approximately 30% of all human tumors. However, N-ras and H-ras are nonessential for mouse development...
  3. Manabe T, Aiba A, Yamada A, Ichise T, Sakagami H, Kondo H, et al. Regulation of long-term potentiation by H-Ras through NMDA receptor phosphorylation. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2504-11 pubmed
    The proto-oncogene ras plays a critical role in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, ras genes are abundantly expressed in the adult CNS, although neuronal cells normally do not proliferate...
  4. Esteban L, Vicario Abejón C, Fernandez Salguero P, Fernandez Medarde A, Swaminathan N, Yienger K, et al. Targeted genomic disruption of H-ras and N-ras, individually or in combination, reveals the dispensability of both loci for mouse growth and development. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1444-52 pubmed
    Mammalian cells harbor three highly homologous and widely expressed members of the ras family (H-ras, N-ras, and K-ras), but it remains unclear whether they play specific or overlapping cellular roles...
  5. Nagase H, Mao J, Balmain A. Allele-specific Hras mutations and genetic alterations at tumor susceptibility loci in skin carcinomas from interspecific hybrid mice. Cancer Res. 2003;63:4849-53 pubmed
    ..The mouse Hras gene, located close to Skts2 on chromosome 7, had specific activating mutations in the Mus musculus allele in 23 of ..
  6. Traver S, Bidot C, Spassky N, Baltauss T, de Tand M, Thomas J, et al. RGS14 is a novel Rap effector that preferentially regulates the GTPase activity of galphao. Biochem J. 2000;350 Pt 1:19-29 pubmed
    In an attempt to elucidate the physiological function(s) of the Ras-related Rap proteins, we used the yeast two-hybrid system and isolated a cDNA encoding a protein that interacts with both Rap1 and Rap2, but not with Ras; the use of ..
  7. Casanova M, Larcher F, Casanova B, Murillas R, Fernández Aceñero M, Villanueva C, et al. A critical role for ras-mediated, epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent angiogenesis in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3402-7 pubmed
    ..A large body of evidence indicates that in this model, activation of Ha-ras is the critical event in papilloma formation, a process that involves epidermal proliferation and stroma remodeling,..
  8. Martinez Salgado C, Fuentes Calvo I, García Cenador B, Santos E, Lopez Novoa J. Involvement of H- and N-Ras isoforms in transforming growth factor-beta1-induced proliferation and in collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:2093-106 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta and Ras signaling pathways are closely related: TGF-beta1 overcomes Ras mitogenic effects and Ras counteracts TGF-beta ..
  9. Chen X, Mitsutake N, LaPerle K, Akeno N, Zanzonico P, Longo V, et al. Endogenous expression of Hras(G12V) induces developmental defects and neoplasms with copy number imbalances of the oncogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7979-84 pubmed publisher
    We developed mice with germline endogenous expression of oncogenic Hras to study effects on development and mechanisms of tumor initiation...

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Drosten M, Dhawahir A, Sum E, Urosevic J, Lechuga C, Esteban L, et al. Genetic analysis of Ras signalling pathways in cell proliferation, migration and survival. EMBO J. 2010;29:1091-104 pubmed publisher
    We have used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) devoid of Ras proteins to illustrate that they are essential for proliferation and migration, but not for survival, at least in these cells...
  2. Nagase H, Bryson S, Cordell H, Kemp C, Fee F, Balmain A. Distinct genetic loci control development of benign and malignant skin tumours in mice. Nat Genet. 1995;10:424-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, probably a single locus on chromosome 5 affects both early and late stages of malignancy. The results indicate that benign and malignant tumours are largely under independent genetic control. ..
  3. Nuñez Rodriguez N, Lee I, Banno A, Qiao H, Qiao R, Yao Z, et al. Characterization of R-ras3/m-ras null mice reveals a potential role in trophic factor signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7145-54 pubmed
    R-Ras3/M-Ras is a member of the RAS superfamily of small-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins...
  4. Bremner R, Balmain A. Genetic changes in skin tumor progression: correlation between presence of a mutant ras gene and loss of heterozygosity on mouse chromosome 7. Cell. 1990;61:407-17 pubmed
    Initiation of tumorigenesis in mouse skin can be accomplished by mutagenesis of the H-ras gene by treatment with chemical carcinogens...
  5. Ise K, Nakamura K, Nakao K, Shimizu S, Harada H, Ichise T, et al. Targeted deletion of the H-ras gene decreases tumor formation in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2000;19:2951-6 pubmed
    To clarify the role of the H-Ras in vivo, we generated H-ras null mutant mice by gene targeting. In spite of the importance of the Ras in cell proliferation and differentiation, H-ras null mutant mice grew normally and were fertile...
  6. Schuhmacher A, Guerra C, Sauzeau V, Canamero M, Bustelo X, Barbacid M. A mouse model for Costello syndrome reveals an Ang II-mediated hypertensive condition. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2169-79 pubmed publisher
    Germline activation of H-RAS oncogenes is the primary cause of Costello syndrome (CS), a neuro-cardio-facio-cutaneous developmental syndrome...
  7. Ray D, Terao Y, Nimbalkar D, Hirai H, Osmundson E, Zou X, et al. Hemizygous disruption of Cdc25A inhibits cellular transformation and mammary tumorigenesis in mice. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6605-11 pubmed
    ..Importantly, Cdc25A(+/-) MEFs are significantly resistant to malignant transformation induced by coexpression of H-ras(V12) and a dominant negative p53 mutant...
  8. Garcia Rendueles M, Ricarte Filho J, Untch B, Landa I, Knauf J, Voza F, et al. NF2 Loss Promotes Oncogenic RAS-Induced Thyroid Cancers via YAP-Dependent Transactivation of RAS Proteins and Sensitizes Them to MEK Inhibition. Cancer Discov. 2015;5:1178-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Nf2 deletion or Hras mutation is insufficient for transformation, whereas their combined disruption leads to murine PDTC with increased ..
  9. Van Kanegan M, Strack S. The protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits B'beta and B'delta mediate sustained TrkA neurotrophin receptor autophosphorylation and neuronal differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:662-74 pubmed publisher
    ..and B'delta enhance NGF (but not epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor) signaling through the Akt and Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and promote neuritogenesis and differentiation of PC12 cells...
  10. Zhu B, Ferry C, Blazanin N, Bility M, Khozoie C, Kang B, et al. PPAR?/? promotes HRAS-induced senescence and tumor suppression by potentiating p-ERK and repressing p-AKT signaling. Oncogene. 2014;33:5348-59 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor-?/? (PPAR?/?) inhibits skin tumorigenesis through mechanisms that may be dependent on HRAS signaling...
  11. Xin B, Yamamoto M, Fujii K, Ooshio T, Chen X, Okada Y, et al. Critical role of Myc activation in mouse hepatocarcinogenesis induced by the activation of AKT and RAS pathways. Oncogene. 2017;36:5087-5097 pubmed publisher
    ..of Myc activation in mouse liver tumours induced by hepatocytic expression of myristoylated AKT (AKT) and/or mutant HRASV12 (HRAS) via transposon-mediated gene integration...
  12. Ellis R, DeFeo D, Shih T, Gonda M, Young H, Tsuchida N, et al. The p21 src genes of Harvey and Kirsten sarcoma viruses originate from divergent members of a family of normal vertebrate genes. Nature. 1981;292:506-11 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that cellular p21 sarc genes constitute a divergent family of vertebrate genes that can regulate the growth of cells...
  13. Sreeramaneni R, Chaudhry A, McMahon M, Sherr C, Inoue K. Ras-Raf-Arf signaling critically depends on the Dmp1 transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:220-32 pubmed
    ..In cultured primary cells, the Dmp1 promoter was efficiently activated by oncogenic Ha-Ras(V12), but not by overexpressed c-Myc or E2F-1...
  14. Ding B, Lengyel P. p204 protein is a novel modulator of ras activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5831-48 pubmed publisher
    ..A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a p204-cytoplasmic Ras protein interaction...
  15. Bulat N, Waeber G, Widmann C. LDLs stimulate p38 MAPKs and wound healing through SR-BI independently of Ras and PI3 kinase. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3Ks) and Ras have been suggested to participate in lipoprotein-induced MAPK activation...
  16. Beronja S, Janki P, Heller E, Lien W, Keyes B, Oshimori N, et al. RNAi screens in mice identify physiological regulators of oncogenic growth. Nature. 2013;501:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Focusing on skin development and oncogenic (Hras(G12V)-induced) hyperplasia, our screens uncover previously unknown as well as anticipated regulators of embryonic ..
  17. Wei X, Wang X, Xia Y, Tang Y, Li F, Fang W, et al. Kindlin-2 regulates renal tubular cell plasticity by activation of Ras and its downstream signaling. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, kindlin-2 interacted with Ras and son of sevenless (Sos)-1...
  18. Stoll R, Furst S, Stoltz J, Lilly P, Mennear J. Dermal carcinogenicity in transgenic mice: effect of vehicle on responsiveness of hemizygous Tg.AC mice to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA). Toxicol Pathol. 2001;29:535-40 pubmed
    ..These results show that choice of vehicle may affect the quantitative and qualitative nature of the response of Tg.AC mice to TPA, but 8 of 9 vehicles proved satisfactory for delivery of TPA. ..
  19. Ramirez de Molina A, Penalva V, Lucas L, Lacal J. Regulation of choline kinase activity by Ras proteins involves Ral-GDS and PI3K. Oncogene. 2002;21:937-46 pubmed
    b>Ras proteins are molecular switches that control signaling pathways critical in the onset of a variety of human cancers...
  20. Weissman J, Ma J, Essex A, Gao Y, Burstein E. G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of rap GTPases: characterization of a novel Galphai regulated pathway. Oncogene. 2004;23:241-9 pubmed
    b>Ras proteins mediate the proliferative effects of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but the role of Rap proteins in GPCR signaling is unclear...
  21. Wakabayashi Y, Mao J, Brown K, Girardi M, Balmain A. Promotion of Hras-induced squamous carcinomas by a polymorphic variant of the Patched gene in FVB mice. Nature. 2007;445:761-5 pubmed
    ..The Ptch polymorphism affects Hras-induced apoptosis, and binding to Tid1, the mouse homologue of the Drosophila l(2)tid tumour suppressor gene...
  22. Willard F, Willard M, Kimple A, Soundararajan M, Oestreich E, Li X, et al. Regulator of G-protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a selective H-Ras effector. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4884 pubmed publisher
    ..RGS14 contains tandem Ras-binding domains that have been reported to bind to Rap- but not Ras GTPases in vitro, leading to the suggestion ..
  23. Alpar A, Naumann N, Arendt T, Gärtner U. Constitutively enhanced p21Ras activity amplifies dendritic remodeling of hippocampal neurons during physical activity. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009;27:407-11 pubmed publisher
    In the present study we show that overexpression of constitutively active Ras amplifies the dendritic remodeling observed when animals were allowed to be physically active...
  24. Plows D, Briassouli P, Owen C, Zoumpourlis V, Garrett M, Pintzas A. Ecdysone-inducible expression of oncogenic Ha-Ras in NIH 3T3 cells leads to transient nuclear localization of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1. Biochem J. 2002;362:305-15 pubmed
    The Ras family of GTP-binding proteins are key transducers of extracellular signals, particularly through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
  25. Guil S, de la Iglesia N, Fernandez Larrea J, Cifuentes D, Ferrer J, Guinovart J, et al. Alternative splicing of the human proto-oncogene c-H-ras renders a new Ras family protein that trafficks to cytoplasm and nucleus. Cancer Res. 2003;63:5178-87 pubmed
    We characterized a novel protein of the Ras family, p19 (H-RasIDX). The c-H-ras proto-oncogene undergoes alternative splicing of the exon termed IDX...
  26. Agudo Ibáñez L, Nuñez F, Calvo F, Berenjeno I, Bustelo X, Crespo P. Transcriptomal profiling of site-specific Ras signals. Cell Signal. 2007;19:2264-76 pubmed
    b>Ras proteins are distributed in distinct plasma-membrane microdomains and endomembranes...
  27. Bassères D, Ebbs A, Levantini E, Baldwin A. Requirement of the NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA for K-Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3537-46 pubmed publisher
    K-Ras-induced lung cancer is a very common disease, for which there are currently no effective therapies...
  28. Hsieh C, Wu S, Lan S, Weng T, Tsai Y, Liu H. Effect of Ha-rasval12 on nm23 expression, tumor formation and metastasis of the transformants, and immunomodulation in tumor-bearing mice. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:3585-92 pubmed
    Overexpression of the Ha-ras(val12) oncogene has frequently been detected in primary and metastatic carcinomas. NM23 is a metastasis inhibition factor and plays a suppressive role in metastasis in many types of cancer...
  29. Diril M, Ratnacaram C, Padmakumar V, Du T, Wasser M, Coppola V, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is essential for cell division and suppression of DNA re-replication but not for liver regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3826-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike other Cdks, loss of Cdk1 in the liver confers complete resistance against tumorigenesis induced by activated Ras and silencing of p53.
  30. Keller R, Gestl S, Lu A, Hoke A, Feith D, Gunther E. Carcinogen-specific mutations in preferred Ras-Raf pathway oncogenes directed by strand bias. Carcinogenesis. 2016;37:810-816 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammary tumors that followed DMBA exposure nearly always activated the Ras pathway via somatic Hras(CAA61CTA) mutations...
  31. Han L, Wong D, Dhaka A, Afar D, White M, Xie W, et al. Protein binding and signaling properties of RIN1 suggest a unique effector function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4954-9 pubmed
    Human RIN1 was first characterized as a RAS binding protein based on the properties of its carboxyl-terminal domain...
  32. Kim E, Ambroziak P, Otto J, Taylor B, Ashby M, Shannon K, et al. Disruption of the mouse Rce1 gene results in defective Ras processing and mislocalization of Ras within cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:8383-90 pubmed
    Little is known about the enzyme(s) required for the endoproteolytic processing of mammalian Ras proteins...
  33. Shapira S, Barkan B, Friedman E, Fridman E, Kloog Y, Stein R. The tumor suppressor neurofibromin confers sensitivity to apoptosis by Ras-dependent and Ras-independent pathways. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:895-906 pubmed
    ..and malignant tumors attributed to loss of function of Nf1, which encodes neurofibromin, a tumor suppressor with Ras-GAP activity...
  34. Casar B, Arozarena I, Sanz Moreno V, Pinto A, Agudo Ibáñez L, Marais R, et al. Ras subcellular localization defines extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 substrate specificity through distinct utilization of scaffold proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1338-53 pubmed publisher
    Subcellular localization influences the nature of Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signals by unknown mechanisms...
  35. Manns M, Bichler Z, Leske O, Heumann R. Neuronal Ras activation inhibits adult hippocampal progenitor cell division and impairs spatial short-term memory. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:525-36 pubmed publisher
    ..the impact of those factors, we used a transgenic synRas mouse model expressing constitutively activated Valin12-Harvey Ras selectively in differentiated neurons...
  36. Rooney G, Goodwin A, Depeille P, Sharir A, Schofield C, Yeh E, et al. Human iPS Cell-Derived Neurons Uncover the Impact of Increased Ras Signaling in Costello Syndrome. J Neurosci. 2016;36:142-52 pubmed publisher
    Increasing evidence implicates abnormal Ras signaling as a major contributor in neurodevelopmental disorders, yet how such signaling causes cortical pathogenesis is unknown...
  37. Feng F, Rittling S. Mammary tumor development in MMTV-c-myc/MMTV-v-Ha-ras transgenic mice is unaffected by osteopontin deficiency. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2000;63:71-9 pubmed
    Transgenic mice expressing c-myc and v-Ha-ras specifically in the mammary gland under the control of the mammary specific promoter MMTV develop unifocal mammary tumors with a half time of about 46 days, and these tumors express high ..
  38. Lim Y, Han I, Jeon J, Park H, Bahk Y, Oh E. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at tyrosine 861 is crucial for Ras transformation of fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29060-5 pubmed
    ..FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine 861 was increased in both constitutively H-Ras-transformed and H-Ras-inducible NIH3T3 cells, in parallel with cell transformation...
  39. Jaworski M, Buchmann A, Bauer P, Riess O, Schwarz M. B-raf and Ha-ras mutations in chemically induced mouse liver tumors. Oncogene. 2005;24:1290-5 pubmed
    ..In about 30-50% of cases this effect can be related to activation of the Ha-ras gene by point mutations, whereas in the remaining cases mutations may occur in other members within this pathway, ..
  40. Thevathasan J, Tan E, Zheng H, Lin Y, Li Y, Inoue T, et al. The small GTPase HRas shapes local PI3K signals through positive feedback and regulates persistent membrane extension in migrating fibroblasts. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:2228-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This positive feedback loop is critically dependent on the small GTPase HRas. Silencing of HRas abrogates local amplification of 3-PI signals upon synthetic PI3K activation and results in ..
  41. Cardiff R, Leder A, Kuo A, Pattengale P, Leder P. Multiple tumor types appear in a transgenic mouse with the ras oncogene. Am J Pathol. 1993;142:1199-207 pubmed
    A transgenic mouse strain with the zeta-globin promoter and the vHa-ras oncogene develops an array of mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms described here...
  42. Saga Y, Hata N, Kobayashi S, Magnuson T, Seldin M, Taketo M. MesP1: a novel basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in the nascent mesodermal cells during mouse gastrulation. Development. 1996;122:2769-78 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence and its expression pattern suggest that MesP1 plays an important role in the development of the nascent mesoderm including PGC. ..
  43. Behren A, Binder K, Vucelic G, Herberhold S, Hirt B, Loewenheim H, et al. The p38 SAPK pathway is required for Ha-ras induced in vitro invasion of NIH3T3 cells. Exp Cell Res. 2005;303:321-30 pubmed
    Constitutive activation of the ras oncoprotein plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis...
  44. Drew J, Kastenmeier A, Drinkwater N. Ancestral bias in the Hras1 gene and distal Chromosome 7 among inbred mice. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:732-8 pubmed
    Inbred strains of mice vary in their frequency of liver tumors initiated by a mutation in the Hras1 (H-ras) proto-oncogene. We sequenced 4...
  45. Ichise T, Yoshida N, Ichise H. H-, N- and Kras cooperatively regulate lymphatic vessel growth by modulating VEGFR3 expression in lymphatic endothelial cells in mice. Development. 2010;137:1003-13 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian Ras, which is encoded by three independent genes, has been thought to be a versatile component of intracellular signalling...
  46. Walkup W, Washburn L, Sweredoski M, Carlisle H, Graham R, Hess S, et al. Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:4908-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%...
  47. Drosten M, Simón Carrasco L, Hernández Porras I, Lechuga C, Blasco M, Jacob H, et al. H-Ras and K-Ras Oncoproteins Induce Different Tumor Spectra When Driven by the Same Regulatory Sequences. Cancer Res. 2017;77:707-718 pubmed publisher
    Genetic studies in mice have provided evidence that H-Ras and K-Ras proteins are bioequivalent. However, human tumors display marked differences in the association of RAS oncogenes with tumor type...
  48. Anderson A, Woloschak G. Cellular proto-oncogene expression following exposure of mice to gamma rays. Radiat Res. 1992;130:340-4 pubmed
    ..We selected specific cellular oncogenes (c-fos, c-myc, c-src, and c-H-ras), based on their normal expression in liver and gut tissues from untreated mice...
  49. Shih T, Papageorge A, Stokes P, Weeks M, Scolnick E. Guanine nucleotide-binding and autophosphorylating activities associated with the p21src protein of Harvey murine sarcoma virus. Nature. 1980;287:686-91 pubmed
    ..These biochemical activities are unique among those associated with transforming proteins of RNA-containing or DNA-containing tumour viruses. ..
  50. Slamon D, Cline M. Expression of cellular oncogenes during embryonic and fetal development of the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:7141-5 pubmed
    ..Five of these genes (c-myc, c-erb, c-Ha-ras, c-src, and c-sis) were expressed at appreciable levels, and four were modulated in a consistent manner during the ..
  51. Chantry D, Vojtek A, Kashishian A, Holtzman D, Wood C, Gray P, et al. p110delta, a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit that associates with p85 and is expressed predominantly in leukocytes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:19236-41 pubmed
  52. Feng L, Xie X, Ding Q, Luo X, He J, Fan F, et al. Spatial regulation of Raf kinase signaling by RKTG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14348-53 pubmed
    Subcellular compartmentalization has become an important theme in cell signaling such as spatial regulation of Ras by RasGRP1 and MEK/ERK by Sef. Here, we report spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG (Raf kinase trapping to Golgi)...
  53. Mudhasani R, Zhu Z, Hutvagner G, Eischen C, Lyle S, Hall L, et al. Loss of miRNA biogenesis induces p19Arf-p53 signaling and senescence in primary cells. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:1055-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Although levels of Ras and Myc oncoproteins appeared unaltered, loss of Dicer resulted in increased DNA damage and p53 activity in these ..
  54. Fritsch R, de Krijger I, Fritsch K, George R, Reason B, Kumar M, et al. RAS and RHO families of GTPases directly regulate distinct phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms. Cell. 2013;153:1050-63 pubmed publisher
    b>RAS proteins are important direct activators of p110?, p110?, and p110? type I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), interacting via an amino-terminal RAS-binding domain (RBD)...
  55. Lee I, Song S, Cook D, Dinudom A. H-Ras mediates the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor on the epithelial Na+ channel. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0116938 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigates the role of small G-proteins of the Ras family in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-activated cellular signalling pathway that downregulates activity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)...
  56. Santos E, Tronick S, Aaronson S, Pulciani S, Barbacid M. T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene is an activated form of the normal human homologue of BALB- and Harvey-MSV transforming genes. Nature. 1982;298:343-7 pubmed
    ..These results imply that rather subtle genetic alterations have led to the activation of the normal human homologue of v-bas as a human transforming gene...
  57. Ding H, Roncari L, Shannon P, Wu X, Lau N, Karaskova J, et al. Astrocyte-specific expression of activated p21-ras results in malignant astrocytoma formation in a transgenic mouse model of human gliomas. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3826-36 pubmed
    Activation of the p21-ras signaling pathway from aberrantly expressed receptors promotes the growth of malignant human astrocytomas...
  58. Breunig J, Levy R, Antonuk C, Molina J, Dutra Clarke M, Park H, et al. Ets Factors Regulate Neural Stem Cell Depletion and Gliogenesis in Ras Pathway Glioma. Cell Rep. 2015;12:258-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that disruption of the Nf1-Ras pathway in the ventricular zone at multiple signaling nodes uniformly results in rapid neural stem cell depletion, ..
  59. Brissenden J, Caras I, Thelander L, Francke U. The structural gene for the M1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase maps to chromosome 11, band p15, in human and to chromosome 7 in mouse. Exp Cell Res. 1988;174:302-8 pubmed
    ..4----p15.5. The mouse Rrml locus was assigned to chromosome 7, where it forms part of a conserved syntenic group of at least seven other genes assigned to human chromosome band 11p15. ..
  60. Pravtcheva D, Ruddle F, Ellis R, Scolnick E. Assignment of murine cellular Harvey ras gene to chromosome 7. Somatic Cell Genet. 1983;9:681-6 pubmed
    ..cell hybrids containing various combinations of mouse chromosomes were analyzed for the presence of the mouse c-Ha-ras (1) sequences after restriction endonuclease digestion and hybridization with a 32P-labeled Ha-ras specific probe ..
  61. Ohnishi Y, Arai T, Koshirakawa M, Horii N, Nakajo S, Urano K, et al. Induction of drug metabolism-related enzymes by methylcholanthrene and phenobarbital in transgenic mice carrying human prototype c-Ha-ras gene and their wild type littermates. Exp Anim. 2001;50:33-9 pubmed
    Transgenic mice hemizygously carrying human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene, Tg-rasH2 show very sensitive and facilitated carcinogenicity to various carcinogens...
  62. Wheeler M, Smutney O, Check J, Rusyn I, Schulte Hermann R, Thurman R. Impaired Ras membrane association and activation in PPARalpha knockout mice after partial hepatectomy. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G302-12 pubmed
    ..after partial hepatectomy (PH) involves several signaling mechanisms including activation of the small GTPases Ras and RhoA in response to mitogens leading to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation...
  63. Komiyama N, Watabe A, Carlisle H, Porter K, Charlesworth P, Monti J, et al. SynGAP regulates ERK/MAPK signaling, synaptic plasticity, and learning in the complex with postsynaptic density 95 and NMDA receptor. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9721-32 pubmed
    ..the postsynaptic scaffolding protein postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) couples NMDA receptors (NMDARs) to the Ras GTPase-activating protein SynGAP...
  64. Serban D, Leng J, Cheresh D. H-ras regulates angiogenesis and vascular permeability by activation of distinct downstream effectors. Circ Res. 2008;102:1350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Downstream mechanisms that define these vascular responses remain unknown. H-Ras activation has been associated with the angiogenic response...
  65. Czyzyk J, Chen H, Bottomly K, Flavell R. p21 Ras/impedes mitogenic signal propagation regulates cytokine production and migration in CD4 T cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23004-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the role of a recently described Ras GTPase effector and repressor of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade called impedes mitogenic signal propagation (Imp) in ..
  66. Alpar A, Naumann N, Hartig W, Arendt T, Gartner U. Enhanced Ras activity preserves dendritic size and extension as well as synaptic contacts of neurons after functional deprivation in synRas mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:3083-94 pubmed publisher
    The monomeric GTP-binding protein p21Ras has been repeatedly implicated in neuronal stability and plastic changes of the adult nervous system...
  67. Vaughan M, Ramirez R, Andrews C, Wright W, Shay J. H-ras expression in immortalized keratinocytes produces an invasive epithelium in cultured skin equivalents. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7908 pubmed publisher
    b>Ras proteins affect both proliferation and expression of collagen-degrading enzymes, two important processes in cancer progression...
  68. Hu T, Gimferrer I, Simmons A, WIEST D, Alberola Ila J. The Ras/MAPK pathway is required for generation of iNKT cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19890 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, current models imply that the Ras/MAPK pathway, one of the critical mediators of conventional ?? T cell positive selection, is not necessary for iNKT ..
  69. Larive R, Abad A, Cardaba C, Hernandez T, Canamero M, de Alava E, et al. The Ras-like protein R-Ras2/TC21 is important for proper mammary gland development. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2373-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Using compound RRas2-, HRas-, and NRas-knockout mice, we demonstrate that these GTPases act in a nonsynergistic and nonadditive manner during ..
  70. Krencik R, Hokanson K, Narayan A, Dvornik J, Rooney G, Rauen K, et al. Dysregulation of astrocyte extracellular signaling in Costello syndrome. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:286ra66 pubmed publisher
    ..a developmental disorder with intellectual disability caused by mutant Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) termed Costello syndrome: mutant HRAS human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and transgenic mice...
  71. Shekels L, Lyftogt C, Kieliszewski M, Filie J, Kozak C, Ho S. Mouse gastric mucin: cloning and chromosomal localization. Biochem J. 1995;311 ( Pt 3):775-85 pubmed
    ..Due to sequence similarity and predominant expression in the stomach, the MGM gene may be considered a MUC5AC homologue and named Muc5ac. ..
  72. Mason C, Springer C, Cooper R, Superti Furga G, Marshall C, Marais R. Serine and tyrosine phosphorylations cooperate in Raf-1, but not B-Raf activation. EMBO J. 1999;18:2137-48 pubmed
    ..Expression of Raf-1 with oncogenic Ras gives predominantly S338 phosphorylation, whereas activated Src gives predominantly Y341 phosphorylation...
  73. Ingram D, Hiatt K, King A, Fisher L, Shivakumar R, Derstine C, et al. Hyperactivation of p21(ras) and the hematopoietic-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, cooperate to alter the proliferation of neurofibromin-deficient mast cells in vivo and in vitro. J Exp Med. 2001;194:57-69 pubmed
    ..Neurofibromin, the protein encoded by NF1, negatively regulates p21(ras) activity by accelerating the conversion of Ras-GTP to Ras-GDP...
  74. Spencer M, Shao H, Tucker H, Andres D. Nerve growth factor-dependent activation of the small GTPase Rin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17605-15 pubmed
    The Rit and Rin proteins comprise a distinct and evolutionarily conserved subfamily of Ras-related small GTPases...
  75. Cho H, Jeong H, Lee J, Woo E, Hyun J, Chung M, et al. Oncogenic H-Ras enhances DNA repair through the Ras/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Rac1 pathway in NIH3T3 cells. Evidence for association with reactive oxygen species. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19358-66 pubmed
    This study investigated the role of oncogenic H-Ras in DNA repair capacity in NIH3T3 cells...
  76. Fingerle Rowson G, Petrenko O, Metz C, Forsthuber T, Mitchell R, Huss R, et al. The p53-dependent effects of macrophage migration inhibitory factor revealed by gene targeting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9354-9 pubmed
    ..MIF-KO mice exhibit p53-dependent growth alterations, increased p53 transcriptional activity, and resistance to ras-mediated transformation...
  77. Fukuda S, Pelus L. Activated H-Ras regulates hematopoietic cell survival by modulating Survivin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:636-44 pubmed
    Survivin expression and Ras activation are regulated by hematopoietic growth factors...
  78. Lommerse P, Snaar Jagalska B, Spaink H, Schmidt T. Single-molecule diffusion measurements of H-Ras at the plasma membrane of live cells reveal microdomain localization upon activation. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1799-809 pubmed
    Recent studies show that the partitioning of the small GTPase H-Ras in different types of membrane microdomains is dependent on guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-loading of H-Ras...
  79. Tanaka T, Williams R, Rabbitts T. Tumour prevention by a single antibody domain targeting the interaction of signal transduction proteins with RAS. EMBO J. 2007;26:3250-9 pubmed
    ..An example is RAS, which is frequently mutated in cancer and contributes to initiation and maintenance of the disease by constitutive ..
  80. Wu S, Lan S, Cheng D, Chen W, Shen C, Lee Y, et al. Ras-related tumorigenesis is suppressed by BNIP3-mediated autophagy through inhibition of cell proliferation. Neoplasia. 2011;13:1171-82 pubmed
    Autophagy plays diverse roles in Ras-related tumorigenesis. H-ras(val12) induces autophagy through multiple signaling pathways including Raf-1/ERK pathway, and various ERK downstream molecules of autophagy have been reported...
  81. Brown K, Bailleul B, Ramsden M, Fee F, Krumlauf R, Balmain A. Isolation and characterization of the 5' flanking region of the mouse c-Harvey-ras gene. Mol Carcinog. 1988;1:161-70 pubmed
    The complete 5' flanking region of the murine c-Ha-ras gene was cloned and sequenced. An untranslated exon (-1) was identified and the promoter region of the gene located...
  82. Tamaoki N. The rasH2 transgenic mouse: nature of the model and mechanistic studies on tumorigenesis. Toxicol Pathol. 2001;29 Suppl:81-9 pubmed
    The rasH2 mouse is a hemizygous transgenic mouse carrying the c-Ha-ras oncogene and that gene's promotor/enhancer within the genetic background of a BALB/cByJ x C57BL/6J F1 mouse...
  83. Wang J, Wu W, Cerione R. Cdc42 and Ras cooperate to mediate cellular transformation by intersectin-L. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22883-91 pubmed
    Cdc42, a Ras-related GTP-binding protein, has been implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, cell-cycle progression, and malignant transformation...
  84. Lu D, Wolfgang C, Hai T. Activating transcription factor 3, a stress-inducible gene, suppresses Ras-stimulated tumorigenesis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10473-81 pubmed
    ..Consistent with the growth arrest and pro-apoptotic roles of ATF3, ATF3(-) fibroblasts upon Ras transformation exhibited higher growth rate, produced more colonies in soft agar, and formed larger tumor upon ..
  85. Karbowniczek M, Robertson G, Henske E. Rheb inhibits C-raf activity and B-raf/C-raf heterodimerization. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25447-56 pubmed
    The Ras-Raf-MEK signaling cascade is critical for normal development and is activated in many forms of cancer...
  86. Xie L, Overbeek P, Reneker L. Ras signaling is essential for lens cell proliferation and lens growth during development. Dev Biol. 2006;298:403-14 pubmed
    ..The signaling pathways downstream of the RTKs remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate the important role of Ras in lens development by expressing a dominant-negative form of Ras (dn-Ras) in the lens of transgenic mice...
  87. Kim S, Yoon J, Jeong W, Jeon S, Park Y, Yoon J, et al. H-Ras is degraded by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling via beta-TrCP-mediated polyubiquitylation. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:842-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ras is an important proto-protein that is regulated primarily by GDP/GTP exchange...
  88. Zheng Y, Xia Y, Hawke D, Halle M, Tremblay M, Gao X, et al. FAK phosphorylation by ERK primes ras-induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of FAK mediated by PIN1 and PTP-PEST. Mol Cell. 2009;35:11-25 pubmed publisher
    Activated Ras has been found in many types of cancer. However, the mechanism underlying Ras-promoted tumor metastasis remains unclear...
  89. Ke H, Harris R, Coloff J, Jin J, Leshin B, Miliani de Marval P, et al. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 2 plays a dominant role in human epidermal neoplasia. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3080-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, JNK2, but not JNK1, is sufficient to couple with oncogenic Ras to transform primary human epidermal cells into malignancy with features of SCC...
  90. Park J, Jeong W, Kim M, Min D, Choi K. Retinoic-acid-mediated HRas stabilization induces neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells during brain development. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:2997-3007 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that stabilized HRas specifically induces neuronal differentiation of NSCs...
  91. Tennant R, Stasiewicz S, Eastin W, Mennear J, Spalding J. The Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse: nature of the model. Toxicol Pathol. 2001;29 Suppl:51-9 pubmed
    The Tg.AC (v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse model provides a reporter phenotype of skin papillomas in response to either genotoxic or nongenotoxic carcinogens. In common with the conventional bioassay, the Tg...
  92. Zhang J, Socolovsky M, Gross A, Lodish H. Role of Ras signaling in erythroid differentiation of mouse fetal liver cells: functional analysis by a flow cytometry-based novel culture system. Blood. 2003;102:3938-46 pubmed
    b>Ras signaling plays an important role in erythropoiesis...