Gene Symbol: Hr
Description: hairless
Alias: ALUNC, bldy, rh-bmh, rhino, lysine-specific demethylase hairless, protein hairless
Species: mouse
Products:     Hr

Top Publications

  1. Vollmar B, Morgenthaler M, Amon M, Menger M. Skin microvascular adaptations during maturation and aging of hairless mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000;279:H1591-9 pubmed
    ..The process of aging from adult to senescent life does not cause any significant remodeling but is associated with a decrease of nutritive perfusion and a functional impairment to respond to stimuli such as ischemia...
  2. Brancaz M, Iratni R, Morrison A, Mancini S, Marche P, Sundberg J, et al. A new allele of the mouse hairless gene interferes with Hox/LacZ transgene regulation in hair follicle primordia. Exp Mol Pathol. 2004;76:173-81 pubmed
    ..The gene symbol hr(rhbm) (hairless-rhino-bald Mill Hill) was assigned to reflect the source of the colony...
  3. Liu Y, Sundberg J, Das S, Carpenter D, Cain K, Michaud E, et al. Molecular basis for hair loss in mice carrying a novel nonsense mutation (Hrrh-R ) in the hairless gene (Hr). Vet Pathol. 2010;47:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..A spontaneous mouse mutant with a phenotype strikingly similar to rhino mutants of Hr arose spontaneously in the mouse facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory...
  4. Ahmad W, Panteleyev A, Christiano A. The molecular basis of congenital atrichia in humans and mice: mutations in the hairless gene. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1999;4:240-3 pubmed
  5. Zhang J, Fang S, Wang C. A novel nonsense mutation and polymorphisms in the mouse hairless gene. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:1200-5 pubmed
    ..This allele was named rhinocerotic and short-lived, with the symbol hr(rhsl)...
  6. Wen Y, Liu Y, Xu Y, Zhao Y, Hua R, Wang K, et al. Loss-of-function mutations of an inhibitory upstream ORF in the human hairless transcript cause Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis. Nat Genet. 2009;41:228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..codon mutation in U2HR, an inhibitory upstream ORF in the 5' UTR of the gene encoding the human hairless homolog (HR). U2HR is predicted to encode a 34-amino acid peptide that is highly conserved among mammals...
  7. Potter G, Zarach J, Sisk J, Thompson C. The thyroid hormone-regulated corepressor hairless associates with histone deacetylases in neonatal rat brain. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2547-60 pubmed
    ..The mammalian hairless (hr) gene is likely an important component of TH action as 1) hr expression is directly regulated by TH in brain, and 2) ..
  8. Cachon Gonzalez M, San Jose I, Cano A, Vega J, Garcia N, Freeman T, et al. The hairless gene of the mouse: relationship of phenotypic effects with expression profile and genotype. Dev Dyn. 1999;216:113-26 pubmed
    ..Analysis of mice homozygous for the rhino allele of hairless revealed that, although no morphological defects were detectable in many tissues normally ..
  9. Panteleyev A, Botchkareva N, Sundberg J, Christiano A, Paus R. The role of the hairless (hr) gene in the regulation of hair follicle catagen transformation. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:159-71 pubmed
    Mice that carry a mutation at the hairless (hr) locus develop seemingly normal hair follicles (HF) but shed their hairs completely soon after birth...

More Information


  1. Panteleyev A, Ahmad W, Malashenko A, Ignatieva E, Paus R, Sundberg J, et al. Molecular basis for the rhino Yurlovo (hr(rhY)) phenotype: severe skin abnormalities and female reproductive defects associated with an insertion in the hairless gene. Exp Dermatol. 1998;7:281-8 pubmed
    ..Histological evaluation of Yurlovo mouse skin revealed some differences as compared to the hairless and rhino mutations, with the formation of dermal megacysts being the most specific peculiarity of the Yurlovo mutation...
  2. Ahmad W, Faiyaz ul Haque M, Brancolini V, Tsou H, ul Haque S, Lam H, et al. Alopecia universalis associated with a mutation in the human hairless gene. Science. 1998;279:720-4 pubmed
    ..Human hairless encodes a putative single zinc finger transcription factor protein with restricted expression in the brain and skin. ..
  3. Thompson C. Thyroid hormone-responsive genes in developing cerebellum include a novel synaptotagmin and a hairless homolog. J Neurosci. 1996;16:7832-40 pubmed
    ..a novel protein related to synaptotagmin, a protein involved in regulating neurotransmitter release; another (hr) encodes a putative zinc finger protein related to the product of a recently identified mouse gene, hairless...
  4. Bernerd F, Schweizer J, Demarchez M. Dermal cysts of the rhino mouse develop into unopened sebaceous glands. Arch Dermatol Res. 1996;288:586-95 pubmed
    The rhino mouse (hr(rh)hr(rh)) is a mutant strain characterized by a wrinkled and hairless skin with epidermal utriculi (pseudocomedones) and dermal cysts. The epidermal cysts have been extensively studied...
  5. Cachon Gonzalez M, Fenner S, Coffin J, Moran C, Best S, Stoye J. Structure and expression of the hairless gene of mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7717-21 pubmed
    ..It encodes a predicted protein of 1182 amino acids, including a potential zinc-finger domain. The expression patterns of the gene closely reflect the phenotype of animals carrying the hairless mutation. ..
  6. Stoye J, Fenner S, Greenoak G, Moran C, Coffin J. Role of endogenous retroviruses as mutagens: the hairless mutation of mice. Cell. 1988;54:383-91 pubmed
    ..The hairless (hr) mutation causes a variety of pleiotropic effects...
  7. Aberg K, Man M, Gallo R, Ganz T, Crumrine D, Brown B, et al. Co-regulation and interdependence of the mammalian epidermal permeability and antimicrobial barriers. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:917-25 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that (1) the permeability and antimicrobial barriers are coordinately regulated by permeability barrier requirements and (2) CRAMP is required for permeability barrier homeostasis. ..
  8. Lan R, Greenoak G, Moran C. Pyrimidine dimer induction and removal in the epidermis of hairless mice: inefficient repair in the genome overall and rapid repair in the H-ras sequence. Photochem Photobiol. 1994;59:356-61 pubmed
    Excision repair of pyrimidine dimers was examined at the genome overall in three strains of hairless (hr/hr) and congenic wild-type mice, as well as in the expressed H-ras gene in hairless mice...
  9. Kim J, Kim E, Baek I, Kim B, Cho A, Kim T, et al. Overexpression of Hr links excessive induction of Wnt signaling to Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Through the study of a mouse model, we identified a mutation in the 5'-untranslated region of the hairless (HR) gene in patients with MUHH in a Caucasian family...
  10. Thompson C. Hairless is a nuclear receptor corepressor essential for skin function. Nucl Recept Signal. 2009;7:e010 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein encoded by the mammalian Hairless (Hr) gene was shown to be a corepressor by virtue of its functional similarity to the well-established corepressors N-..
  11. Panteleyev A, Paus R, Ahmad W, Sundberg J, Christiano A. Molecular and functional aspects of the hairless (hr) gene in laboratory rodents and humans. Exp Dermatol. 1998;7:249-67 pubmed
    For many years, hairless and rhino mouse mutants have provided a useful and extensively exploited model for studying different aspects of skin physiology, including skin aging, pharmacokinetic evaluation of drug activity and cutaneous ..
  12. García Atarés N, San Jose I, Cabo R, Vega J, Represa J. Changes in the cerebellar cortex of hairless Rhino-J mice (hr-rh-j). Neurosci Lett. 1998;256:13-6 pubmed
    ..protein) the cerebellum of a mutated mouse strain, the hairless (hr-rh-j) type carrying the homozygous hr gene rhino mutation. The cerebellar cortex was studied in young (3 months) and adult (9 months) wild type and mutated mice...
  13. Baek I, Kim J, Cho K, Cha D, Cho J, Park J, et al. A novel mutation in Hr causes abnormal hair follicle morphogenesis in hairpoor mouse, an animal model for Marie Unna Hereditary Hypotrichosis. Mamm Genome. 2009;20:350-8 pubmed publisher
    Hairpoor mice (Hr(Hp)) were derived through N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis. These mice display sparse and short hair in the Hr(Hp)/+ heterozygous state and complete baldness in the Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) homozygous state...
  14. Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Cotsarelis G, Birchmeier W. beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Cell. 2001;105:533-45 pubmed
    ..Further analysis demonstrates that beta-catenin is essential for fate decisions of skin stem cells: in the absence of beta-catenin, stem cells fail to differentiate into follicular keratinocytes, but instead adopt an epidermal fate. ..
  15. Potter G, Beaudoin G, DeRenzo C, Zarach J, Chen S, Thompson C. The hairless gene mutated in congenital hair loss disorders encodes a novel nuclear receptor corepressor. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2687-701 pubmed
    The mammalian hairless (hr) gene plays a critical role in the maintenance of hair growth. Although the hr gene has been identified, the biochemical function of its encoded protein (Hr) has remained obscure...
  16. Mann S. Hair loss and cyst formation in hairless and rhino mutant mice. Anat Rec. 1971;170:485-99 pubmed
  17. Ahmad W, Panteleyev A, Sundberg J, Christiano A. Molecular basis for the rhino (hrrh-8J) phenotype: a nonsense mutation in the mouse hairless gene. Genomics. 1998;53:383-6 pubmed
    The hairless (hr) and rhino (hrrh) mutations are autosomal recessive allelic mutations that map to mouse Chromosome 14...
  18. Beaudoin G, Sisk J, Coulombe P, Thompson C. Hairless triggers reactivation of hair growth by promoting Wnt signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14653-8 pubmed
    ..The Hairless (Hr) gene encodes a nuclear receptor corepressor (HR) that is essential for hair follicle regeneration, but its role in ..
  19. Ahmad W, Panteleyev A, Henson Apollonio V, Sundberg J, Christiano A. Molecular basis of a novel rhino (hr(rhChr)) phenotype: a nonsense mutation in the mouse hairless gene. Exp Dermatol. 1998;7:298-301 pubmed
    The hairless and rhino mutations are autosomal recessive allelic mutations that map to mouse Chromosome 14. In general, the rhino phenotype is a more severe manifestation of the hairless phenotype...
  20. Montagna W, Chase H, MELARAGNO H. The skin of hairless mice. I. The formation of cysts and the distribution of lipids. J Invest Dermatol. 1952;19:83-94 pubmed
  21. Zarach J, Beaudoin G, Coulombe P, Thompson C. The co-repressor hairless has a role in epithelial cell differentiation in the skin. Development. 2004;131:4189-200 pubmed
    Although mutations in the mammalian hairless (Hr) gene result in congenital hair loss disorders in both mice and humans, the precise role of Hr in skin biology remains unknown...
  22. Liu Y, Das S, Olszewski R, Carpenter D, Culiat C, Sundberg J, et al. The near-naked hairless (Hr(N)) mutation disrupts hair formation but is not due to a mutation in the Hairless coding region. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1605-14 pubmed
    Near-naked hairless (Hr(N)) is a semi-dominant, spontaneous mutation that was suggested by allelism testing to be allelic with mouse Hairless (Hr)...
  23. Meier H, Myers D, Huebner R. Genetic control by the hr-locus of susceptibility and resistance to leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969;63:759-66 pubmed
    ..If this virus is responsible for the leukemia in HRS/J mice, the mutant gene (hr) enhances susceptibility and the wild-type allele (+) induces resistance to leukemogenesis, i.e...
  24. Xu J, Weng Z, Arumugam A, Tang X, Chaudhary S, Li C, et al. Hair follicle disruption facilitates pathogenesis to UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and basal cell carcinoma development in Ptch(+/-) mice. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide novel evidence that disruption of HFs in Ptch(+/-) mice enhances cutaneous susceptibility to inflammation and BCCs. ..
  25. Konger R, Derr Yellin E, Hojati D, Lutz C, Sundberg J. Comparison of the acute ultraviolet photoresponse in congenic albino hairless C57BL/6J mice relative to outbred SKH1 hairless mice. Exp Dermatol. 2016;25:688-93 pubmed publisher
    Hairless albino Crl:SKH1-Hr(hr) mice are commonly utilized for studies in which hair or pigmentation would introduce an impediment to observational studies...
  26. Brouxhon S, Konger R, VanBuskirk J, Sheu T, Ryan J, Erdle B, et al. Deletion of prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor protects against ultraviolet-induced carcinogenesis, but increases tumor aggressiveness. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:439-46 pubmed
  27. Shultz L, Sidman C. Genetically determined murine models of immunodeficiency. Annu Rev Immunol. 1987;5:367-403 pubmed
    ..As the gene products of the loci defined by these mutations become known, the information obtained will provide additional insight into mechanisms underlying normal immune function as well as immunologic disease processes in man. ..
  28. Sitaru C, Chiriac M, Mihai S, Büning J, Gebert A, Ishiko A, et al. Induction of complement-fixing autoantibodies against type VII collagen results in subepidermal blistering in mice. J Immunol. 2006;177:3461-8 pubmed
    ..This robust experimental system should greatly facilitate further studies on the pathogenesis of EBA and the development of novel immunomodulatory therapies for this and other autoimmune diseases. ..
  29. Vajkoczy P, Menger M. New model for the study of the microcirculation of islet grafts in hairless and nude mice. Transplant Proc. 1994;26:687 pubmed
  30. Kato M, Takeda K, Kawamoto Y, Tsuzuki T, Kato Y, Ohno T, et al. Novel hairless RET-transgenic mouse line with melanocytic nevi and anagen hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:2547-50 pubmed
  31. Eicher E, Green M. The T6 translocation in the mouse: its use in trisomy mapping, centromere localization, and cytological identification of linkage group 3. Genetics. 1972;71:621-32 pubmed
    ..of hairless piebald mice trisomic for the chromosome segments of the T6M chromosome has shown that the LG III loci hr and s are not located on T6M. The T6 breakpoint in LG III is therefore in the position hr-s-T6...
  32. Moore K, D Amore Bruno M, Korfhagen T, Glasser S, Whitsett J, Jenkins N, et al. Chromosomal localization of three pulmonary surfactant protein genes in the mouse. Genomics. 1992;12:388-93 pubmed
    ..The mouse map locations determined in this study for the Sftp genes are consistent with the locations of these genes on the human genetic map and the syntenic relationships between the human and the mouse genomes. ..
  33. Balansky R, Izzotti A, D Agostini F, Camoirano A, Bagnasco M, Lubet R, et al. Systemic genotoxic effects produced by light, and synergism with cigarette smoke in the respiratory tract of hairless mice. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:1525-32 pubmed
    ..This damage may mechanistically be involved in light-related hematopoietic malignancies. In addition, the light displayed an insofar unsuspected synergism with smoke in the induction of DNA damage in the respiratory tract. ..
  34. Jiang Y, Lu B, Tarling E, Kim P, Man M, Crumrine D, et al. Regulation of ABCG1 expression in human keratinocytes and murine epidermis. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:3185-95 pubmed publisher
  35. Matsuda M, Hoshino T, Yamakawa N, Tahara K, Adachi H, Sobue G, et al. Suppression of UV-induced wrinkle formation by induction of HSP70 expression in mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that HSP70 inducers used in a clinical context could prove beneficial for the prevention of UV-induced wrinkle formation. ..
  36. Ceci J, Kingsley D, Silan C, Copeland N, Jenkins N. An interspecific backcross linkage map of the proximal half of mouse chromosome 14. Genomics. 1990;6:673-8 pubmed
    ..Loci that were mapped in this study include Bmp-1, Ctla-1, Hap, hr, Plau, Psp-2, Rib-1, and Tcra...
  37. Stone J, Crosby J, Kozak C, Schievella A, Bernards R, Nadeau J. The murine retinoblastoma homolog maps to chromosome 14 near Es-10. Genomics. 1989;5:70-5 pubmed
    ..Close linkage of the chromosome 14 morphological marker hairless (hr) to Rb-1 is also implied...
  38. I Anson V, Gasser D. Relationship between graft-vs-host reactivity and possession of the high leukemia genotype hr-hr. J Immunol. 1973;111:1604-6 pubmed
  39. Arumugam A, Weng Z, Chaudhary S, Afaq F, Elmets C, Athar M. Keratin-6 driven ODC expression to hair follicle keratinocytes enhances stemness and tumorigenesis by negatively regulating Notch. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;451:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a novel role of ODC in augmenting tumorigenesis via negatively regulated Notch-mediated expansion of stem cell compartment. ..
  40. Cooper K, King B, Sandoval M, Liu K, Hudson L. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;269:81-8 pubmed publisher
  41. Pirinen E, Kuulasmaa T, Pietilä M, Heikkinen S, Tusa M, Itkonen P, et al. Enhanced polyamine catabolism alters homeostatic control of white adipose tissue mass, energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4953-67 pubmed
    ..The involvement of polyamine catabolism in the regulation of energy and glucose metabolism may offer a novel target for drug development for obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  42. Kawaji H, Tsukuda R, Nakaguchi T. Immunopathology of rhino mouse, an autosomal recessive mutant with murine lupus-like disease. Acta Pathol Jpn. 1980;30:515-30 pubmed
    Detection of high incidence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) was reported in young homozygous rhino mice employing formalinized chicken erythrocyte nuclei as substrate for indirect immunoflourescence (IF) assay...
  43. Moran J, Bolton A, Tran P, Brown A, Dwyer N, Manning D, et al. Utilization of a whole genome SNP panel for efficient genetic mapping in the mouse. Genome Res. 2006;16:436-40 pubmed
    ..By using this approach, we identified DNA sequence changes in two ethylnitrosourea-induced mutants. ..
  44. Zhang J, Fang S, Wang C, DU C. [Molecular cloning of full-long cDNA sequences encoding hairless gene in the Kunming mouse]. Yi Chuan. 2005;27:908-14 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to clone and analyze the cDNA encoding Hr from Kunming mouse. The RT-PCR method was developed to clone the Hr cDNA...
  45. Sahu R, Dasilva S, Rashid B, Martel K, Jernigan D, Mehta S, et al. Mice lacking epidermal PPAR? exhibit a marked augmentation in photocarcinogenesis associated with increased UVB-induced apoptosis, inflammation and barrier dysfunction. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:E1055-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that PPAR? agonists could have possible chemopreventive activity in non-melanoma skin cancer. ..
  46. Suzu S, Tanaka Douzono M, Nomaguchi K, Yamada M, Hayasawa H, Kimura F, et al. p56(dok-2) as a cytokine-inducible inhibitor of cell proliferation and signal transduction. EMBO J. 2000;19:5114-22 pubmed
    ..Consistent with these results, the peritoneal cavity of the hairless (hr/hr) strain of mutant mice, whose cells expressed less p56(dok-2) than wild-type mice, contained more macrophages ..
  47. D Agostini F, Balansky R, Bennicelli C, Lubet R, Kelloff G, De Flora S. Pilot studies evaluating the lung tumor yield in cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Int J Oncol. 2001;18:607-15 pubmed
    ..The whole-body exposure of C57BL/6 mice to ECS for 6 months failed to induce any lung tumor but caused alopecia, gray hair, and hair bulb cell apoptosis, which were prevented by the oral administration of N-acetylcysteine. ..
  48. Gilliver S, Emmerson E, Campbell L, Chambon P, Hardman M, Ashcroft G. 17beta-estradiol inhibits wound healing in male mice via estrogen receptor-alpha. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2707-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Using mice rendered null for either the alpha or beta isoform of the estrogen receptor, we identified estrogen receptor-alpha as the likely effector of estrogen's inhibitory effects on healing. ..
  49. Ahmad W, Zlotogorski A, Panteleyev A, Lam H, Ahmad M, Faiyaz ul Haque M, et al. Genomic organization of the human hairless gene (HR) and identification of a mutation underlying congenital atrichia in an Arab Palestinian family. Genomics. 1999;56:141-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we present the genomic organization of the human hairless gene (HGMW-approved symbol HR), which spans over 14 kb on chromosome 8p12 and is organized into 19 exons...
  50. Zhu K, Xu C, Zhang J, Chen Y, Liu M. Transgenic mice display hair loss and regrowth overexpressing mutant Hr gene. Exp Anim. 2017;66:379-386 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the hairless (Hr) gene in both mice and humans have been implicated in the development of congenital atrichia, but the role of Hr in skin and hair follicle (HF) biology remains unknown...
  51. Xia X, Park E, Liu B, Willette Brown J, Gong W, Wang J, et al. Reduction of IKKalpha expression promotes chronic ultraviolet B exposure-induced skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2500-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these findings suggest that reduction of IKKalpha expression orchestrates UVB carcinogen, accelerating tumorigenesis. ..
  52. Krizhanovsky V, Soreq L, Kliminski V, Ben Arie N. Math1 target genes are enriched with evolutionarily conserved clustered E-box binding sites. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;28:211-29 pubmed
    ..Our findings may be useful to the study of other bHLH transcription factors, many of which control the development of the nervous system. ..
  53. Jackson I, Chambers D, Tsukamoto K, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. A second tyrosinase-related protein, TRP-2, maps to and is mutated at the mouse slaty locus. EMBO J. 1992;11:527-35 pubmed
    ..Extracts from mice homozygous for the slaty mutation have a 3-fold or more reduction in DT activity, indicating that TRP-2/DT is encoded at the slaty locus, and the missense mutation reduces but does not abolish the enzyme activity. ..
  54. Sundberg J, Sundberg B, Beamer W. Comparison of chemical carcinogen skin tumor induction efficacy in inbred, mutant, and hybrid strains of mice: morphologic variations of induced tumors and absence of a papillomavirus cocarcinogen. Mol Carcinog. 1997;20:19-32 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that numerous modifier genes but not papillomaviruses are involved in cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis. ..
  55. Astner S, Wu A, Chen J, Philips N, Rius Diaz F, Parrado C, et al. Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin partially reduces photoaging and photocarcinogenesis in chronically UVB-irradiated Skh-1 hairless mice. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;20:283-91 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that dietary lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation protects the skin against UVB-induced photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. ..
  56. Tsubura A, Morii S, Ikehara S. Growth of the mammary gland in rhino mouse. Jikken Dobutsu. 1993;42:639-42 pubmed
    The rhino mouse, so called because of its characteristic rhinocerous-like skin cannot raise its young. Although the animal has rudimentary mammary glands, these are thought to be defective due to their impossibility to raise their young...
  57. Djabali K, Christiano A. Hairless contains a novel nuclear matrix targeting signal and associates with histone deacetylase 3 in nuclear speckles. Differentiation. 2004;72:410-8 pubmed
    ..The hairless (hr) gene encodes a nuclear factor that is highly expressed in the skin, where it appears to be an essential regulator ..
  58. Pence B, Delver E, Dunn D. Effects of dietary selenium on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis and epidermal antioxidant status. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;102:759-61 pubmed
    ..between selenium level in the diet and development of skin tumors induced by ultraviolet radiation in female Skh:HR-1 hairless mice. Animals were maintained on a torula yeast-based diet containing either 0, 0.1, or 0...
  59. Deringer M. The effect of subcutaneous inoculation of 4-o-tolylazo-o-toluidine in strain HR mice. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1956;17:533-9 pubmed
  60. San Jose I, Garcia Suarez O, Hannestad J, Cabo R, Gauna L, Represa J, et al. The thymus of the hairless rhino-j (hr/rh-j) mice. J Anat. 2001;198:399-406 pubmed
    The hairless (hr) gene is expressed in a large number of tissues, primarily the skin, and a mutation in the hr gene is responsible for the typical cutaneous phenotype of hairless mice...
  61. Mucenski M, Bedigian H, Shull M, Copeland N, Jenkins N. Comparative molecular genetic analysis of lymphomas from six inbred mouse strains. J Virol. 1988;62:839-46 pubmed
    ..In this study we analyzed lymphomas from six inbred mouse strains, AKR/J, C58/J, HRS/J (hr/hr and hr/+), SJL/J, SEA/GnJ, and CWD/LeAgl, to determine whether these correlations are also evident in these ..
  62. O Driscoll C, Bressler J. Hairless expression attenuates apoptosis in a mouse model and the COS cell line; involvement of p53. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12911 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the involvement of the hairless (Hr) gene which has been suspected of having a role in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in the hair follicle and is ..
  63. Ferrara A, Liao X, Gil Ibáñez P, Marcinkowski T, Bernal J, Weiss R, et al. Changes in thyroid status during perinatal development of MCT8-deficient male mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first to identify that the ontogenesis of TH abnormalities in Mct8-deficient mice manifests with TH excess in the perinatal period...
  64. Batal M, Boudry I, Mouret S, Cléry Barraud C, Wartelle J, Bérard I, et al. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014;278:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. ..
  65. Chang Y, Wang J, Hahn R, Gordon M, Joseph L, Heck D, et al. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014;280:236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. ..
  66. Li C, Srivastava R, Weng Z, Croutch C, Agarwal A, Elmets C, et al. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Pathogenesis of Lewisite-Induced Cutaneous Blistering and Inflammation: Chemical Chaperones as Potential Novel Antidotes. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:2637-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying the cutaneous pathogenesis of lewisite-induced lesions. We also identified novel potential therapeutic targets for lewisite-mediated cutaneous injury. ..
  67. Egberts F, Heinrich M, Jensen J, Winoto Morbach S, Pfeiffer S, Wickel M, et al. Cathepsin D is involved in the regulation of transglutaminase 1 and epidermal differentiation. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2295-307 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest a functional link between cathepsin D activation, transglutaminase 1 activity and protein expression of cornified envelope proteins during epidermal differentiation...
  68. Dwivedi C, Valluri H, Guan X, Agarwal R. Chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol on ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mice. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1917-22 pubmed
    ..Together, for the first time, our findings suggest that alpha-santalol could be a potential chemopreventive agent against UVB-induced skin tumor development and, therefore, warrants further investigations. ..
  69. Stelzner K. Four dominant autosomal mutations affecting skin and hair development in the mouse. J Hered. 1983;74:193-6 pubmed
    ..the development of skin and hair in the mouse were tested for allelism with each other and with hairless, hr. Three of the mutations probably constitute an allelic series and have been given the symbols Frl1, Frlb, and Frlc...
  70. Lichtenberger B, Gerber P, Holcmann M, Buhren B, Amberg N, Smolle V, et al. Epidermal EGFR controls cutaneous host defense and prevents inflammation. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:199ra111 pubmed publisher
    ..The skin phenotype was also not rescued in a hairless (hr/hr) background, demonstrating that skin inflammation is not induced by hair follicle degeneration...
  71. van Schanke A, Jongsma M, Bisschop R, van Venrooij G, Rebel H, de Gruijl F. Single UVB overexposure stimulates melanocyte proliferation in murine skin, in contrast to fractionated or UVA-1 exposure. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:241-7 pubmed
    ..Consequently, murine nevi and melanoma are expected to be most effectively induced by intermittent UVB overexposures. ..
  72. Suzuki O, Koura M, Noguchi Y, Uchio Yamada K, Matsuda J. Zygosity determination in hairless mice by PCR based on Hr(hr) gene analysis. Exp Anim. 2013;62:267-73 pubmed
    We analyzed the Hr gene of a hairless mouse strain of unknown origin (HR strain,
  73. Roelandt T, Giddelo C, Heughebaert C, Denecker G, Hupe M, Crumrine D, et al. The "caveolae brake hypothesis" and the epidermal barrier. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:927-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that cav-1 delivery to the APM by LB trafficking to APM "brakes" further LB secretion, signals terminal differentiation, and regulates epidermal hyperproliferation. ..
  74. Rodríguez Martín M, Martin Ezquerra G, Man M, Hupe M, Youm J, Mackenzie D, et al. Expression of epidermal CAMP changes in parallel with permeability barrier status. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that changes in cathelicidin and Cst expression parallel changes in permeability barrier status, with a less clear relationship with mBD3 expression. ..
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