Gene Symbol: Hoxc9
Description: homeobox C9
Alias: Hox-3.2, homeobox protein Hox-C9, homeo box C9, homeobox protein Hox-3.2
Species: mouse
Products:     Hoxc9

Top Publications

  1. McIntyre D, Rakshit S, Yallowitz A, Loken L, Jeannotte L, Capecchi M, et al. Hox patterning of the vertebrate rib cage. Development. 2007;134:2981-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ;Hox code' in somitic mesoderm is the result of the distinct, graded effects of two or more Hox paralogous groups functioning in any anteroposterior location. ..
  2. Peterson R, Papenbrock T, Davda M, Awgulewitsch A. The murine Hoxc cluster contains five neighboring AbdB-related Hox genes that show unique spatially coordinated expression in posterior embryonic subregions. Mech Dev. 1994;47:253-60 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a specific role for the AbdB-related Hoxc genes in patterning the hindlimb and pelvic girdle, which is separate from a second role relevant for both hind- and forelimb development. ..
  3. Burke A, Nelson C, Morgan B, Tabin C. Hox genes and the evolution of vertebrate axial morphology. Development. 1995;121:333-46 pubmed
    ..The recognition of mechanistic homology supports the historical homology of basic patterning mechanisms between all organisms that share these genes. ..
  4. Xu B, Wellik D. Axial Hox9 activity establishes the posterior field in the developing forelimb. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4888-91 pubmed publisher
    ..polarization of the early forelimb field requires the function of all four Hox9 paralogs (Hoxa9, Hoxb9, Hoxc9, and Hoxd9)...
  5. Dasen J, Liu J, Jessell T. Motor neuron columnar fate imposed by sequential phases of Hox-c activity. Nature. 2003;425:926-33 pubmed
    ..Hox proteins also direct the expression of genes that establish motor topographic projections, thus implicating Hox proteins as critical determinants of spinal motor neuron identity and organization. ..
  6. Schughart K, Pravtcheva D, Newman M, Hunihan L, Jiang Z, Ruddle F. Isolation and regional localization of the murine homeobox-containing gene Hox-3.3 to mouse chromosome region 15E. Genomics. 1989;5:76-83 pubmed
    ..3. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the Hox-3.3 gene represents the murine cognate of the human homeobox gene c8. The presumptive organization of the murine Hox-3 homeobox gene cluster is discussed. ..
  7. Juan A, Ruddle F. Enhancer timing of Hox gene expression: deletion of the endogenous Hoxc8 early enhancer. Development. 2003;130:4823-34 pubmed
    ..Last, our data is consistent with the position that disparate regulatory pathways are responsible for the expression of Hoxc8 in the organogenesis of somites, neural tube and limb bud. ..
  8. Yu B, Hess J, Horning S, Brown G, Korsmeyer S. Altered Hox expression and segmental identity in Mll-mutant mice. Nature. 1995;378:505-8 pubmed
    ..Thus Mll is required for proper segment identity in mammals, displays haplo-insufficiency, and positively regulates Hox gene expression. ..
  9. Blackburn J, Rich M, Ghitani N, Liu J. Generation of conditional Hoxc8 loss-of-function and Hoxc8-->Hoxc9 replacement alleles in mice. Genesis. 2009;47:680-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the function of Hoxc8 and Hoxc9 in specific cell types and at different developmental times, we have generated and characterized loxP flanked (..

More Information


  1. Liu J. The function of growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) in rostrocaudal patterning of the developing spinal cord. Development. 2006;133:2865-74 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Gdf11 has an important function in determining Hox gene expression domains and RC identity in the caudal spinal cord. ..
  2. Ikeya M, Takada S. Wnt-3a is required for somite specification along the anteroposterior axis of the mouse embryo and for regulation of cdx-1 expression. Mech Dev. 2001;103:27-33 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Wnt-3a is necessary for correct anteroposterior patterning of vertebra, and that cdx-1 may be one of the mediator genes of Wnt-3a signaling in this process. ..
  3. Paul D, Bridoux L, Rezsohazy R, Donnay I. HOX genes are expressed in bovine and mouse oocytes and early embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:436-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Using nested PCR, HOXD1, HOXA3, HOXD4, HOXB7, HOXB9, and HOXC9 transcripts were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos at various frequencies depending on the stage of ..
  4. Goto J, Miyabayashi T, Wakamatsu Y, Takahashi N, Muramatsu M. Organization and expression of mouse Hox3 cluster genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;239:41-8 pubmed
    ..6 and Hox3.5 during embryogenesis revealed that the relationship between relative position in the Hox3 cluster and expression domain along antero-posterior axis appears similar to that seen for members of the other Hox clusters. ..
  5. Peterson R, Jacobs D, Awgulewitsch A. Hox-3.6: isolation and characterization of a new murine homeobox gene located in the 5' region of the Hox-3 cluster. Mech Dev. 1992;37:151-66 pubmed
    ..5. Structural analysis of the 5' region revealed the presence of a 35 bp sequence which shares homology and relative 5' position with an upstream sequence present in its two nearest downstream neighbors, Hox-3.2 and -3.1. ..
  6. Li Z, Shiota K. Stage-specific homeotic vertebral transformations in mouse fetuses induced by maternal hyperthermia during somitogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1999;216:336-48 pubmed
  7. Bel S, Core N, Djabali M, Kieboom K, van der Lugt N, Alkema M, et al. Genetic interactions and dosage effects of Polycomb group genes in mice. Development. 1998;125:3543-51 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that in mice the Polycomb group genes act in synergy to control the nested expression pattern of some Hox genes in somitic mesodermal tissues during development. ..
  8. Papenbrock T, Peterson R, Lee R, Hsu T, Kuroiwa A, Awgulewitsch A. Murine Hoxc-9 gene contains a structurally and functionally conserved enhancer. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:540-7 pubmed
    ..This finding indicates that the Hoxc-9 intragenic enhancer is involved in transcriptional regulatory circuits conserved between vertebrates and arthropods. ..
  9. LaCombe J, Hanley O, Jung H, Philippidou P, Sürmeli G, Grinstein J, et al. Genetic and functional modularity of Hox activities in the specification of limb-innervating motor neurons. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003184 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of the LMC-restricted genes Foxp1 and Raldh2 and to suppress thoracic fates through exclusion of Hoxc9. The specific roles and mechanisms of Hox6 gene function in LMC neurons, however, are not known...
  10. Wang H, Shun M, Dickson A, ENGELMAN A. Embryonic Lethality Due to Arrested Cardiac Development in Psip1/Hdgfrp2 Double-Deficient Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137797 pubmed publisher
    ..We accordingly speculate that deregulated Tgf-β signaling was a contributing factor to the VSD and prenatal lethality of Psip1/Hdgfrp2 double-deficient mice. ..
  11. Bradshaw M, Ruddle F. Identification of the murine Hox-c12 and Hox-c13 homeoboxes on yeast artificial chromosomes. Genomics. 1994;22:234-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified two mouse homeobox genes not previously reported and established linkage of these genes to the 5' end of the mouse Hox-c cluster. ..
  12. Warrier S, Nuwayhid S, Sabatino J, Sugrue K, Zohn I. Supt20 is required for development of the axial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2017;421:245-257 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant embryos show similar defects in axial skeletal development preceded by posterior shift of Hoxc8 and Hoxc9 gene expression...
  13. Breier G, Bucan M, Francke U, Colberg Poley A, Gruss P. Sequential expression of murine homeo box genes during F9 EC cell differentiation. EMBO J. 1986;5:2209-15 pubmed
    ..The transcript appears late in this differentiation process and is most abundant at a time when the F9 cells begin to express tissue-specific markers and the expression of another murine homeo box gene, m6, has decreased. ..
  14. Awgulewitsch A, Bieberich C, Bogarad L, Shashikant C, Ruddle F. Structural analysis of the Hox-3.1 transcription unit and the Hox-3.2--Hox-3.1 intergenic region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:6428-32 pubmed
    ..Several of these sequence motifs are similar to cis-regulatory elements found in the regulatory regions of other known developmentally regulated genes. ..
  15. Nishimoto S, Minguillon C, Wood S, Logan M. A combination of activation and repression by a colinear Hox code controls forelimb-restricted expression of Tbx5 and reveals Hox protein specificity. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004245 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Hoxc9, which is expressed in caudal LPM where Tbx5 is not expressed, can form a repressive complex on the Tbx5 forelimb ..
  16. Schep R, Necsulea A, Rodríguez Carballo E, Guerreiro I, Andrey G, Nguyen Huynh T, et al. Control of Hoxd gene transcription in the mammary bud by hijacking a preexisting regulatory landscape. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E7720-E7729 pubmed
    ..We propose that Hoxd gene regulation in embryonic MBs evolved by hijacking a preexisting regulatory landscape that was already at work before the emergence of mammals in structures such as the limbs or the intestinal tract. ..
  17. van der Lugt N, Alkema M, Berns A, Deschamps J. The Polycomb-group homolog Bmi-1 is a regulator of murine Hox gene expression. Mech Dev. 1996;58:153-64 pubmed
    ..5 onwards. We discuss the possibility that members of the murine Polycomb-group can form multimeric protein complexes of different compositions with varying affinity or specificity for different subsets of Hox genes. ..
  18. Suemori H, Takahashi N, Noguchi S. Hoxc-9 mutant mice show anterior transformation of the vertebrae and malformation of the sternum and ribs. Mech Dev. 1995;51:265-73 pubmed
    ..Moreover, changes in the Hoxc-8 gene expression pattern suggested that the Hoxc-9 gene regulates expression of the Hoxc-8 gene. ..
  19. Luo L, Yang X, Takihara Y, Knoetgen H, Kessel M. The cell-cycle regulator geminin inhibits Hox function through direct and polycomb-mediated interactions. Nature. 2004;427:749-53 pubmed
    ..By establishing competitive regulation, geminin functions as a coordinator of developmental and proliferative control. ..
  20. Erselius J, Goulding M, Gruss P. Structure and expression pattern of the murine Hox-3.2 gene. Development. 1990;110:629-42 pubmed
    ..Unlike Hox-1.4 and Hox-1.3 and their paralogs, Hox-3.2, -2.5 and -4.4 (5.2) show strikingly different anterior boundaries of expression in the CNS and prevertebrae. ..
  21. Min H, Lee J, Kim M. Hoxc gene collinear expression and epigenetic modifications established during embryogenesis are maintained until after birth. Int J Biol Sci. 2013;9:960-5 pubmed publisher
  22. Pazin D, Gamer L, Cox K, Rosen V. Molecular profiling of synovial joints: use of microarray analysis to identify factors that direct the development of the knee and elbow. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1816-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The knee is enriched for the hindlimb patterning genes Hoxc9, Hoxc10, and Tbx4 and for Tgfbi, Rspo2, and Sfrp2, factors involved in transforming growth factor-beta/bone ..
  23. Baek M, Pivetta C, Liu J, Arber S, Dasen J. Columnar-Intrinsic Cues Shape Premotor Input Specificity in Locomotor Circuits. Cell Rep. 2017;21:867-877 pubmed publisher
    ..Transformation of axially projecting MNs to a limb-level lateral motor column (LMC) fate, through mutation of the Hoxc9 gene, causes the central afferents of limb proprioceptive sensory neurons to target MNs connected to functionally ..
  24. Lin W, Zhang Z, Chen C, Behringer R, Dent S. Proper Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase expression is required for normal anteroposterior patterning of the mouse skeleton. Dev Growth Differ. 2008;50:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects are accompanied by a shift in the anterior expression boundary of Hoxc8 and Hoxc9. These data provide the first evidence that Gcn5 contributes to Hox gene regulation and is required for normal ..
  25. Sweeney L, Bikoff J, Gabitto M, Brenner Morton S, Baek M, Yang J, et al. Origin and Segmental Diversity of Spinal Inhibitory Interneurons. Neuron. 2018;97:341-355.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Specification of limb and thoracic V1 interneurons involves the Hox gene Hoxc9 independently of motor neurons...
  26. Yagi H, Deguchi K, Aono A, Tani Y, Kishimoto T, Komori T. Growth disturbance in fetal liver hematopoiesis of Mll-mutant mice. Blood. 1998;92:108-17 pubmed
    ..These data show that the hematopoietic precursors were greatly reduced in mutant mice, and suggest that Mll functions as a regulator of the growth of hematopoietic precursors. ..
  27. Li Z, Chisaka O, Koseki H, Akasaka T, Ishibashi M, Shiota K. Heat shock-induced homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton and associated shifts of Hox gene expression domains in mouse embryos. Reprod Toxicol. 1997;11:761-70 pubmed
    ..The result of the present study indicates that a brief heat shock at a critical stage of differentiation can interfere with the normal establishment of Hox codes and subsequently, perturb the specification of vertebral identity. ..
  28. Takihara Y, Tomotsune D, Shirai M, Katoh Fukui Y, Nishii K, Motaleb M, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse homologue of the Drosophila polyhomeotic gene leads to altered anteroposterior patterning and neural crest defects. Development. 1997;124:3673-82 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the rae28 gene is involved in the regulation of Hox gene expression and segment specification during paraxial mesoderm and neural crest development. ..
  29. Breier G, Dressler G, Gruss P. Primary structure and developmental expression pattern of Hox 3.1, a member of the murine Hox 3 homeobox gene cluster. EMBO J. 1988;7:1329-36 pubmed
    ..Hox 3.1 transcripts also are detected in the thoracic sclerotomes from the 6th to the 10th thoracic pre-vertebrae. The data support the hypothesis that the Hox 3.1 gene specifies positional information during murine embryogenesis. ..
  30. Hameister H, Schulz W, Meyer J, Thoma S, Adolph S, Gaa A, et al. Gene order and genetic distance of 13 loci spanning murine chromosome 15. Genomics. 1992;14:417-22 pubmed
    ..Despite the unequal distribution along chromosome 15 of G-versus R-bands, a comparison of distances determined by physical and genetic mapping does not indicate an overt difference in distance between both mapping techniques. ..
  31. Katayama K, Furuno A, Akiyama K, Tsuji T, Kunieda T. Characterization of chromosomal inversion of the mouse hairy ears (Eh) mutation associated with cleft palate. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:246-54 pubmed
  32. Shaw L, Johnson P, Kimber S. Gene expression profiling of the developing mouse kidney and embryo. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2010;46:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We then analysed their expression in other developing tissues. Results show Dcn, Hoxc9, Mest, Wt1 and Ywhaq were expressed at moderate to high levels during the window of metanephric specification and ..
  33. Marcil A, Dumontier E, Chamberland M, Camper S, Drouin J. Pitx1 and Pitx2 are required for development of hindlimb buds. Development. 2003;130:45-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, Pitx1 and Pitx2 genes are required for sustained hindlimb bud growth and formation of hindlimbs. ..
  34. Murasawa H, Takashima R, Yamanouchi K, Tojo H, Tachi C. Comparative analysis of HOXC-9 gene expression in murine hemochorial and caprine synepitheliochorial placentae by in situ hybridization. Anat Rec. 2000;259:383-94 pubmed
  35. McGrath K, Palis J. Expression of homeobox genes, including an insulin promoting factor, in the murine yolk sac at the time of hematopoietic initiation. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;48:145-53 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize the early expression of insulin in the YS is required for the expansion of insulin responsive cells including primitive erythroblasts. ..
  36. Oh S, Li E. The signaling pathway mediated by the type IIB activin receptor controls axial patterning and lateral asymmetry in the mouse. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1812-26 pubmed
    ..These findings provide genetic evidence that the ActRIIB-mediated signaling pathway plays a critical role in patterning both anteroposterior and left-right axes in vertebrate animals. ..
  37. Tiret L, Le Mouellic H, Lallemand Y, Maury M, Brulet P. Altering the spatial determinations in the mouse embryos by manipulating the Hox genes. C R Acad Sci III. 1993;316:1009-24 pubmed
    ..Expression of some related Hox genes in Hoxc-8 homozygous mutants is not altered, suggesting the absence of genetic interregulations between these genes. ..
  38. Mendelsohn A, Dasen J, Jessell T. Divergent Hox Coding and Evasion of Retinoid Signaling Specifies Motor Neurons Innervating Digit Muscles. Neuron. 2017;93:792-805.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the emergence of digits in the limb is matched by distinct mechanisms for specifying motor neurons that innervate digit muscles. ..
  39. Lorente M, Perez C, Sanchez C, Donohoe M, Shi Y, Vidal M. Homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton of YY1 mutant mice and genetic interaction with the Polycomb group gene Ring1/Ring1A. Mech Dev. 2006;123:312-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, YY1 forms complexes with Ring1 and other class II PcG proteins such as Rnf2 and Bmi1 in GST pull down experiments in transfected cells. These findings provide evidence for a PcG function for YY1 in vertebrates. ..
  40. Terranova R, Agherbi H, Boned A, Méresse S, Djabali M. Histone and DNA methylation defects at Hox genes in mice expressing a SET domain-truncated form of Mll. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6629-34 pubmed
    ..These observations provide previously undescribed evidence for the in vivo relationship and SET domain dependence between histone methylation and DNA methylation on MLL target genes during embryonic development. ..
  41. Haselbeck R, Hoffmann I, Duester G. Distinct functions for Aldh1 and Raldh2 in the control of ligand production for embryonic retinoid signaling pathways. Dev Genet. 1999;25:353-64 pubmed