Gene Symbol: Hoxb9
Description: homeobox B9
Alias: Hox-2.5, homeobox protein Hox-B9, homeo box B9, homeobox protein Hox-2.5
Species: mouse
Products:     Hoxb9

Top Publications

  1. Conlon R, Rossant J. Exogenous retinoic acid rapidly induces anterior ectopic expression of murine Hox-2 genes in vivo. Development. 1992;116:357-68 pubmed
  2. Sawada A, Kiyonari H, Ukita K, Nishioka N, Imuta Y, Sasaki H. Redundant roles of Tead1 and Tead2 in notochord development and the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Tead1 and Tead2 are functionally redundant, use YAP as a major coactivator, and support notochord maintenance as well as cell proliferation and survival in mouse development. ..
  3. Greer J, Capecchi M. Hoxb8 is required for normal grooming behavior in mice. Neuron. 2002;33:23-34 pubmed
    ..The aberrant behavior observed in Hoxb8 mutants is not unlike that of humans suffering from the OC-spectrum disorder, trichotillomania. Interestingly, Hoxb8 is expressed in regions of the CNS known as the "OCD-circuit." ..
  4. Hunt P, Whiting J, Nonchev S, Sham M, Marshall H, Graham A, et al. The branchial Hox code and its implications for gene regulation, patterning of the nervous system and head evolution. Dev Suppl. 1991;Suppl 2:63-77 pubmed
    ..1 and Hox-2.8 genes in the developing nervous system, supporting our in situ analysis and the idea of a Hox code. These transgenic experiments are a useful step in examining regulation in the Hox cascade. ..
  5. Partanen J, Schwartz L, Rossant J. Opposite phenotypes of hypomorphic and Y766 phosphorylation site mutations reveal a function for Fgfr1 in anteroposterior patterning of mouse embryos. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2332-44 pubmed
  6. Xu X, Weinstein M, Li C, Naski M, Cohen R, Ornitz D, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-mediated reciprocal regulation loop between FGF8 and FGF10 is essential for limb induction. Development. 1998;125:753-65 pubmed
  7. Goh K, Yang J, Hynes R. Mesodermal defects and cranial neural crest apoptosis in alpha5 integrin-null embryos. Development. 1997;124:4309-19 pubmed
  8. Val P, Martinez Barbera J, Swain A. Adrenal development is initiated by Cited2 and Wt1 through modulation of Sf-1 dosage. Development. 2007;134:2349-58 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the importance of transcription factor dosage in organogenesis and the role of transcription co-factors such as Cited2 in determining the levels of these factors. ..
  9. Conlon R, Reaume A, Rossant J. Notch1 is required for the coordinate segmentation of somites. Development. 1995;121:1533-45 pubmed
    ..However, we have found that somitogenesis is delayed and disorganized in Notch1 mutant embryos. We propose that Notch1 normally coordinates the process of somitogenesis, and we provide a model of how this might occur. ..

More Information


  1. Chen F, Capecchi M. Targeted mutations in hoxa-9 and hoxb-9 reveal synergistic interactions. Dev Biol. 1997;181:186-96 pubmed
    ..In particular, the sternum defects are greatly exacerbated. Interestingly, the defects in hoxb-9 and hoxa-9/ hoxb-9 mutant mice are concentrated along the axial column at points of transition between vertebral types. ..
  2. Li C, Li Y, Fu X, Deng C. Anterior visceral endoderm SMAD4 signaling specifies anterior embryonic patterning and head induction in mice. Int J Biol Sci. 2010;6:569-83 pubmed
  3. Medina Martinez O, Bradley A, Ramirez Solis R. A large targeted deletion of Hoxb1-Hoxb9 produces a series of single-segment anterior homeotic transformations. Dev Biol. 2000;222:71-83 pubmed
    ..The mouse HoxB cluster contains 10 genes, Hoxb1 to Hoxb9 and Hoxb13, which are transcribed in the same direction...
  4. Seong I, Woda J, Song J, Lloret A, Abeyrathne P, Woo C, et al. Huntingtin facilitates polycomb repressive complex 2. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:573-83 pubmed publisher
    ..embryoid bodies (EBs) was associated with PRC2 subunits and was detected with trimethylated histone H3K27 at Hoxb9. Supporting a direct stimulatory role, full-length recombinant huntingtin significantly increased the histone ..
  5. Deng C, Bedford M, Li C, Xu X, Yang X, Dunmore J, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) is essential for normal neural tube and limb development. Dev Biol. 1997;185:42-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, FGFR-1 plays a role in neurulation, suggesting that there may be a connection between FGFR-1-mediated signal pathways and neural tube defects, the most common malformations in the human central nervous system. ..
  6. Zeltser L, Desplan C, Heintz N. Hoxb-13: a new Hox gene in a distant region of the HOXB cluster maintains colinearity. Development. 1996;122:2475-84 pubmed
    ..Because of its separation from the complex, Hoxb-13 may provide an important system to dissect the mechanism(s) responsible for the maintenance of colinearity. ..
  7. Medina Martinez O, Ramirez Solis R. In vivo mutagenesis of the Hoxb8 hexapeptide domain leads to dominant homeotic transformations that mimic the loss-of-function mutations in genes of the Hoxb cluster. Dev Biol. 2003;264:77-90 pubmed
    ..transformations, similar to those observed in mice with a loss-of-function of Hox genes, such as Hoxa7, Hoxb7, and Hoxb9. Genetic tests demonstrate that the mutations in the Hoxb8 hexapeptide motif are affecting the function of other ..
  8. Wilkinson D, Bhatt S, Cook M, Boncinelli E, Krumlauf R. Segmental expression of Hox-2 homoeobox-containing genes in the developing mouse hindbrain. Nature. 1989;341:405-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Hox genes specify segment phenotype, a role analogous to that of their Drosophila homologues. ..
  9. Bogarad L, Utset M, Awgulewitsch A, Miki T, Hart C, Ruddle F. The developmental expression pattern of a new murine homeo box gene: Hox-2.5. Dev Biol. 1989;133:537-49 pubmed
  10. Graham A, Papalopulu N, Krumlauf R. The murine and Drosophila homeobox gene complexes have common features of organization and expression. Cell. 1989;57:367-78 pubmed
    ..Our results argue that these complexes arose from a common ancestor, present before the divergence of lineages that gave rise to arthropods and vertebrates. ..
  11. Zhang J, Taylor R, La Torre A, Wilken M, Cox K, Reh T, et al. Ezh2 maintains retinal progenitor proliferation, transcriptional integrity, and the timing of late differentiation. Dev Biol. 2015;403:128-38 pubmed publisher
  12. Schep R, Necsulea A, Rodríguez Carballo E, Guerreiro I, Andrey G, Nguyen Huynh T, et al. Control of Hoxd gene transcription in the mammary bud by hijacking a preexisting regulatory landscape. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E7720-E7729 pubmed
    ..We propose that Hoxd gene regulation in embryonic MBs evolved by hijacking a preexisting regulatory landscape that was already at work before the emergence of mammals in structures such as the limbs or the intestinal tract. ..
  13. Hester M, Thompson J, Mills J, Liu Y, El Hodiri H, Weinstein M. Smad1 and Smad8 function similarly in mammalian central nervous system development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4683-92 pubmed
    ..5. These observations suggest that BMP-responsive Smads have critical functions in the development of the mammalian central nervous system. ..
  14. Randazzo F, Khavari P, Crabtree G, Tamkun J, Rossant J. brg1: a putative murine homologue of the Drosophila brahma gene, a homeotic gene regulator. Dev Biol. 1994;161:229-42 pubmed
    ..These patterns of brg1 expression are consistent with a possible role for brg1 in Hox gene regulation as well as in other regulatory pathways. ..
  15. Mohlke K, Nichols W, Westrick R, Novak E, Cooney K, Swank R, et al. A novel modifier gene for plasma von Willebrand factor level maps to distal mouse chromosome 11. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15352-7 pubmed
    ..of as many as 2407 meioses established a high resolution genetic map with gene order Cola1-Itg3a-Ngfr-Mvwf/Gip-Hoxb9-Hoxb1++ +-Cbx'rs2-Cox5a-Gfap. The Mvwf candidate interval between Ngfr and Hoxb9 is approximately 0...
  16. Bentley K, Bradshaw M, Ruddle F. Physical linkage of the murine Hox-b cluster and nerve growth factor receptor on yeast artificial chromosomes. Genomics. 1993;18:43-53 pubmed
    ..These clones confirm the pulsed-field restriction map of uncloned mouse DNA and represent a contig of approximately 600 kb of cloned material from mouse chromosomes 11. ..
  17. Paul D, Bridoux L, Rezsohazy R, Donnay I. HOX genes are expressed in bovine and mouse oocytes and early embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:436-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Using nested PCR, HOXD1, HOXA3, HOXD4, HOXB7, HOXB9, and HOXC9 transcripts were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos at various frequencies depending on the ..
  18. Ahn Y, Mullan H, Krumlauf R. Long-range regulation by shared retinoic acid response elements modulates dynamic expression of posterior Hoxb genes in CNS development. Dev Biol. 2014;388:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, RA signaling is implicated in a rostral expansion of the neural expression domain of 5? Hoxb genes (Hoxb9-Hoxb5) in mice...
  19. Liu P, Zhang H, McLellan A, Vogel H, Bradley A. Embryonic lethality and tumorigenesis caused by segmental aneuploidy on mouse chromosome 11. Genetics. 1998;150:1155-68 pubmed
    ..A duplication corresponding to one of these two deficiencies was able to rescue its haplolethality. ..
  20. Deschamps J, van Nes J. Developmental regulation of the Hox genes during axial morphogenesis in the mouse. Development. 2005;132:2931-42 pubmed
    ..In particular, we highlight the integration of these transducers of anteroposterior positional information into the genetic network that drives tissue generation and patterning during axial elongation. ..
  21. Wataya T, Ando S, Muguruma K, Ikeda H, Watanabe K, Eiraku M, et al. Minimization of exogenous signals in ES cell culture induces rostral hypothalamic differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11796-801 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that, instead of the addition of inductive signals, minimization of exogenous patterning signaling plays a key role in rostral hypothalamic specification of neural progenitors derived from pluripotent cells. ..
  22. Xu X, Li C, Takahashi K, Slavkin H, Shum L, Deng C. Murine fibroblast growth factor receptor 1alpha isoforms mediate node regression and are essential for posterior mesoderm development. Dev Biol. 1999;208:293-306 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that FGF/FGFR1alpha signals are posteriorizing factors that control node regression and posterior embryonic development. ..
  23. Shen W, Rozenfeld S, Lawrence H, Largman C. The Abd-B-like Hox homeodomain proteins can be subdivided by the ability to form complexes with Pbx1a on a novel DNA target. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8198-206 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Abd-B-like Hox proteins bind to a novel TTAC site and can be divided by their cooperative binding to DNA with Pbx1a. ..
  24. Neijts R, Amin S, van Rooijen C, Deschamps J. Cdx is crucial for the timing mechanism driving colinear Hox activation and defines a trunk segment in the Hox cluster topology. Dev Biol. 2017;422:146-154 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently to initial Wnt-induced activation of 3' Hox genes, Cdx transcription factors would act as crucial effectors for activating central Hox genes, until the last gene of the cluster arrests the process. ..
  25. Moore B, Gonzalez Aviles G, Larkins C, Hillman M, Caspary T. Mitochondrial retention of Opa1 is required for mouse embryogenesis. Mamm Genome. 2010;21:350-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define, for the first time, a function of the middle domain of the Opa1 protein and demonstrate that mitochondrial retention of Opa1 protein is essential for normal embryogenesis. ..
  26. van Rooijen C, Simmini S, Bialecka M, Neijts R, van de Ven C, Beck F, et al. Evolutionarily conserved requirement of Cdx for post-occipital tissue emergence. Development. 2012;139:2576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdx requirement for the post-head section of the axis is ancestral as it takes place in arthropods as well. ..
  27. Kondo T, Takahashi N, Muramatsu M. The regulation of the murine Hox-2.5 gene expression during cell differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5729-35 pubmed
    ..5 promoter activity. ..
  28. Jones F, Prediger E, Bittner D, De Robertis E, Edelman G. Cell adhesion molecules as targets for Hox genes: neural cell adhesion molecule promoter activity is modulated by cotransfection with Hox-2.5 and -2.4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:2086-90 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the N-CAM gene is likely to be a target for regulation by Hox gene products. ..
  29. Graham A, Papalopulu N, Lorimer J, McVey J, Tuddenham E, Krumlauf R. Characterization of a murine homeo box gene, Hox-2.6, related to the Drosophila Deformed gene. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1424-38 pubmed
    ..The patterns of Hox-2.6 expression in both mesoderm and ectoderm are spatially restricted and may reflect a role for the gene in the response to or establishment of positional cues in the embryo. ..
  30. Burke A, Nelson C, Morgan B, Tabin C. Hox genes and the evolution of vertebrate axial morphology. Development. 1995;121:333-46 pubmed
    ..The recognition of mechanistic homology supports the historical homology of basic patterning mechanisms between all organisms that share these genes. ..
  31. Chen F, Capecchi M. Paralogous mouse Hox genes, Hoxa9, Hoxb9, and Hoxd9, function together to control development of the mammary gland in response to pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:541-6 pubmed
    ..Analysis of mice with mutant Hoxa9, Hoxb9, and Hoxd9 genes shows that these paralogous genes are required for mediating the expansion and/or differentiation ..
  32. Malicki J, Bogarad L, Martin M, Ruddle F, McGinnis W. Functional analysis of the mouse homeobox gene HoxB9 in Drosophila development. Mech Dev. 1993;42:139-50 pubmed
    ..Here we describe such functional tests using mouse HoxB9 (formerly Hox-2.5), whose closest structural relative in Drosophila is Abdominal-B...
  33. Chambeyron S, Da Silva N, Lawson K, Bickmore W. Nuclear re-organisation of the Hoxb complex during mouse embryonic development. Development. 2005;132:2215-23 pubmed
    ..was decondensed and the Hoxb1 locus looped out from its chromosome territory, in contrast to non-expressing Hoxb9, which remained within the chromosome territory. At E9...
  34. Ye A, Kim H, Kim J. PEG3 control on the mammalian MSL complex. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178363 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the current study reports that Peg3 may control its downstream genes through mammalian MSL. ..
  35. Graham A, Maden M, Krumlauf R. The murine Hox-2 genes display dynamic dorsoventral patterns of expression during central nervous system development. Development. 1991;112:255-64 pubmed
    ..This suggests that, while genes in the different murine Hox clusters may have similar A-P domains of expression, they are responding to different dorsoventral patterning signals in the developing spinal cord. ..
  36. Rubock M, Larin Z, Cook M, Papalopulu N, Krumlauf R, Lehrach H. A yeast artificial chromosome containing the mouse homeobox cluster Hox-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4751-5 pubmed
    ..The YAC will enable us to construct modified forms of the Hox-2 cluster in yeast and to identify their effect on the phenotype of the animal in transgenic mouse strains. ..
  37. Xu B, Wellik D. Axial Hox9 activity establishes the posterior field in the developing forelimb. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4888-91 pubmed publisher
    ..anteroposterior polarization of the early forelimb field requires the function of all four Hox9 paralogs (Hoxa9, Hoxb9, Hoxc9, and Hoxd9)...
  38. Holstege J, de Graaff W, Hossaini M, Cardona Cano S, Jaarsma D, van den Akker E, et al. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The data therefore suggest that a lower number of neurons in the upper spinal laminae and neuronal disorganization in the dorsal horn underlie the sensory defects including the excessive grooming of the Hoxb8 mutant. ..
  39. Moisan V, Bomgardner D, Tremblay J. Expression of the Ladybird-like homeobox 2 transcription factor in the developing mouse testis and epididymis. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:22 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that the homeoprotein Lbx2 might be involved in the regulation of male reproductive system development and cell differentiation as well as in male epididymal segmentation. ..
  40. Bhattaram P, Penzo Méndez A, Sock E, Colmenares C, Kaneko K, Vassilev A, et al. Organogenesis relies on SoxC transcription factors for the survival of neural and mesenchymal progenitors. Nat Commun. 2010;1:9 pubmed publisher
    ..SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway. ..
  41. Detmer K, Lawrence H, Largman C. Expression of class I homeobox genes in fetal and adult murine skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;101:517-22 pubmed
    ..The amount of Hoxb-4, -b-2, and -c-4 message in skin is relatively constant from the earliest gestational day examined (day 16) through birth at day 19. Expression of several homeobox genes is also seen in adult skin. ..
  42. Wassef M, Chomette D, Pouilhe M, Stedman A, Havis E, Desmarquet Trin Dinh C, et al. Rostral hindbrain patterning involves the direct activation of a Krox20 transcriptional enhancer by Hox/Pbx and Meis factors. Development. 2008;135:3369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model for the complex regulation of Krox20, involving a novel mode of initiation, positive and negative controls by Hox proteins, and multiple direct and indirect autoregulatory loops. ..
  43. van den Akker E, Forlani S, Chawengsaksophak K, de Graaff W, Beck F, Meyer B, et al. Cdx1 and Cdx2 have overlapping functions in anteroposterior patterning and posterior axis elongation. Development. 2002;129:2181-93 pubmed
    ..The function of Cdx genes in morphogenetic processes during gastrulation and tail bud extension, and their relationship with the Hox genes are discussed in the light of available data in Amphioxus, C. elegans, Drosophila and mice. ..
  44. Do M, Lonai P. Gene organization of murine homeobox-containing gene clusters. Genomics. 1988;3:195-200 pubmed
    ..Conservation of the homeo-domain and the linear gene order of homeobox-containing genes in vertebrates is discussed in light of the interactions and the anteroposterior linear order of homeotic loci in insects. ..
  45. Harima Y, Takashima Y, Ueda Y, Ohtsuka T, Kageyama R. Accelerating the tempo of the segmentation clock by reducing the number of introns in the Hes7 gene. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the number of introns is important for the appropriate tempo of oscillatory expression and that Hes7 is a key regulator of the pace of the segmentation clock...
  46. d Graaff W, Tomotsune D, Oosterveen T, Takihara Y, Koseki H, Deschamps J. Randomly inserted and targeted Hox/reporter fusions transcriptionally silenced in Polycomb mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13362-7 pubmed
  47. McIntyre D, Rakshit S, Yallowitz A, Loken L, Jeannotte L, Capecchi M, et al. Hox patterning of the vertebrate rib cage. Development. 2007;134:2981-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ;Hox code' in somitic mesoderm is the result of the distinct, graded effects of two or more Hox paralogous groups functioning in any anteroposterior location. ..
  48. Sugrue K, Zohn I. Mechanism for generation of left isomerism in Ccdc40 mutant embryos. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171180 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results suggest a model where cilia generated fluid flow in the node functions to ensure robust Nodal activation and a timely left-sided developmental program in the LPM. ..
  49. Wang M, Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Vikis H, Yan Y, Wang Y, et al. Fine mapping and candidate gene analyses of pulmonary adenoma resistance 1, a major genetic determinant of mouse lung adenoma resistance. Cancer Res. 2007;67:2508-16 pubmed
    ..0-cM (2.2 Mb) chromosomal region between genetic marker D11Mit70 and the gene Hoxb9. We then conducted systematic candidate gene screening through nucleotide polymorphism and expression analyses...