Gene Symbol: Hoxa3
Description: homeobox A3
Alias: Hox-1.5, Mo-10, homeobox protein Hox-A3, homeo box A3, homeobox protein Hox-1.5, homeobox protein MO-10
Species: mouse
Products:     Hoxa3

Top Publications

  1. Meunier D, Aubin J, Jeannotte L. Perturbed thyroid morphology and transient hypothyroidism symptoms in Hoxa5 mutant mice. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:367-78 pubmed
    ..Our characterization reveals that the loss of Hoxa5 function transiently affects thyroid development in a non-cell autonomous manner. ..
  2. Bertrand N, Roux M, Ryckebusch L, Niederreither K, Dolle P, Moon A, et al. Hox genes define distinct progenitor sub-domains within the second heart field. Dev Biol. 2011;353:266-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We now show that Hoxb1, Hoxa1, and Hoxa3, as downstream RA targets, are expressed in distinct sub-domains within the SHF...
  3. Mace K, Hansen S, Myers C, Young D, Boudreau N. HOXA3 induces cell migration in endothelial and epithelial cells promoting angiogenesis and wound repair. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:2567-77 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the role of the transcription factor HOXA3 in wound repair and angiogenesis...
  4. Gaunt S, Krumlauf R, Duboule D. Mouse homeo-genes within a subfamily, Hox-1.4, -2.6 and -5.1, display similar anteroposterior domains of expression in the embryo, but show stage- and tissue-dependent differences in their regulation. Development. 1989;107:131-41 pubmed
    ..We also propose how our new findings may help to explain any selective advantage to the vertebrates of homeo-gene duplication to form subfamilies. ..
  5. McKay I, Muchamore I, Krumlauf R, Maden M, Lumsden A, Lewis J. The kreisler mouse: a hindbrain segmentation mutant that lacks two rhombomeres. Development. 1994;120:2199-211 pubmed
    ..An interpretation is that the cells that would normally become specified at an early stage as r5 and r6 adopt an r4 character instead, producing an excess of r4 cells that is disposed of subsequently by cell death. ..
  6. Rijli F, Mark M, Lakkaraju S, Dierich A, Dolle P, Chambon P. A homeotic transformation is generated in the rostral branchial region of the head by disruption of Hoxa-2, which acts as a selector gene. Cell. 1993;75:1333-49 pubmed
    ..The ground pattern program appears to be modified in the mouse first arch by a Hox-independent process, whereas Hoxa-2 acts as a selector gene in the second arch. ..
  7. Bunting M, Bernstein K, Greer J, Capecchi M, Thomas K. Targeting genes for self-excision in the germ line. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1524-8 pubmed
    ..This cassette was targeted to the Hoxa3 gene in mouse ES cells that were in turn used to generate chimeric mice...
  8. Gaunt S, Miller J, Powell D, Duboule D. Homoeobox gene expression in mouse embryos varies with position by the primitive streak stage. Nature. 1986;324:662-4 pubmed
    ..These findings support the suggestion that the homoeobox genes of mammals, like those of Drosophila, may be important in pattern formation. ..
  9. Theil T, Ariza McNaughton L, Manzanares M, Brodie J, Krumlauf R, Wilkinson D. Requirement for downregulation of kreisler during late patterning of the hindbrain. Development. 2002;129:1477-85 pubmed
    ..In these transgenic mice, the Fgf3, Krox20, Hoxa3 and Hoxb3 genes have ectopic or prolonged expression domains in r3, indicating that it acquires molecular ..

More Information


  1. Manley N, Capecchi M. Hox group 3 paralogous genes act synergistically in the formation of somitic and neural crest-derived structures. Dev Biol. 1997;192:274-88 pubmed
    ..this report we present an analysis of the genetic interactions between all members of the third paralogous group, Hoxa3, Hoxb3, and Hoxd3...
  2. Watari N, Kameda Y, Takeichi M, Chisaka O. Hoxa3 regulates integration of glossopharyngeal nerve precursor cells. Dev Biol. 2001;240:15-31 pubmed
    ..In mouse Hoxa3 mutants, truncation of the glossopharyngeal (IXth) nerve or the fusion of the IXth and vagus (Xth) nerves was ..
  3. Gaufo G, Thomas K, Capecchi M. Hox3 genes coordinate mechanisms of genetic suppression and activation in the generation of branchial and somatic motoneurons. Development. 2003;130:5191-201 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that in r5, the combined mutation of Hoxa3 and Hoxb3 result in a loss of Pax6- and Olig2-expressing progenitors that give rise to somatic motoneurons of the ..
  4. Macatee T, Hammond B, Arenkiel B, Francis L, Frank D, Moon A. Ablation of specific expression domains reveals discrete functions of ectoderm- and endoderm-derived FGF8 during cardiovascular and pharyngeal development. Development. 2003;130:6361-74 pubmed
  5. Chisaka O, Capecchi M. Regionally restricted developmental defects resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse homeobox gene hox-1.5. Nature. 1991;350:473-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, they often feature defects of the heart and arteries as well as craniofacial abnormalities. These deficiencies are remarkably similar to the pathology of the human congenital disorder DiGeorge's syndrome. ..
  6. Ivins S, Lammerts van Beuren K, Roberts C, James C, Lindsay E, Baldini A, et al. Microarray analysis detects differentially expressed genes in the pharyngeal region of mice lacking Tbx1. Dev Biol. 2005;285:554-69 pubmed
    ..of Pax9 and Gcm2, genes known to be required for normal thymus and parathyroid gland morphogenesis, whereas Pax1, Hoxa3, Eya1, and Foxn1, which are similarly required, were not down-regulated...
  7. Kessel M. Reversal of axonal pathways from rhombomere 3 correlates with extra Hox expression domains. Neuron. 1993;10:379-93 pubmed
    ..Here r3 axons turned in the opposite direction and exited as facial nerves from r4. These changes of neuroectodermal fates indicate a linkage between axonal pathfinding and intrinsic neuronal specification by Hox codes. ..
  8. Takano Maruyama M, Chen Y, Gaufo G. Differential contribution of Neurog1 and Neurog2 on the formation of cranial ganglia along the anterior-posterior axis. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:229-41 pubmed publisher
  9. Nadeau J, Bedigian H, Bouchard G, Denial T, Kosowsky M, Norberg R, et al. Multilocus markers for mouse genome analysis: PCR amplification based on single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:55-64 pubmed
    ..Finally, linkage for seven products was established on five chromosomes. These characteristics establish single primer PCR as a powerful method for mouse genome analysis. ..
  10. Manzanares M, Bel Vialar S, Ariza McNaughton L, Ferretti E, Marshall H, Maconochie M, et al. Independent regulation of initiation and maintenance phases of Hoxa3 expression in the vertebrate hindbrain involve auto- and cross-regulatory mechanisms. Development. 2001;128:3595-607 pubmed
    ..Paralogous Hox genes, such as Hoxa3, Hoxb3 and Hoxd3, generally have very similar patterns of expression, and gene targeting experiments have shown ..
  11. Lufkin T, Dierich A, LeMeur M, Mark M, Chambon P. Disruption of the Hox-1.6 homeobox gene results in defects in a region corresponding to its rostral domain of expression. Cell. 1991;66:1105-19 pubmed
    ..The implication of these results for the function of the Hox network during mouse embryogenesis is discussed. ..
  12. Scotti M, Kmita M. Recruitment of 5' Hoxa genes in the allantois is essential for proper extra-embryonic function in placental mammals. Development. 2012;139:731-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, using a series of targeted recombination and transgenic assays, we provide evidence that the regulatory mechanism underlying Hoxa expression in the allantois is extremely complex and relies on several cis-regulatory sequences...
  13. Manley N, Capecchi M. The role of Hoxa-3 in mouse thymus and thyroid development. Development. 1995;121:1989-2003 pubmed
    ..This variability suggests the presence of a compensating gene or genes, whose utilization is stochastic. A reasonable candidate for providing this compensatory function is the paralogous gene Hoxb-3. ..
  14. Yamaguchi M, Nakamoto M, Honda H, Nakagawa T, Fujita H, Nakamura T, et al. Retardation of skeletal development and cervical abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor in chondrogenic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7491-6 pubmed
    ..Great similarities of the phenotypes between our mice and reported RAR knockout mice revealed that chondrogenic cells are a principal RA target during complex cascades of skeletal development. ..
  15. Chojnowski J, Masuda K, Trau H, Thomas K, Capecchi M, Manley N. Multiple roles for HOXA3 in regulating thymus and parathyroid differentiation and morphogenesis in mouse. Development. 2014;141:3697-708 pubmed publisher
    b>Hoxa3 was the first Hox gene to be mutated by gene targeting in mice and is required for the development of multiple endoderm and neural crest cell (NCC)-derived structures in the pharyngeal region...
  16. Chisaka O, Kameda Y. Hoxa3 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of the third pharyngeal arch mesenchyme in mice. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;320:77-89 pubmed
    Genetic disruption of Hoxa3 results in bilateral defects of the common carotid artery, which is derived from the third branchial arch artery...
  17. Kameda Y, Nishimaki T, Takeichi M, Chisaka O. Homeobox gene hoxa3 is essential for the formation of the carotid body in the mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 2002;247:197-209 pubmed
    Homeobox gene Hoxa3 is strongly expressed in the third pharyngeal arch and pouch. We found that Hoxa3 homozygous null mutant mice had the lack of the carotid body...
  18. Su D, Ellis S, Napier A, Lee K, Manley N. Hoxa3 and pax1 regulate epithelial cell death and proliferation during thymus and parathyroid organogenesis. Dev Biol. 2001;236:316-29 pubmed
    ..that promote this unique process in which two distinct organs form from a single primordium, using mice mutant for Hoxa3 and Pax1...
  19. Karamitros D, Patmanidi A, Kotantaki P, Potocnik A, Bähr Ivacevic T, Benes V, et al. Geminin deletion increases the number of fetal hematopoietic stem cells by affecting the expression of key transcription factors. Development. 2015;142:70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that geminin is indispensable for fetal hematopoiesis and regulates the generation of a physiological pool of stem and progenitor cells in the fetal hematopoietic system. ..
  20. Kameda Y, Arai Y, Nishimaki T, Chisaka O. The role of Hoxa3 gene in parathyroid gland organogenesis of the mouse. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:641-51 pubmed
    Mice with a targeted deletion of the Hoxa3 gene have defects of derivatives of the third branchial arch and pouch...
  21. Houle M, Sylvestre J, Lohnes D. Retinoic acid regulates a subset of Cdx1 function in vivo. Development. 2003;130:6555-67 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with a pivotal role for retinoid signalling in governing a subset of expression of Cdx1 crucial for normal vertebral patterning. ..
  22. Wang L, Zhang Z, Li Q, Yang R, Pei X, Xu Y, et al. Ethanol exposure induces differential microRNA and target gene expression and teratogenic effects which can be suppressed by folic acid supplementation. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:562-79 pubmed publisher
    ..01). The study provided new insights into the role of miRNAs and their target genes in the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol syndrome. ..
  23. Geisen M, di Meglio T, Pasqualetti M, Ducret S, Brunet J, Chedotal A, et al. Hox paralog group 2 genes control the migration of mouse pontine neurons through slit-robo signaling. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e142 pubmed publisher
  24. Iacovino M, Chong D, Szatmari I, Hartweck L, Rux D, Caprioli A, et al. HoxA3 is an apical regulator of haemogenic endothelium. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that HoxA3, a gene uniquely expressed in the embryonic but not yolk sac vasculature, restrains haematopoietic differentiation ..
  25. Hunt P, Whiting J, Nonchev S, Sham M, Marshall H, Graham A, et al. The branchial Hox code and its implications for gene regulation, patterning of the nervous system and head evolution. Dev Suppl. 1991;Suppl 2:63-77 pubmed
    ..1 and Hox-2.8 genes in the developing nervous system, supporting our in situ analysis and the idea of a Hox code. These transgenic experiments are a useful step in examining regulation in the Hox cascade. ..
  26. Sheikh B, Downer N, Kueh A, Thomas T, Voss A. Excessive versus physiologically relevant levels of retinoic acid in embryonic stem cell differentiation. Stem Cells. 2014;32:1451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that using RA at physiologically relevant levels to study the activation of Hox genes, more accurately reflects the molecular events during the early phase of Hox gene activation in vivo. ..
  27. Hunt P, Gulisano M, Cook M, Sham M, Faiella A, Wilkinson D, et al. A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head. Nature. 1991;353:861-4 pubmed
  28. Paul D, Bridoux L, Rezsohazy R, Donnay I. HOX genes are expressed in bovine and mouse oocytes and early embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:436-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Using nested PCR, HOXD1, HOXA3, HOXD4, HOXB7, HOXB9, and HOXC9 transcripts were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos at various ..
  29. Kovacs C, Manley N, Moseley J, Martin T, Kronenberg H. Fetal parathyroids are not required to maintain placental calcium transport. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:1007-15 pubmed
    We used Hoxa3 knockout mice and other mouse models to study the role of the fetal parathyroids in fetal calcium homeostasis...
  30. Szumska D, Cioroch M, Keeling A, Prat A, Seidah N, Bhattacharya S. Pcsk5 is required in the early cranio-cardiac mesoderm for heart development. BMC Dev Biol. 2017;17:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, it is possible that Pcsk5 may still play a critical role in Nkx2.5-expressing cardiac progenitors, with persistence of mRNA or protein accounting for the lack of effect of deletion on heart development. ..
  31. Vitelli F, Zhang Z, Huynh T, Sobotka A, Mupo A, Baldini A. Fgf8 expression in the Tbx1 domain causes skeletal abnormalities and modifies the aortic arch but not the outflow tract phenotype of Tbx1 mutants. Dev Biol. 2006;295:559-70 pubmed
  32. Gaunt S. Homoeobox gene Hox-1.5 expression in mouse embryos: earliest detection by in situ hybridization is during gastrulation. Development. 1987;101:51-60 pubmed
    ..1986), might start expression at times later in development. ..
  33. Chen L, Zhao P, Wells L, Amemiya C, Condie B, Manley N. Mouse and zebrafish Hoxa3 orthologues have nonequivalent in vivo protein function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that zebrafish hoxa3a (zfhoxa3a) expressed from the mouse Hoxa3 locus can substitute for mouse Hoxa3 in some tissues, but has distinct or null phenotypes in others...
  34. Gaunt S, Strachan L. Forward spreading in the establishment of a vertebrate Hox expression boundary: the expression domain separates into anterior and posterior zones, and the spread occurs across implanted glass barriers. Dev Dyn. 1994;199:229-40 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the posterior zone marks the source of a morphogen which is the primary activator of Hox gene expression, and we discuss possible models for the mechanism of forward spreading in expression. ..
  35. Innis J, Darling S, Kazen Gillespie K, Post L, Mortlock D, Yang T. Orientation of the Hoxa complex and placement of the Hd locus distal to Hoxa2 on mouse chromosome 6. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:216-7 pubmed
  36. Voss A, Collin C, Dixon M, Thomas T. Moz and retinoic acid coordinately regulate H3K9 acetylation, Hox gene expression, and segment identity. Dev Cell. 2009;17:674-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data show that Moz regulates H3K9 acetylation at Hox gene loci and that RA can act independently of Moz to establish specific Hox gene expression boundaries. ..
  37. Rabin M, Ferguson Smith A, Hart C, Ruddle F. Cognate homeo-box loci mapped on homologous human and mouse chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:9104-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest these regions represent evolutionarily conserved genomic domains encoding homologous protein products that function in regulating patterns of mammalian development. ..
  38. Carroll L, Capecchi M. Hoxc8 initiates an ectopic mammary program by regulating Fgf10 and Tbx3 expression and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Development. 2015;142:4056-67 pubmed publisher
  39. Manley N, Selleri L, Brendolan A, Gordon J, Cleary M. Abnormalities of caudal pharyngeal pouch development in Pbx1 knockout mice mimic loss of Hox3 paralogs. Dev Biol. 2004;276:301-12 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes are similar to those previously reported in Hoxa3(-/-) single mutants and Hoxa1(-/-);Hoxb1(-/-) or Hoxa3(+/-);Hoxb3(-/-);Hoxd3(-/-) compound mutants, suggesting ..
  40. Kameda Y. Dual origins of the mouse carotid body revealed by targeted disruption of Hoxa3 and Mash1. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;580:93-7; discussion 351-9 pubmed
  41. Foster K, Gordon J, Cardenas K, Veiga Fernandes H, Makinen T, Grigorieva E, et al. EphB-ephrin-B2 interactions are required for thymus migration during organogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies a NC-derived cell-specific role of EphB-ephrin-B2 interactions in the collective migration of the thymic rudiment during organogenesis. ..
  42. Mahdipour E, Charnock J, Mace K. Hoxa3 promotes the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells into proangiogenic Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. Blood. 2011;117:815-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we demonstrated that gene transfer of HOXA3 to wounds of diabetic mice is taken up by and expressed by recruited BMDCs...
  43. Core N, Bel S, Gaunt S, Aurrand Lions M, Pearce J, Fisher A, et al. Altered cellular proliferation and mesoderm patterning in Polycomb-M33-deficient mice. Development. 1997;124:721-9 pubmed
    ..5, leading to the hypothesis that, during development, the M33 gene might play a role in defining access to retinoic acid response elements localised in the regulatory regions of several Hox genes. ..
  44. Al Sadoun H, Burgess M, Hentges K, Mace K. Enforced Expression of Hoxa3 Inhibits Classical and Promotes Alternative Activation of Macrophages In Vitro and In Vivo. J Immunol. 2016;197:872-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that sustained expression of Hoxa3 reduces the excessive number of leukocytes within the db wound; however, the effect of Hoxa3 on m? polarization ..
  45. Gaunt S, Blum M, De Robertis E. Expression of the mouse goosecoid gene during mid-embryogenesis may mark mesenchymal cell lineages in the developing head, limbs and body wall. Development. 1993;117:769-78 pubmed
    ..Our findings lead us to suggest that the goosecoid gene product plays a role in spatial programming within discrete embryonic fields, and possibly lineage compartments, during organogenesis stages of mouse development. ..
  46. Catron K, Iler N, Abate C. Nucleotides flanking a conserved TAAT core dictate the DNA binding specificity of three murine homeodomain proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:2354-65 pubmed
    ..Differences in DNA binding specificities observed in vitro may contribute to selective interactions of homeodomain proteins with potential binding sites in the control regions of target genes. ..
  47. Sanghez V, Luzzi A, Clarke D, Kee D, Beuder S, Rux D, et al. Notch activation is required for downregulation of HoxA3-dependent endothelial cell phenotype during blood formation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186818 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we have shown that the transcription factor HoxA3 prevents blood formation by inhibiting Runx1 expression, maintaining endothelial gene expression and thus blocking ..
  48. Zhang Z, Cerrato F, Xu H, Vitelli F, Morishima M, Vincentz J, et al. Tbx1 expression in pharyngeal epithelia is necessary for pharyngeal arch artery development. Development. 2005;132:5307-15 pubmed
    ..We also thereby demonstrate conclusively that the role of Tbx1 in fourth PAA development is cell non-autonomous...
  49. Diman N, Chauvier E, Pacico N, Picard J, Rezsohazy R. The proximal 2-kb of the Hoxa3 promoter directs gene expression in distinct branchial compartments and cranial ganglia. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;150:211-3 pubmed
    Developing structures such as hindbrain, neural crest cells or spinal cord express Hoxa3. Here, we have investigated the regulatory role of a 2-kb fragment spanning the proximal promoter of Hoxa3 by a reporter-based approach in mice...
  50. Manley N, Capecchi M. Hox group 3 paralogs regulate the development and migration of the thymus, thyroid, and parathyroid glands. Dev Biol. 1998;195:1-15 pubmed
    ..b>Hoxa3 mutant homozygotes have defects in the development of all three organs...
  51. Manzanares M, Cordes S, Ariza McNaughton L, Sadl V, Maruthainar K, Barsh G, et al. Conserved and distinct roles of kreisler in regulation of the paralogous Hoxa3 and Hoxb3 genes. Development. 1999;126:759-69 pubmed
    ..The expression of the paralogous Hoxa3 and Hoxb3 genes extends from the posterior spinal cord up to the rhombomere (r) 4/5 boundary and both genes are ..
  52. Su D, Manley N. Hoxa3 and pax1 transcription factors regulate the ability of fetal thymic epithelial cells to promote thymocyte development. J Immunol. 2000;164:5753-60 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that mutations in two transcription factors, Hoxa3 and Pax1, act synergistically to cause defective thymic epithelial cell development, resulting in thymic ectopia ..
  53. Clarke R, Yzaguirre A, Yashiro Ohtani Y, Bondue A, Blanpain C, Pear W, et al. The expression of Sox17 identifies and regulates haemogenic endothelium. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:502-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings position Sox17 as a key regulator of haemogenic endothelial and haematopoietic development. ..
  54. McGinnis W, Hart C, Gehring W, Ruddle F. Molecular cloning and chromosome mapping of a mouse DNA sequence homologous to homeotic genes of Drosophila. Cell. 1984;38:675-80 pubmed
    ..Mo-10 has been mapped to the proximal portion of mouse chromosome 6, and its position in relationship to genes known to influence mouse morphogenesis is discussed. ..
  55. Minoux M, Antonarakis G, Kmita M, Duboule D, Rijli F. Rostral and caudal pharyngeal arches share a common neural crest ground pattern. Development. 2009;136:637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found that Hoxa2 and Hoxa3 act synergistically to pattern third and fourth arch derivatives...
  56. Xu P, Zheng W, Laclef C, Maire P, Maas R, Peters H, et al. Eya1 is required for the morphogenesis of mammalian thymus, parathyroid and thyroid. Development. 2002;129:3033-44 pubmed
    ..5 in Eya1(-/-) embryos. Our results indicate that Eya1 controls critical early inductive events involved in the morphogenesis of thymus, parathyroid and thyroid. ..
  57. Zhang M, Kim H, Marshall H, Gendron Maguire M, Lucas D, Baron A, et al. Ectopic Hoxa-1 induces rhombomere transformation in mouse hindbrain. Development. 1994;120:2431-42 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that ectopic Hoxa-1 expression can reorganize select regions of the developing hindbrain by inducing partial transformations of several rhombomeres into a rhombomere-4-like identity. ..
  58. Collins E, Appert A, Ariza McNaughton L, Pannell R, Yamada Y, Rabbitts T. Mouse Af9 is a controller of embryo patterning, like Mll, whose human homologue fuses with Af9 after chromosomal translocation in leukemia. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7313-24 pubmed
    ..This is analogous to the role of Mll, the murine homolog of human MLL, to which the Af9 gene fuses in acute myeloid leukemias. ..
  59. Takano Maruyama M, Chen Y, Gaufo G. Placodal sensory ganglia coordinate the formation of the cranial visceral motor pathway. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1155-61 pubmed publisher
  60. Hauri Hohl M, Zuklys S, Keller M, Jeker L, Barthlott T, Moon A, et al. TGF-beta signaling in thymic epithelial cells regulates thymic involution and postirradiation reconstitution. Blood. 2008;112:626-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, inhibition of TGF-beta signaling decelerates the process of age-related thymic involution and may hasten the reconstitution of regular thymopoiesis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. ..
  61. Hibiya K, Katsumoto T, Kondo T, Kitabayashi I, Kudo A. Brpf1, a subunit of the MOZ histone acetyl transferase complex, maintains expression of anterior and posterior Hox genes for proper patterning of craniofacial and caudal skeletons. Dev Biol. 2009;329:176-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a common role of the MOZ HAT complex in vertebrates, a complex which is required for the proper patterning for skeletal development...
  62. Kessel M, Gruss P. Homeotic transformations of murine vertebrae and concomitant alteration of Hox codes induced by retinoic acid. Cell. 1991;67:89-104 pubmed
    ..Exogenous RA interferes with the normal establishment of Hox codes and thus with axial specification. ..
  63. Moens C, Selleri L. Hox cofactors in vertebrate development. Dev Biol. 2006;291:193-206 pubmed
  64. Bleyl S, Saijoh Y, Bax N, Gittenberger de Groot A, Wisse L, Chapman S, et al. Dysregulation of the PDGFRA gene causes inflow tract anomalies including TAPVR: integrating evidence from human genetics and model organisms. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1286-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data from human genetics and animal models support a role for PDGF-signaling in normal PV development, and in the pathogenesis of TAPVR. ..
  65. Pilon N, Oh K, Sylvestre J, Savory J, Lohnes D. Wnt signaling is a key mediator of Cdx1 expression in vivo. Development. 2007;134:2315-23 pubmed
    ..As Wnt signaling is implicated in somitogenesis upstream of the Notch pathway, it is conceivable that Cdx1 might play a role in this process. However, none of the Notch pathway genes assessed was overtly affected. ..
  66. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Retinoic acid synthesis and hindbrain patterning in the mouse embryo. Development. 2000;127:75-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that RA produced by the embryo is required to generate posterior cell fates in the developing mouse hindbrain, its absence leading to an abnormal r3 (and, to a lesser extent, r4) identity of the caudal hindbrain cells. ..
  67. Schwarz D, Varum S, Zemke M, Schöler A, Baggiolini A, Draganova K, et al. Ezh2 is required for neural crest-derived cartilage and bone formation. Development. 2014;141:867-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that craniofacial skeleton formation in higher vertebrates is crucially dependent on epigenetic regulation that keeps in check inhibitors of an osteochondrogenic differentiation program. ..
  68. Bleul C, Boehm T. BMP signaling is required for normal thymus development. J Immunol. 2005;175:5213-21 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that BMP signaling is crucial for thymus development and that it is the thymic stroma rather than developing thymocytes that depends on BMP signals. ..
  69. Nazarali A, Kim Y, Nirenberg M. Hox-1.11 and Hox-4.9 homeobox genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:2883-7 pubmed
    ..3 and Hox-4.2 genomic DNA revealed some differences in nucleotide sequences and in the deduced homeodomain amino acid sequences compared with the sequences that have been reported. ..
  70. Duboule D, Baron A, Mahl P, Galliot B. A new homeo-box is present in overlapping cosmid clones which define the mouse Hox-1 locus. EMBO J. 1986;5:1973-80 pubmed
    ..Hox1-3 is shown to be a member of a cluster of at least four homeo-boxes lying within a 75-kb segment of DNA on mouse chromosome 6. The structure of the whole cluster, the Hox-1 locus is presented. ..
  71. Mace K, Restivo T, Rinn J, Paquet A, Chang H, Young D, et al. HOXA3 modulates injury-induced mobilization and recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells. Stem Cells. 2009;27:1654-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we demonstrated that sustained expression of HOXA3 both accelerated wound healing and promoted angiogenesis in diabetic mice...
  72. Kameda Y, Watari Goshima N, Nishimaki T, Chisaka O. Disruption of the Hoxa3 homeobox gene results in anomalies of the carotid artery system and the arterial baroreceptors. Cell Tissue Res. 2003;311:343-52 pubmed
    Homeobox gene Hoxa3 is expressed in the third pharyngeal arch and pouch and is required for development of the third arch artery in addition to the thymus, parathyroid gland and carotid body...
  73. Miyagawa S, Moon A, Haraguchi R, Inoue C, Harada M, Nakahara C, et al. Dosage-dependent hedgehog signals integrated with Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulate external genitalia formation as an appendicular program. Development. 2009;136:3969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the integration of growth factor signaling in the appendicular developmental programs that regulate external genitalia development...
  74. Moore Scott B, Manley N. Differential expression of Sonic hedgehog along the anterior-posterior axis regulates patterning of pharyngeal pouch endoderm and pharyngeal endoderm-derived organs. Dev Biol. 2005;278:323-35 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that, as in the posterior gut endoderm, exclusion of Shh expression from developing primordia is required for the proper development of pharyngeal-derived organs. ..
  75. Chen Y, Takano Maruyama M, Gaufo G. Plasticity of neural crest-placode interaction in the developing visceral nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1880-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of NC and placodal cells to, respectively, differentiate and migrate despite a positional mismatch along the A/P axis reflects the plasticity in the relationship between the two neurogenic precursors of the vertebrate head. ..
  76. Mallo M, Kanzler B, Ohnemus S. Reversible gene inactivation in the mouse. Genomics. 2003;81:356-60 pubmed
    ..This procedure allows the production of gene inactivation that is complete, is reversible, and can be controlled at the spatial and temporal levels. ..
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