Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Hoxa2
Description: homeobox A2
Alias: AI324701, HOX1.11, Hox-1.11, homeobox protein Hox-A2, homeo box A2, homeobox protein Hox-1.11
- Helmbacher F, Pujades C, Desmarquet C, Frain M, Rijli F, Chambon P, et al. Hoxa1 and Krox-20 synergize to control the development of rhombomere 3. Development. 1998;125:4739-48 pubmed..In addition, these data suggest that the control of the development of r3 may not be autonomous but dependent on interactions with Hoxa1-expressing cells. ..
- Tavella S, Bobola N. Expressing Hoxa2 across the entire endochondral skeleton alters the shape of the skeletal template in a spatially restricted fashion. Differentiation. 2010;79:194-202 pubmed publisher..To clarify these controversial effects, we overexpressed Hoxa2 across the entire developing endochondral skeleton in mouse...
- Barrow J, Capecchi M. Compensatory defects associated with mutations in Hoxa1 restore normal palatogenesis to Hoxa2 mutants. Development. 1999;126:5011-26 pubmed..The loss of Hoxa1 or Hoxa2 function affects the development of multiple neural crest-derived structures...
- Moens C, Selleri L. Hox cofactors in vertebrate development. Dev Biol. 2006;291:193-206 pubmed
- Pasqualetti M, Diaz C, Renaud J, Rijli F, Glover J. Fate-mapping the mammalian hindbrain: segmental origins of vestibular projection neurons assessed using rhombomere-specific Hoxa2 enhancer elements in the mouse embryo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:9670-81 pubmed..or the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter genes under the transcriptional control of rhombomere-specific Hoxa2 enhancer elements were used to visualize rhombomere-derived domains...
- Gavalas A, Trainor P, Ariza McNaughton L, Krumlauf R. Synergy between Hoxa1 and Hoxb1: the relationship between arch patterning and the generation of cranial neural crest. Development. 2001;128:3017-27 pubmed..Furthermore, they demonstrate that early patterning of the separate components of the pharyngeal arches can proceed independently of neural crest cell migration. ..
- Barrow J, Stadler H, Capecchi M. Roles of Hoxa1 and Hoxa2 in patterning the early hindbrain of the mouse. Development. 2000;127:933-44 pubmed..Two of these genes, Hoxa1 and Hoxa2, have been shown to be required for proper patterning of the early mouse hindbrain and the associated neural crest...
- Smith T, Wang X, Zhang W, Kulyk W, Nazarali A. Hoxa2 plays a direct role in murine palate development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2364-73 pubmed publisherThe cleft palate exhibited by Hoxa2 null murine embryos has been described as being secondary to abnormalities of tongue musculature, and Hoxa2 was presumed to not play a direct role in palate development...
- Mallo M. Retinoic acid disturbs mouse middle ear development in a stage-dependent fashion. Dev Biol. 1997;184:175-86 pubmed..5 hr of pregnancy. Moreover, interactions between adjacent bones are not required for their proper formation. My results also suggest a Hoxa-2-mediated patterning of the otic capsule in the region where the oval window is located. ..
- Anderson M, Amin S, Luise F, Zeef L, Bobola N. Differential distribution of the Ca (2+) regulator Pcp4 in the branchial arches is regulated by Hoxa2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63160 pubmed publisher..We further show that the transcription factor Hoxa2 binds to Pcp4 chromatin and regulates Pcp4 expression in the second arch...
- Rijli F, Mark M, Lakkaraju S, Dierich A, Dolle P, Chambon P. A homeotic transformation is generated in the rostral branchial region of the head by disruption of Hoxa-2, which acts as a selector gene. Cell. 1993;75:1333-49 pubmed..The ground pattern program appears to be modified in the mouse first arch by a Hox-independent process, whereas Hoxa-2 acts as a selector gene in the second arch. ..
- Kirilenko P, He G, Mankoo B, Mallo M, Jones R, Bobola N. Transient activation of meox1 is an early component of the gene regulatory network downstream of hoxa2. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1301-8 pubmed publisher..b>Hoxa2 is required for correct development of the second branchial arch, its major domain of expression...
- Kutejova E, Engist B, Mallo M, Kanzler B, Bobola N. Hoxa2 downregulates Six2 in the neural crest-derived mesenchyme. Development. 2005;132:469-78 pubmedThe Hoxa2 transcription factor acts during development of the second branchial arch...
- Minoux M, Kratochwil C, Ducret S, Amin S, Kitazawa T, Kurihara H, et al. Mouse Hoxa2 mutations provide a model for microtia and auricle duplication. Development. 2013;140:4386-97 pubmed publisher..Little is known about the molecular mechanisms orchestrating external ear morphogenesis. In humans, HOXA2 partial loss of function induces a bilateral microtia associated with an abnormal shape of the auricle...
- Frasch M, Chen X, Lufkin T. Evolutionary-conserved enhancers direct region-specific expression of the murine Hoxa-1 and Hoxa-2 loci in both mice and Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:957-74 pubmed..These results suggest an evolutionary conservation between HOM-C/Hox family members, which includes a conservation of certain DNA regulatory elements and possible regulatory cascades. ..
- Kutejova E, Engist B, Self M, Oliver G, Kirilenko P, Bobola N. Six2 functions redundantly immediately downstream of Hoxa2. Development. 2008;135:1463-70 pubmed publisher..Here, we conclusively demonstrate that Six2 is a direct downstream target of Hoxa2 in vivo and show that the ectopic expression of Six2, observed in the absence of Hoxa2, contributes to the Hoxa2 ..
- Nonchev S, Vesque C, Maconochie M, Seitanidou T, Ariza McNaughton L, Frain M, et al. Segmental expression of Hoxa-2 in the hindbrain is directly regulated by Krox-20. Development. 1996;122:543-54 pubmed..Therefore, the segmental phenotypes in the Krox-20 mutants are likely to reflect the role of Krox-20 in directly regulating multiple Hox genes. ..
- Goddard J, Rossel M, Manley N, Capecchi M. Mice with targeted disruption of Hoxb-1 fail to form the motor nucleus of the VIIth nerve. Development. 1996;122:3217-28 pubmed..These animals should therefore provide a useful animal model for these human diseases. ..
- Minoux M, Antonarakis G, Kmita M, Duboule D, Rijli F. Rostral and caudal pharyngeal arches share a common neural crest ground pattern. Development. 2009;136:637-45 pubmed publisher..Moreover, we found that Hoxa2 and Hoxa3 act synergistically to pattern third and fourth arch derivatives...
- Deprez P, Nichane M, Rousseaux P, Devogelaer J, Chappard D, Lengelé B, et al. Postnatal growth defect in mice upon persistent Hoxa2 expression in the chondrogenic cell lineage. Differentiation. 2012;83:158-67 pubmed publisherb>Hoxa2 is a homeotic transcription factor, which is downregulated once chondrogenic differentiation is initiated. We previously generated a transgenic mouse model, which turns Hoxa2 on in cells expressing Collagen II A1, i.e...
- Bobola N, Carapuco M, Ohnemus S, Kanzler B, Leibbrandt A, Neubüser A, et al. Mesenchymal patterning by Hoxa2 requires blocking Fgf-dependent activation of Ptx1. Development. 2003;130:3403-14 pubmed..To address this issue, we have analyzed how Hoxa2 specifies segmental identity in the second branchial arch...
- Massip L, Ectors F, Deprez P, Maleki M, Behets C, Lengele B, et al. Expression of Hoxa2 in cells entering chondrogenesis impairs overall cartilage development. Differentiation. 2007;75:256-67 pubmed..to the silencing of a Hox gene, we generated transgenic mice allowing Cre-mediated conditional misexpression of Hoxa2 and induced this gene in Collagen 2 alpha 1-expressing cells committed to enter chondrogenesis...
- Davenne M, Maconochie M, Neun R, Pattyn A, Chambon P, Krumlauf R, et al. Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 control dorsoventral patterns of neuronal development in the rostral hindbrain. Neuron. 1999;22:677-91 pubmed..b>Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 differentially regulate, in a rhombomere-specific manner, the expression of several genes in broad D-V-..
- Tümpel S, Cambronero F, Ferretti E, Blasi F, Wiedemann L, Krumlauf R. Expression of Hoxa2 in rhombomere 4 is regulated by a conserved cross-regulatory mechanism dependent upon Hoxb1. Dev Biol. 2007;302:646-60 pubmedThe Hoxa2 gene is an important component of regulatory events during hindbrain segmentation and head development in vertebrates...
- Oury F, Murakami Y, Renaud J, Pasqualetti M, Charnay P, Ren S, et al. Hoxa2- and rhombomere-dependent development of the mouse facial somatosensory map. Science. 2006;313:1408-13 pubmed..Moreover, early Hoxa2 expression in neuroepithelium prevents the trigeminal nerve from ectopically projecting to the cerebellum, whereas ..
- Hunt P, Gulisano M, Cook M, Sham M, Faiella A, Wilkinson D, et al. A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head. Nature. 1991;353:861-4 pubmed
- Geisen M, di Meglio T, Pasqualetti M, Ducret S, Brunet J, Chedotal A, et al. Hox paralog group 2 genes control the migration of mouse pontine neurons through slit-robo signaling. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e142 pubmed publisher..Here, we show that Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 are required both intrinsically and extrinsically to maintain normal AP migration of subsets of PN, by ..
- Basson M, Echevarria D, Ahn C, Sudarov A, Joyner A, Mason I, et al. Specific regions within the embryonic midbrain and cerebellum require different levels of FGF signaling during development. Development. 2008;135:889-98 pubmed publisher..We suggest a molecular explanation for this phenomenon by providing evidence that FGF signaling functions to inhibit the BMP signaling that promotes roof plate development. ..
- Santagati F, Minoux M, Ren S, Rijli F. Temporal requirement of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest skeletal morphogenesis. Development. 2005;132:4927-36 pubmedLittle is known about the spatiotemporal requirement of Hox gene patterning activity in vertebrates. In Hoxa2 mouse mutants, the hyoid skeleton is replaced by a duplicated set of mandibular and middle ear structures...
- Kanzler B, Kuschert S, Liu Y, Mallo M. Hoxa-2 restricts the chondrogenic domain and inhibits bone formation during development of the branchial area. Development. 1998;125:2587-97 pubmed..The implications of these results on the patterning of the branchial area are discussed. ..
- Ren S, Angrand P, Rijli F. Targeted insertion results in a rhombomere 2-specific Hoxa2 knockdown and ectopic activation of Hoxa1 expression. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:305-15 pubmed..Here, we analysed the effects of the targeted insertion of a PGK-neo cassette in the 3' untranslated region of Hoxa2. Even at this 3' position, the insertion resulted in homozygous mutants that unexpectedly did not survive beyond 3 ..
- Gendron Maguire M, Mallo M, Zhang M, Gridley T. Hoxa-2 mutant mice exhibit homeotic transformation of skeletal elements derived from cranial neural crest. Cell. 1993;75:1317-31 pubmed..Skeletal elements normally derived from the second arch were absent in the mutants. These data provide direct experimental evidence for the existence of a branchial Hox code. ..
- Wassef M, Chomette D, Pouilhe M, Stedman A, Havis E, Desmarquet Trin Dinh C, et al. Rostral hindbrain patterning involves the direct activation of a Krox20 transcriptional enhancer by Hox/Pbx and Meis factors. Development. 2008;135:3369-78 pubmed publisher..We propose a model for the complex regulation of Krox20, involving a novel mode of initiation, positive and negative controls by Hox proteins, and multiple direct and indirect autoregulatory loops. ..
- Miguez A, Ducret S, di Meglio T, Parras C, Hmidan H, Haton C, et al. Opposing roles for Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 in hindbrain oligodendrocyte patterning. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17172-85 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate that segmental organization of oligodendrocytes is controlled by Hox genes, namely Hoxa2 and Hoxb2. Specifically, Hoxa2 loss of function induced a dorsoventral enlargement of the Olig2/Nkx2...
- Guo C, Qiu H, Huang Y, Chen H, Yang R, Chen S, et al. Lmx1b is essential for Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression in the isthmic organizer during tectum and cerebellum development in mice. Development. 2007;134:317-25 pubmed
- Zhang B, Wang X, Nazarali A. Ascorbic acid reverses valproic acid-induced inhibition of hoxa2 and maintains glutathione homeostasis in mouse embryos in culture. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:137-48 pubmed publisher..We hypothesize that alterations in embryonic antioxidant status and Hoxa2 gene expression play an important role in VPA-induced teratogenesis...
- Rizzoti K, Lovell Badge R. SOX3 activity during pharyngeal segmentation is required for craniofacial morphogenesis. Development. 2007;134:3437-48 pubmed..They also give insight into the formation of pharyngeal pouches, of which little is known in vertebrates. Finally, this work introduces two new players in craniofacial development - SOX3 and SOX2. ..
- Rinon A, Lazar S, Marshall H, Büchmann Møller S, Neufeld A, Elhanany Tamir H, et al. Cranial neural crest cells regulate head muscle patterning and differentiation during vertebrate embryogenesis. Development. 2007;134:3065-75 pubmed..We suggest that CNC cells control craniofacial development by regulating positional interactions with mesoderm-derived muscle progenitors that together shape the cranial musculoskeletal architecture in vertebrate embryos. ..
- Neijts R, Amin S, van Rooijen C, Deschamps J. Cdx is crucial for the timing mechanism driving colinear Hox activation and defines a trunk segment in the Hox cluster topology. Dev Biol. 2017;422:146-154 pubmed publisher..Subsequently to initial Wnt-induced activation of 3' Hox genes, Cdx transcription factors would act as crucial effectors for activating central Hox genes, until the last gene of the cluster arrests the process. ..
- Dupé V, Davenne M, Brocard J, Dolle P, Mark M, Dierich A, et al. In vivo functional analysis of the Hoxa-1 3' retinoic acid response element (3'RARE). Development. 1997;124:399-410 pubmed..Interestingly, although the RARE is not required for the spatiotemporal control of colinear expression of the Hoxa genes, it is absolutely required for correct Hoxa-2 expression in rhombomere 5. ..
- Brewer S, Feng W, Huang J, Sullivan S, Williams T. Wnt1-Cre-mediated deletion of AP-2alpha causes multiple neural crest-related defects. Dev Biol. 2004;267:135-52 pubmed..These results have important implications for the evolution and function of the AP-2 gene family in both the neural crest and the vertebrate embryo. ..
- Chua S, Hennessey K, Zeitler P, Leibel R. The little (lit) mutation cosegregates with the growth hormone releasing factor receptor on mouse chromosome 6. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:555-9 pubmed..Molecular markers were Neuropeptide Y (Npy), homeobox (Hoxa2), immunoglobulin kappa chain (Igk), wingless-related MMTV integration site (Wnt-2), cystic fibrosis (Cftr), ..
- Mao X, Tang S. Effects of phenytoin on Satb2 and Hoxa2 gene expressions in mouse embryonic craniofacial tissue. Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;88:731-5 pubmed publisher..Satb2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate deformity and an up-regulation of Hoxa2 in the fronto-nasal region...
- Moore Scott B, Manley N. Differential expression of Sonic hedgehog along the anterior-posterior axis regulates patterning of pharyngeal pouch endoderm and pharyngeal endoderm-derived organs. Dev Biol. 2005;278:323-35 pubmed..Our data suggest that, as in the posterior gut endoderm, exclusion of Shh expression from developing primordia is required for the proper development of pharyngeal-derived organs. ..
- Fung K, Chikaraishi D, Suri C, Theuring F, Messing A, Albert D, et al. Molecular phenotype of simian virus 40 large T antigen-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumors in four different lines of transgenic mice. Lab Invest. 1994;70:114-24 pubmed..Although many factors could influence the phenotype of these experimental PNETs (e.g., promoter, site of integration of the transgene) these PNETs appear to be suitable TGM models of human PNETs of the central nervous system. ..
- Gorivodsky M, Mukhopadhyay M, Wilsch Braeuninger M, Phillips M, Teufel A, Kim C, et al. Intraflagellar transport protein 172 is essential for primary cilia formation and plays a vital role in patterning the mammalian brain. Dev Biol. 2009;325:24-32 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that the formation and function of the node and AME in the mouse embryo relies on an indispensable role of Ift172 in cilia morphogenesis and cilia-mediated signaling. ..
- Takihara Y, Tomotsune D, Shirai M, Katoh Fukui Y, Nishii K, Motaleb M, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse homologue of the Drosophila polyhomeotic gene leads to altered anteroposterior patterning and neural crest defects. Development. 1997;124:3673-82 pubmed..These results indicate that the rae28 gene is involved in the regulation of Hox gene expression and segment specification during paraxial mesoderm and neural crest development. ..
- Waters S, Lewandoski M. A threshold requirement for Gbx2 levels in hindbrain development. Development. 2006;133:1991-2000 pubmed..As a result of this transformation, the cerebellar midline fails to form. Thus, our studies demonstrate different threshold requirements for the level of Gbx2 gene product in different regions of the hindbrain. ..
- Liu Z, Shi M, Hu Z, Zheng M, Du F, Zhao G, et al. A refined map of early gene expression in the dorsal rhombomere 1 of mouse embryos. Brain Res Bull. 2010;82:74-82 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our gene expression data identify a refined subdivision of the dorsal r1 with four distinct domains along the A-P axis and a mantle zone at early embryonic stages. ..
- Li J, Lao Z, Joyner A. New regulatory interactions and cellular responses in the isthmic organizer region revealed by altering Gbx2 expression. Development. 2005;132:1971-81 pubmed..Our studies provide new insights into the regulatory interactions that maintain isthmic organizer gene expression and the consequences of altered levels of organizer gene expression on cell survival. ..
- Maconochie M, Nonchev S, Manzanares M, Marshall H, Krumlauf R. Differences in Krox20-dependent regulation of Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 during hindbrain development. Dev Biol. 2001;233:468-81 pubmedDuring hindbrain development, segmental regulation of the paralogous Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 genes in rhombomeres (r) 3 and 5 involves Krox20-dependent enhancers that have been conserved during the duplication of the vertebrate Hox clusters from ..
- Yallowitz A, Gong K, Swinehart I, Nelson L, Wellik D. Non-homeodomain regions of Hox proteins mediate activation versus repression of Six2 via a single enhancer site in vivo. Dev Biol. 2009;335:156-65 pubmed publisher..Six2 is genetically downstream of both the Hox11 paralogous genes in the developing mammalian kidney and Hoxa2 in branchial arch and facial mesenchyme...
- Li J, Lao Z, Joyner A. Changing requirements for Gbx2 in development of the cerebellum and maintenance of the mid/hindbrain organizer. Neuron. 2002;36:31-43 pubmed..Our work has uncovered distinct requirements for Gbx2 during cerebellum formation and provided a model for how a transcription factor can play multiple roles during development. ..
- Trokovic R, Jukkola T, Saarimäki J, Peltopuro P, Naserke T, Weisenhorn D, et al. Fgfr1-dependent boundary cells between developing mid- and hindbrain. Dev Biol. 2005;278:428-39 pubmed..The slowly proliferating boundary cells are necessary for development of the characteristic isthmic constriction. They may also contribute to compartmentalization of this brain region. ..
- Nicolay D, Doucette J, Nazarali A. Early stages of oligodendrocyte development in the embryonic murine spinal cord proceed normally in the absence of Hoxa2. Glia. 2004;48:14-26 pubmed..One such TF is the homeobox gene Hoxa2, which was recently shown to be expressed by O4(+) pro-oligodendrocytes...
- Furutera T, Takechi M, Kitazawa T, Takei J, Yamada T, Vu Hoang T, et al. Differing contributions of the first and second pharyngeal arches to tympanic membrane formation in the mouse and chick. Development. 2017;144:3315-3324 pubmed publisher..In this study, we compare TM formation along the anterior-posterior axis in these animals using Hoxa2 expression as a marker of the second pharyngeal arch (PA2)...
- Ye A, Kim H, Kim J. PEG3 control on the mammalian MSL complex. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178363 pubmed publisher..Overall, the current study reports that Peg3 may control its downstream genes through mammalian MSL. ..
- Karmakar K, Narita Y, Fadok J, Ducret S, Loche A, Kitazawa T, et al. Hox2 Genes Are Required for Tonotopic Map Precision and Sound Discrimination in the Mouse Auditory Brainstem. Cell Rep. 2017;18:185-197 pubmed publisher..We found that in the absence of Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 function in Atoh1-derived glutamatergic bushy cells of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus, broad ..
- Tan D, Ferrante J, Nazarali A, Shao X, Kozak C, Guo V, et al. Murine Hox-1.11 homeobox gene structure and expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6280-4 pubmed..Hox-1.11 poly(A)+ RNA also is expressed in the VII and VIII cranial ganglia, spinal cord, spinal ganglia, larynx, lungs, vertebrae, sternum, and intestine. ..
- Scotti M, Kmita M. Recruitment of 5' Hoxa genes in the allantois is essential for proper extra-embryonic function in placental mammals. Development. 2012;139:731-9 pubmed publisher..Finally, using a series of targeted recombination and transgenic assays, we provide evidence that the regulatory mechanism underlying Hoxa expression in the allantois is extremely complex and relies on several cis-regulatory sequences...
- Taneja R, Thisse B, Rijli F, Thisse C, Bouillet P, Dolle P, et al. The expression pattern of the mouse receptor tyrosine kinase gene MDK1 is conserved through evolution and requires Hoxa-2 for rhombomere-specific expression in mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 1996;177:397-412 pubmed
- Mallo M, Brändlin I. Segmental identity can change independently in the hindbrain and rhombencephalic neural crest. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:146-56 pubmed..We propose a model for the patterning of the branchial region, according to which the segmental identity in this area is provided mainly by the branchial arches. ..
- Kueh A, Dixon M, Voss A, Thomas T. HBO1 is required for H3K14 acetylation and normal transcriptional activity during embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:845-60 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, the primary role of HBO1 in development is that of a transcriptional activator, which is indispensable for H3K14 acetylation and for the normal expression of essential genes regulating embryonic development. ..
- Li J, Joyner A. Otx2 and Gbx2 are required for refinement and not induction of mid-hindbrain gene expression. Development. 2001;128:4979-91 pubmed..Furthermore, Otx2 and Gbx2 are required to suppress hindbrain and midbrain development, respectively, and thus allow establishment of the normal spatial domains of Fgf8 and other genes. ..
- Gaufo G, Wu S, Capecchi M. Contribution of Hox genes to the diversity of the hindbrain sensory system. Development. 2004;131:1259-66 pubmed..As Hoxa2 is the only Hox gene expressed in the anterior hindbrain (r2), disruption of this gene allowed us to also ..
- Yang X, Zhou Y, Barcarse E, O GORMAN S. Altered neuronal lineages in the facial ganglia of Hoxa2 mutant mice. Dev Biol. 2008;314:171-88 pubmed publisher..Here we report that the facial ganglia of Hoxa2 mutant mice contain a large population of crest-derived neurons, suggesting that Hoxa2 normally represses the ..
- Bridoux L, Deneyer N, Bergiers I, Rezsohazy R. Molecular Analysis of the HOXA2-Dependent Degradation of RCHY1. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0141347 pubmed publisherThe homeodomain transcription factor Hoxa2 interacts with the RING-finger type E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1 and induces its proteasomal degradation...
- Tümpel S, Cambronero F, Sims C, Krumlauf R, Wiedemann L. A regulatory module embedded in the coding region of Hoxa2 controls expression in rhombomere 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20077-82 pubmed publisherHere, we define a gene regulatory network for Hoxa2, responsible for temporal and spatial expression in hindbrain development...