Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Hoxa11
Description: homeobox A11
Alias: Hox-1.9, Hoxa-11, homeobox protein Hox-A11, homeo box A11, homeobox protein Hox-1.9
- Hostikka S, Capecchi M. The mouse Hoxc11 gene: genomic structure and expression pattern. Mech Dev. 1998;70:133-45 pubmed..In the hindlimbs, Hoxc11 expression is seen in the mesenchyme posterior to the region forming the femur and fibula, but does not extend anteriorly to the region giving rise to the tibia or distally to the tarsal bones. ..
- Nelson L, Rakshit S, Sun H, Wellik D. Generation and expression of a Hoxa11eGFP targeted allele in mice. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3410-6 pubmed publisherHox genes are crucial for body axis specification during embryonic development. Hoxa11 plays a role in anteroposterior patterning of the axial skeleton, development of the urogenital tract of both sexes, and proximodistal patterning of ..
- Post L, Innis J. Altered Hox expression and increased cell death distinguish Hypodactyly from Hoxa13 null mice. Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43:287-94 pubmed..The maturation of Hoxd11 expression was delayed and expression of Hoxa11 failed to become restricted to the autopod/zeugopod junction in both Hoxa13Hd/Hd and Hoxa13-/- limb buds compared ..
- Davis A, Witte D, Hsieh Li H, Potter S, Capecchi M. Absence of radius and ulna in mice lacking hoxa-11 and hoxd-11. Nature. 1995;375:791-5 pubmed..The appendicular skeleton defects suggest that paralogous Hox genes function together to specify limb outgrowth and patterning along the proximodistal axis. ..
- Mugford J, Sipila P, Kobayashi A, Behringer R, McMahon A. Hoxd11 specifies a program of metanephric kidney development within the intermediate mesoderm of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2008;319:396-405 pubmed publisher..Previous studies have shown a requirement for Hox11 paralogs (Hoxa11, Hoxc11 and Hoxd11) in metanephric development...
- McIntyre D, Rakshit S, Yallowitz A, Loken L, Jeannotte L, Capecchi M, et al. Hox patterning of the vertebrate rib cage. Development. 2007;134:2981-9 pubmed..Thus, the ;Hox code' in somitic mesoderm is the result of the distinct, graded effects of two or more Hox paralogous groups functioning in any anteroposterior location. ..
- Williams T, Williams M, Heaton J, Gelehrter T, Innis J. Group 13 HOX proteins interact with the MH2 domain of R-Smads and modulate Smad transcriptional activation functions independent of HOX DNA-binding capability. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:4475-84 pubmed..we isolated the BMP-signaling effector Smad5, which interacted with the paralogous HOXD13 but not with HOXA11 or HOXA9, revealing unique interaction capabilities of the AbdB-like HOX proteins...
- Hsieh Li H, Witte D, Weinstein M, Branford W, Li H, Small K, et al. Hoxa 11 structure, extensive antisense transcription, and function in male and female fertility. Development. 1995;121:1373-85 pubmedb>Hoxa 11 is a murine Abdominal-B-type homeobox gene. The structure of this gene is presented, including genomic and cDNA sequence. The cDNA includes the complete open reading frame and based on primer extension results is near full length...
- Benson G, Nguyen T, Maas R. The expression pattern of the murine Hoxa-10 gene and the sequence recognition of its homeodomain reveal specific properties of Abdominal B-like genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1591-601 pubmed..Thus, in vertebrates, structural similarities, coordinate transcriptional regulation, sites of expression, and binding site preferences all serve to distinguish AbdB from Antp Hox genes. ..
- Shen W, Montgomery J, Rozenfeld S, Moskow J, Lawrence H, Buchberg A, et al. AbdB-like Hox proteins stabilize DNA binding by the Meis1 homeodomain proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6448-58 pubmed..DNA binding complexes formed by Meis1 with Hox proteins dissociate much more slowly than DNA complexes with Meis1 alone, suggesting that Hox proteins stabilize the interactions of Meis1 proteins with their DNA targets. ..
- Beckers J, Duboule D. Genetic analysis of a conserved sequence in the HoxD complex: regulatory redundancy or limitations of the transgenic approach?. Dev Dyn. 1998;213:1-11 pubmed..This unexpected observation may show the limitations of the former technology. Alternatively, it could illustrate a redundancy in regulatory circuits and, thus, justify the combination of parallel strategies. ..
- Bellessort B, Bachelot A, Heude Ã, Alfama G, Fontaine A, Le Cardinal M, et al. Role of Foxl2 in uterine maturation and function. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:3092-103 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that Foxl2 has a crucial role in PN uterine maturation and could help to understand sub-fertility predisposition in women. ..
- Harisis G, Lewis A, Southwell B, Hutson J. Hoxa-11 maintains cell proliferation in the mouse gubernaculum to facilitate testicular descent. J Pediatr Surg. 2013;48:2431-6 pubmed publisher..Polymorphisms in Hoxa-11 may contribute to the aetiology of human cryptorchidism. ..
- Taylor H, Vanden Heuvel G, Igarashi P. A conserved Hox axis in the mouse and human female reproductive system: late establishment and persistent adult expression of the Hoxa cluster genes. Biol Reprod. 1997;57:1338-45 pubmed..The late establishment of a Hox axis and persistent expression of Hox genes in the adult may play an important role in preserving this plasticity...
- Luke M, Sui G, Liu H, Shi Y. Yin Yang 1 physically interacts with Hoxa11 and represses Hoxa11-dependent transcription. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33226-32 pubmed..Although ectopic expression of Hoxa11 enhanced target promoter activity, overexpression of YY1 repressed this effect, which was abrogated by YY1 siRNA ..
- Sheth R, Bastida M, Ros M. Hoxd and Gli3 interactions modulate digit number in the amniote limb. Dev Biol. 2007;310:430-41 pubmed..Our results also support the notion that an adequate balance between positive and negative effects of different Hoxd genes is required for pentadactyly. ..
- Koyama E, Yasuda T, Minugh Purvis N, Kinumatsu T, Yallowitz A, Wellik D, et al. Hox11 genes establish synovial joint organization and phylogenetic characteristics in developing mouse zeugopod skeletal elements. Development. 2010;137:3795-800 pubmed publisher..The re-emergence of such anatomical structures suggests that their genetic blueprint is still present in the mouse genome but is normally modified to the needs of the mammalian joint-formation program by distinct Hox11 function. ..
- Challen G, Gardiner B, Caruana G, Kostoulias X, Martinez G, Crowe M, et al. Temporal and spatial transcriptional programs in murine kidney development. Physiol Genomics. 2005;23:159-71 pubmed
- Lu P, Yu Y, Perdue Y, Werb Z. The apical ectodermal ridge is a timer for generating distal limb progenitors. Development. 2008;135:1395-405 pubmed publisher..Taken together, we have uncovered a novel mechanism, whereby the AER regulates the number of autopod progenitors by determining the onset of their generation. ..
- Delpretti S, Montavon T, Leleu M, Joye E, Tzika A, Milinkovitch M, et al. Multiple enhancers regulate Hoxd genes and the Hotdog LncRNA during cecum budding. Cell Rep. 2013;5:137-50 pubmed publisher..In this context, we discuss the implementation of a common "budding toolkit" between the cecum and the limbs. ..
- Yamamoto M, Kuroiwa A. Hoxa-11 and Hoxa-13 are involved in repression of MyoD during limb muscle development. Dev Growth Differ. 2003;45:485-98 pubmed..These results suggest that Hoxa-11 and Hoxa-13 are involved in the negative regulation of MyoD expression in limb muscle precursors. ..
- Wong K, Wintch H, Capecchi M. Hoxa11 regulates stromal cell death and proliferation during neonatal uterine development. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:184-93 pubmedIncreasing evidence indicates that the Hoxa11 gene plays a critical role in the proper development of the uterus. In this report, we describe potential altered cellular processes in the developing uterus of Hoxa11 mutants...
- Yakushiji Kaminatsui N, Kondo T, Endo T, Koseki Y, Kondo K, Ohara O, et al. RING1 proteins contribute to early proximal-distal specification of the forelimb bud by restricting Meis2 expression. Development. 2016;143:276-85 pubmed publisher..We suggest that the RING1-MEIS1/2 axis is regulated by early PD signals and contributes to the initiation or maintenance of the distal signal circuitry. ..
- Nnamani M, Ganguly S, Erkenbrack E, Lynch V, Mizoue L, Tong Y, et al. A Derived Allosteric Switch Underlies the Evolution of Conditional Cooperativity between HOXA11 and FOXO1. Cell Rep. 2016;15:2097-2108 pubmed publisher..Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms for the origin of a derived functional interaction between two TFs, HOXA11 and FOXO1...
- Innis J, Darling S, Kazen Gillespie K, Post L, Mortlock D, Yang T. Orientation of the Hoxa complex and placement of the Hd locus distal to Hoxa2 on mouse chromosome 6. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:216-7 pubmed
- Mariani F, Ahn C, Martin G. Genetic evidence that FGFs have an instructive role in limb proximal-distal patterning. Nature. 2008;453:401-5 pubmed publisher..We discuss how a two-signal model for P-D patterning can be integrated with the concept of early specification to explain the genetic data presented here. ..
- Kiefer S, Robbins L, Barina A, Zhang Z, Rauchman M. SALL1 truncated protein expression in Townes-Brocks syndrome leads to ectopic expression of downstream genes. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:1133-40 pubmed publisher..We propose a model for the pathogenesis of TBS in which truncated Sall1 protein causes derepression of Sall-responsive target genes. ..
- Pradeepa M, McKenna F, Taylor G, Bengani H, Grimes G, Wood A, et al. Psip1/p52 regulates posterior Hoxa genes through activation of lncRNA Hottip. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006677 pubmed publisher..Our data show a direct role for a lncRNA molecule in regulating the expression of developmentally-regulated mRNA genes in cis. ..
- Wong S, Agarwal V, Mansfield J, Denans N, Schwartz M, Prosser H, et al. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E4884-93 pubmed publisher..By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae. ..
- Gross S, Krause Y, Wuelling M, Vortkamp A. Hoxa11 and Hoxd11 regulate chondrocyte differentiation upstream of Runx2 and Shox2 in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43553 pubmed publisher..Here we report a new function for Hoxa11 and Hoxd11 in regulating the early steps of chondrocyte differentiation...
- Zhang Q, Murcia N, Chittenden L, Richards W, Michaud E, Woychik R, et al. Loss of the Tg737 protein results in skeletal patterning defects. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:78-90 pubmed..Collectively, the data argue for a dosage effect of Tg737 on the limb phenotypes and that the polydactyly is independent of Shh misexpression. ..
- Brayer K, Lynch V, Wagner G. Evolution of a derived protein-protein interaction between HoxA11 and Foxo1a in mammals caused by changes in intramolecular regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E414-20 pubmed publisher..Here, we investigate the evolution of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) between Homeobox A11 (HoxA11) and Forkhead box 01A (Foxo1a)...
- Cobb J, Duboule D. Comparative analysis of genes downstream of the Hoxd cluster in developing digits and external genitalia. Development. 2005;132:3055-67 pubmed..e. the digits and the penis/clitoris. ..
- Schwab K, Hartman H, Liang H, Aronow B, Patterson L, Potter S. Comprehensive microarray analysis of Hoxa11/Hoxd11 mutant kidney development. Dev Biol. 2006;293:540-54 pubmed..In this report, we use microarrays to perform a comprehensive gene expression analysis of the Hoxa11/Hoxd11 mutant kidney phenotype. We examined E11.5, E12.5, E13.5 and E16.5 developmental time points...
- Visser J, McLuskey A, Verhoef Post M, Kramer P, Grootegoed J, Themmen A. Effect of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol on Müllerian duct development in fetal male mice. Endocrinology. 1998;139:4244-51 pubmed..Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of Hoxa 11 and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) were determined as a marker for fetal development...
- Swinehart I, Schlientz A, Quintanilla C, Mortlock D, Wellik D. Hox11 genes are required for regional patterning and integration of muscle, tendon and bone. Development. 2013;140:4574-82 pubmed publisher..Thus, Hox genes are not simply regulators of skeletal morphology as previously thought, but are key factors that regulate regional patterning and integration of the musculoskeletal system. ..
- Sheikh B, Downer N, Kueh A, Thomas T, Voss A. Excessive versus physiologically relevant levels of retinoic acid in embryonic stem cell differentiation. Stem Cells. 2014;32:1451-8 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that using RA at physiologically relevant levels to study the activation of Hox genes, more accurately reflects the molecular events during the early phase of Hox gene activation in vivo. ..
- Zhao Y, Potter S. Functional comparison of the Hoxa 4, Hoxa 10, and Hoxa 11 homeoboxes. Dev Biol. 2002;244:21-36 pubmed..In this report, we describe the results of two homeobox swaps. In one case, the homeobox of Hoxa 11 was replaced with that of the very closely related Hoxa 10...
- Neufeld S, Wang F, Cobb J. Genetic interactions between Shox2 and Hox genes during the regional growth and development of the mouse limb. Genetics. 2014;198:1117-26 pubmed publisher..associated spatial expression dynamics, with Shox2 expression restricted to the proximal limb along with Hoxd9 and Hoxa11 expression, juxtaposing the distal expression of Hoxa13 and Hoxd13...
- Zakany J, Fromental Ramain C, Warot X, Duboule D. Regulation of number and size of digits by posterior Hox genes: a dose-dependent mechanism with potential evolutionary implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13695-700 pubmed..Thus, transition through a polydactylous limb before reaching and stabilizing the pentadactyl pattern may have relied, at least in part, on asynchronous and independent changes in the regulation of HoxA and HoxD gene complexes. ..
- Luo L, Yang X, Takihara Y, Knoetgen H, Kessel M. The cell-cycle regulator geminin inhibits Hox function through direct and polycomb-mediated interactions. Nature. 2004;427:749-53 pubmed..By establishing competitive regulation, geminin functions as a coordinator of developmental and proliferative control. ..
- Kessel M. Respecification of vertebral identities by retinoic acid. Development. 1992;115:487-501 pubmed..The transformations are discussed with regard to a molecular specification of axial levels by Hox codes, defined as combinations of expressed Hox genes. ..
- Zuniga A, Zeller R. Gli3 (Xt) and formin (ld) participate in the positioning of the polarising region and control of posterior limb-bud identity. Development. 1999;126:13-21 pubmed..Concurrently, Gli3 functions independently of formin during initial posterior nesting of 5'HoxD domains, whereas their subsequent distal restriction and anterior expansion depends on genetic interaction of Gli3 and formin. ..
- Li L, Liu B, Wapinski O, Tsai M, Qu K, Zhang J, et al. Targeted disruption of Hotair leads to homeotic transformation and gene derepression. Cell Rep. 2013;5:3-12 pubmed publisher..Hotair inactivation causes H3K4me3 gain and, to a lesser extent, H3K27me3 loss at target genes. These results reveal the function and mechanisms of Hotair lncRNA in enforcing a silent chromatin state at Hox and additional genes. ..
- Miller C, Sassoon D. Wnt-7a maintains appropriate uterine patterning during the development of the mouse female reproductive tract. Development. 1998;125:3201-11 pubmed
- Takihara Y, Tomotsune D, Shirai M, Katoh Fukui Y, Nishii K, Motaleb M, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse homologue of the Drosophila polyhomeotic gene leads to altered anteroposterior patterning and neural crest defects. Development. 1997;124:3673-82 pubmed..These results indicate that the rae28 gene is involved in the regulation of Hox gene expression and segment specification during paraxial mesoderm and neural crest development. ..
- Zakany J, Gerard M, Favier B, Duboule D. Deletion of a HoxD enhancer induces transcriptional heterochrony leading to transposition of the sacrum. EMBO J. 1997;16:4393-402 pubmed..A slight time delay in expression (transcriptional heterochrony) cannot be compensated for at a later developmental stage, eventually leading to morphological alterations. ..
- Papageorgiou S, Almirantis Y. Gradient model describes the spatial-temporal expression pattern of Hoxa genes in the developing vertebrate limb. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:461-9 pubmed..Several experiments are proposed for additional tests of the validity of the model and the eventual reversibility of Hoxa gene expression. ..
- Bernstein B, Kamal M, Lindblad Toh K, Bekiranov S, Bailey D, Huebert D, et al. Genomic maps and comparative analysis of histone modifications in human and mouse. Cell. 2005;120:169-81 pubmed..This suggests that the DNA elements that direct the methylation represent only a small fraction of the region or lie at some distance from the site. ..
- Branford W, Benson G, Ma L, Maas R, Potter S. Characterization of Hoxa-10/Hoxa-11 transheterozygotes reveals functional redundancy and regulatory interactions. Dev Biol. 2000;224:373-87 pubmed..These results provide a measure of the functional redundancy of Hoxa-10 and Hoxa-11 and a deeper understanding of the phenotypes resulting in the single mutants and help elucidate the regulatory interactions between these two genes. ..
- Pennimpede T, Cameron D, Maclean G, Petkovich M. Analysis of Cyp26b1/Rarg compound-null mice reveals two genetically separable effects of retinoic acid on limb outgrowth. Dev Biol. 2010;339:179-86 pubmed publisher..These data provide genetic evidence to clarify the roles of both RA and CYP26B1 in limb outgrowth and proximo-distal patterning. ..
- Chiu C, Nonaka D, Xue L, Amemiya C, Wagner G. Evolution of Hoxa-11 in lineages phylogenetically positioned along the fin-limb transition. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2000;17:305-16 pubmedb>HOXA11 is a transcription factor implicated in paired appendage development...
- Scotti M, Kmita M. Recruitment of 5' Hoxa genes in the allantois is essential for proper extra-embryonic function in placental mammals. Development. 2012;139:731-9 pubmed publisher..we provide evidence that this functional novelty is not exclusive to Hoxa13 but is shared with its neighboring Hoxa11 and Hoxa10 genes...
- Raines A, Adam M, Magella B, Meyer S, Grimes H, Dey S, et al. Recombineering-based dissection of flanking and paralogous Hox gene functions in mouse reproductive tracts. Development. 2013;140:2942-52 pubmed publisher..a novel recombineering strategy to introduce simultaneous frameshift mutations into the flanking Hoxa9, Hoxa10 and Hoxa11 genes, as well as their paralogs on the HoxD cluster...
- Beccari L, Yakushiji Kaminatsui N, Woltering J, Necsulea A, Lonfat N, Rodríguez Carballo E, et al. A role for HOX13 proteins in the regulatory switch between TADs at the HoxD locus. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1172-86 pubmed publisher..In the absence of HOX13 proteins, a proximal limb structure grows without any sign of wrist articulation, likely related to an ancestral fish-like condition. ..
- Bangs F, Antonio N, Thongnuek P, Welten M, Davey M, Briscoe J, et al. Generation of mice with functional inactivation of talpid3, a gene first identified in chicken. Development. 2011;138:3261-72 pubmed publisher..This genetic mouse model will facilitate further conditional approaches, epistatic experiments and open up investigation into the function of the novel talpid3 gene using the many resources available for mice. ..
- Li S, Ma L, Chiang T, Burow M, Newbold R, Negishi M, et al. Promoter CpG methylation of Hox-a10 and Hox-a11 in mouse uterus not altered upon neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure. Mol Carcinog. 2001;32:213-9 pubmed
- Boulet A, Capecchi M. Duplication of the Hoxd11 gene causes alterations in the axial and appendicular skeleton of the mouse. Dev Biol. 2002;249:96-107 pubmed..the Hoxd11 duplication demonstrated that the Hoxd11 protein can perform some functions supplied by its paralogue Hoxa11. For example, the defects in forelimb bones are corrected when extra copies of Hoxd11 are present in the Hoxa11 ..
- Connell K, Guess M, Chen H, Andikyan V, Bercik R, Taylor H. HOXA11 is critical for development and maintenance of uterosacral ligaments and deficient in pelvic prolapse. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1050-5 pubmed publisher..We demonstrated here that HOXA11 was essential for organogenesis of the USL by showing that USLs were absent in Hoxa11-null mice...
- Patterson L, Pembaur M, Potter S. Hoxa11 and Hoxd11 regulate branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud in the developing kidney. Development. 2001;128:2153-61 pubmedb>Hoxa11 and Hoxd11 are functionally redundant during kidney development. Mice with homozygous null mutation of either gene have normal kidneys, but double mutants have rudimentary, or in extreme cases, absent kidneys...
- Kherdjemil Y, Lalonde R, Sheth R, Dumouchel A, de Martino G, Pineault K, et al. Evolution of Hoxa11 regulation in vertebrates is linked to the pentadactyl state. Nature. 2016;539:89-92 pubmed publisher..Here we show that the mutually exclusive expression of the mouse genes Hoxa11 and Hoxa13, which were previously proposed to be involved in the origin of the tetrapod limb, is required for the ..
- Yashiro K, Zhao X, Uehara M, Yamashita K, Nishijima M, Nishino J, et al. Regulation of retinoic acid distribution is required for proximodistal patterning and outgrowth of the developing mouse limb. Dev Cell. 2004;6:411-22 pubmed..These observations suggest that RA acts as a morphogen to determine proximodistal identity, and that CYP26B1 prevents apoptosis and promotes chondrocyte maturation, in the developing limb. ..
- Xi S, Zhu H, Xu H, Schmidtmann A, Geiman T, Muegge K. Lsh controls Hox gene silencing during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14366-71 pubmed..Moreover, Lsh can associate with PRC1 components and influence PRC-mediated histone modifications. Thus Lsh is part of a physiological feedback loop that reinforces DNA methylation and silencing of PRC targets. ..
- Ma Y, Guess M, Datar A, Hennessey A, Cardenas I, Johnson J, et al. Knockdown of Hoxa11 in vivo in the uterosacral ligament and uterus of mice results in altered collagen and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:100 pubmed publisher..In both humans and mice, HOXA11 persists in the adult reproductive tract and is thought to play an important role in maintaining tissue ..
- Panman L, Drenth T, Tewelscher P, Zuniga A, Zeller R. Genetic interaction of Gli3 and Alx4 during limb development. Int J Dev Biol. 2005;49:443-8 pubmed..Most interestingly, the loss of the severe preaxial polydactyly characteristic of Gli3-/- limbs in double mutant embryos establishes that this type of polydactyly requires Alx4 function. ..
- Sheth R, Barozzi I, Langlais D, Osterwalder M, Nemec S, Carlson H, et al. Distal Limb Patterning Requires Modulation of cis-Regulatory Activities by HOX13. Cell Rep. 2016;17:2913-2926 pubmed publisher..Our results show that proper termination of the early limb transcriptional program and activation of the late-distal limb program are coordinated by the dual action of HOX13 on cis-regulatory modules. ..
- Herault Y, Beckers J, Kondo T, Fraudeau N, Duboule D. Genetic analysis of a Hoxd-12 regulatory element reveals global versus local modes of controls in the HoxD complex. Development. 1998;125:1669-77 pubmed..These results support a model whereby global as well as local regulatory influences are necessary to build up the complex expression patterns of Hoxd genes during limb development. ..
- Zhao Y, Potter S. Functional specificity of the Hoxa13 homeobox. Development. 2001;128:3197-207 pubmed..a search for the downstream targets of Hoxa13, we have performed a homeobox swap by replacing the homeobox of the Hoxa11 gene with that of the Hoxa13 gene...
- Nagraj S, Seah G, Farmer P, Davies B, Southwell B, Lewis A, et al. The development and anatomy of the gubernaculum in Hoxa11 knockout mice. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:387-92 pubmed publisher..Homeobox (Hox) genes involved in limb bud outgrowth are expressed within the gubernaculum. Mice with homozygous Hoxa11 gene deletions have bilateral cryptorchidism...