Gene Symbol: Hmgb2
Description: high mobility group box 2
Alias: C80539, HMG-2, Hmg2, high mobility group protein B2, high mobility group protein 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Hmgb2

Top Publications

  1. Taniguchi N, Caramés B, Hsu E, Cherqui S, Kawakami Y, Lotz M. Expression patterns and function of chromatin protein HMGB2 during mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of chromatin protein HMGB2 is restricted to the SZ, which contains cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers...
  2. Taniguchi N, Caramés B, Ronfani L, Ulmer U, Komiya S, Bianchi M, et al. Aging-related loss of the chromatin protein HMGB2 in articular cartilage is linked to reduced cellularity and osteoarthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In human and murine cartilage, there is an aging-related loss of HMGB2 expression, ultimately leading to its complete absence...
  3. Ronfani L, Ferraguti M, Croci L, Ovitt C, Scholer H, Consalez G, et al. Reduced fertility and spermatogenesis defects in mice lacking chromosomal protein Hmgb2. Development. 2001;128:1265-73 pubmed
    High mobility group 2 protein (Hmgb2) is a member of the HMGB protein family, which includes the ubiquitous Hmgb1 and the embryo-specific Hmgb3...
  4. Stros M, Retief J, Dixon G. cDNA sequence and structure of a trout HMG-2 gene. Evidence for a trout-specific 3'-untranslated region. Gene. 1995;158:181-7 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  5. Franklin S, Chen H, Mitchell Jordan S, Ren S, Wang Y, Vondriska T. Quantitative analysis of the chromatin proteome in disease reveals remodeling principles and identifies high mobility group protein B2 as a regulator of hypertrophic growth. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.014258 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-mediated loss-of-function in isolated cells, we demonstrate that the non-histone chromatin structural protein HMGB2 (but not HMGB1) suppresses pathologic cell growth in vivo and controls a gene expression program responsible for ..
  6. Sharman A, Hay Schmidt A, Holland P. Cloning and analysis of an HMG gene from the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: gene duplication in vertebrate evolution. Gene. 1997;184:99-105 pubmed
    ..Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that LfHMG1 is descended from a gene ancestral to mammalian HMG1 and HMG2. This implies that there was a duplication event in the HMG1/2 gene family, that occurred after the divergence of ..
  7. Dron M, Tartare X, Guillo F, Haik S, Barbin G, Maury C, et al. Mouse scrapie responsive gene 1 (Scrg1): genomic organization, physical linkage to sap30, genetic mapping on chromosome 8, and expression in neuronal primary cell cultures. Genomics. 2000;70:140-9 pubmed
    ..complex, and genetic linkage mapping assigned the localization of Scrg1 to chromosome 8 between Ant1 and Hmg2. Northern blot analysis showed that Scrg1 is under strict developmental control in mouse embryo and is expressed by ..
  8. Nightingale K, Dimitrov S, Reeves R, Wolffe A. Evidence for a shared structural role for HMG1 and linker histones B4 and H1 in organizing chromatin. EMBO J. 1996;15:548-61 pubmed
    ..However, neither histone B4 nor HMG1 influence the DNase I or hydroxyl radical digestion of DNA within the nucleosome core. We suggest that HMG1/2 and histone B4 have a shared structural role in organizing linker DNA in the nucleosome. ..
  9. Itou J, Taniguchi N, Oishi I, Kawakami H, Lotz M, Kawakami Y. HMGB factors are required for posterior digit development through integrating signaling pathway activities. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1151-62 pubmed publisher
    The chromatin factors Hmgb1 and Hmgb2 have critical roles in cellular processes, including transcription and DNA modification...

More Information


  1. Baxevanis A, Landsman D. The HMG-1 box protein family: classification and functional relationships. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:1604-13 pubmed
    ..The HMG-1 box provides an excellent example of how a specific protein motif, with slight alteration, can be used to recognize DNA in a variety of functional contexts. ..
  2. Stolzenburg F, Dinkl E, Grummt F. Nucleotide sequence of a mouse cDNA encoding the non-histone chromosomal high mobility group protein-2 (HMG-2). Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:4927 pubmed
  3. Du H, Ishii H, Pazin M, Sen R. Activation of 12/23-RSS-dependent RAG cleavage by hSWI/SNF complex in the absence of transcription. Mol Cell. 2008;31:641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations demonstrate a direct role for cis-sequence-regulated local chromatin remodeling in RAG1/2-dependent initiation of V(D)J recombination. ..
  4. Sharma A, Ramanjaneyulu A, Ray R, Rajeswari M. Involvement of high mobility group B proteins in cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in squamous cell carcinoma of skin. DNA Cell Biol. 2009;28:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of their important implication in the outcome of cancer chemotherapy, HMGB proteins can be interesting therapeutic targets. ..
  5. Yu P, Mosbrook D, Tagle D. Genomic organization and expression analysis of mouse kynurenine aminotransferase II, a possible factor in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:845-52 pubmed
  6. Yamanaka Y, Faghihi M, Magistri M, Alvarez Garcia O, Lotz M, Wahlestedt C. Antisense RNA controls LRP1 Sense transcript expression through interaction with a chromatin-associated protein, HMGB2. Cell Rep. 2015;11:967-976 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Lrp1-AS directly binds to high-mobility group box 2 (Hmgb2) and inhibits the activity of Hmgb2 to enhance Srebp1a-dependent transcription of Lrp1...
  7. Xu Y, Wang Y, Besnard V, Ikegami M, Wert S, Heffner C, et al. Transcriptional programs controlling perinatal lung maturation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37046 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study systemically mapped key regulators, bioprocesses, and transcriptional networks controlling lung maturation, providing the basis for new therapeutic strategies to enhance lung function in preterm infants. ..
  8. Taniguchi N, Caramés B, Kawakami Y, Amendt B, Komiya S, Lotz M. Chromatin protein HMGB2 regulates articular cartilage surface maintenance via beta-catenin pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..HMGB) protein 2 is restricted to the SZ in articular cartilage suggesting a transcriptional regulation involving HMGB2 in SZ...
  9. Sharma A, Ray R, Rajeswari M. Overexpression of high mobility group (HMG) B1 and B2 proteins directly correlates with the progression of squamous cell carcinoma in skin. Cancer Invest. 2008;26:843-51 pubmed publisher
  10. Durkin M, Yuan B, Thorgeirsson S, Popescu N. Gene structure, tissue expression, and linkage mapping of the mouse DLC-1 gene (Arhgap7). Gene. 2002;288:119-27 pubmed
    ..A polymorphic microsatellite marker in intron 8 was used for mapping the gene (Arhgap7) to 20 cM on mouse chromosome 8 and for allelotyping of mouse liver tumor DNAs. ..
  11. Catena R, Ronfani L, Sassone Corsi P, Davidson I. Changes in intranuclear chromatin architecture induce bipolar nuclear localization of histone variant H1T2 in male haploid spermatids. Dev Biol. 2006;296:231-238 pubmed
    ..In contrast, in late round spermatids from trf2 -/- or hmgb2 -/- mice, a bipolar H1T2 localization was observed revealing that polarity is modified by loss of proteins ..
  12. Zwilling S, Konig H, Wirth T. High mobility group protein 2 functionally interacts with the POU domains of octamer transcription factors. EMBO J. 1995;14:1198-208 pubmed
    ..We have mapped the interaction domains for both proteins and have shown that HMG2 and Oct2 interact via their HMG domains and POU homeodomains, respectively...
  13. Campbell P, Rudnicki M. Oct4 interaction with Hmgb2 regulates Akt signaling and pluripotency. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1107-20 pubmed publisher
    ..modifications (PTMs) form a positive feedback loop, which promotes Akt activation and interaction with Hmgb2 and the SET complex...
  14. He Y, Wang X, Zhang J, Liu Z, Pan W, Shen Y, et al. Association of Serum HMGB2 Levels With In-Stent Restenosis: HMGB2 Promotes Neointimal Hyperplasia in Mice With Femoral Artery Injury and Proliferation and Migration of VSMCs. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:717-729 pubmed publisher
    ..We here investigated whether serum HMGB2 levels were related to ISR in coronary artery disease patients...
  15. Yanai H, Ban T, Wang Z, Choi M, Kawamura T, Negishi H, et al. HMGB proteins function as universal sentinels for nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses. Nature. 2009;462:99-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Hmgb1(-/-) and Hmgb2(-/-) mouse cells are defective in type-I interferon and inflammatory cytokine induction by DNA or RNA targeted to ..
  16. Hamatani T, Carter M, Sharov A, Ko M. Dynamics of global gene expression changes during mouse preimplantation development. Dev Cell. 2004;6:117-31 pubmed
    ..The large number of genes identified as involved in each phase is a first step toward analysis of the complex gene regulatory networks. ..
  17. Lee S, Nam Y, Koo J, Lim D, Park J, Ock J, et al. A small molecule binding HMGB1 and HMGB2 inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Nat Chem Biol. 2014;10:1055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that ICM suppresses microglia-mediated inflammation and exerts a neuroprotective effect, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of ICM in neuroinflammatory diseases. ..
  18. West K, Ito Y, Birger Y, Postnikov Y, Shirakawa H, Bustin M. HMGN3a and HMGN3b, two protein isoforms with a tissue-specific expression pattern, expand the cellular repertoire of nucleosome-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25959-69 pubmed
    ..Our results expand the multiplicity of the HMGN protein family and raise the possibility that these nucleosome-binding proteins function as co-activators in tissue-specific gene expression. ..
  19. Monte E, Rosa Garrido M, Karbassi E, Chen H, Lopez R, Rau C, et al. Reciprocal Regulation of the Cardiac Epigenome by Chromatin Structural Proteins Hmgb and Ctcf: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:15428-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the roles of two chromatin structural proteins, Ctcf (CCCTC-binding factor) and Hmgb2 (high mobility group protein B2), in regulating pathologic transcription and chromatin remodeling...
  20. Zhou X, Li M, Huang H, Chen K, Yuan Z, Zhang Y, et al. HMGB2 regulates satellite-cell-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration through IGF2BP2. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:4305-4316 pubmed
    ..Here, we identified HMGB2 as an essential nuclear transcriptional co-regulator in myogenesis...
  21. Abraham A, Bronstein R, Reddy A, Maletic Savatic M, Aguirre A, Tsirka S. Aberrant neural stem cell proliferation and increased adult neurogenesis in mice lacking chromatin protein HMGB2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e84838 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them HMGB2 was found to be dynamically expressed in proliferating and differentiating NSCs, suggesting that it may regulate ..