Hmgb1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Hmgb1
Description: high mobility group box 1
Alias: HMG-1, Hmg1, SBP-1, p30, high mobility group protein B1, amphoterin, high mobility group protein 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Hmgb1

Top Publications

  1. Willingham S, Allen I, Bergstralh D, Brickey W, Huang M, Taxman D, et al. NLRP3 (NALP3, Cryopyrin) facilitates in vivo caspase-1 activation, necrosis, and HMGB1 release via inflammasome-dependent and -independent pathways. J Immunol. 2009;183:2008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..are macrophage/monocyte necrosis, release of the proinflammatory factor high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and induction of the cytokine IL-1...
  2. Jiang W, Bell C, Pisetsky D. The relationship between apoptosis and high-mobility group protein 1 release from murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. J Immunol. 2007;178:6495-503 pubmed
    High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone nuclear protein whose function depends on cellular location...
  3. Kazama H, Ricci J, Herndon J, Hoppe G, Green D, Ferguson T. Induction of immunological tolerance by apoptotic cells requires caspase-dependent oxidation of high-mobility group box-1 protein. Immunity. 2008;29:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..ROS oxidized the potential danger signal high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) released from dying cells and thereby neutralized its stimulatory activity...
  4. Tian J, Avalos A, Mao S, Chen B, Senthil K, Wu H, et al. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation by DNA-containing immune complexes is mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:487-96 pubmed
    ..Here we show that HMGB1, a nuclear DNA-binding protein released from necrotic cells, was an essential component of DNA-containing immune ..
  5. Palumbo R, Sampaolesi M, De Marchis F, Tonlorenzi R, Colombetti S, Mondino A, et al. Extracellular HMGB1, a signal of tissue damage, induces mesoangioblast migration and proliferation. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:441-9 pubmed
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an abundant chromatin protein that acts as a cytokine when released in the extracellular milieu by necrotic and inflammatory cells...
  6. De Mori R, Straino S, Di Carlo A, Mangoni A, Pompilio G, Palumbo R, et al. Multiple effects of high mobility group box protein 1 in skeletal muscle regeneration. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2377-83 pubmed
    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a cytokine released by necrotic and inflammatory cells in response to injury. We examined the role of HMGB1 in skeletal muscle regeneration after hindlimb ischemia...
  7. Campana L, Bosurgi L, Bianchi M, Manfredi A, Rovere Querini P. Requirement of HMGB1 for stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12-dependent migration of macrophages and dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:609-15 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB1 finely tunes the function of DCs, thus influencing their maturation program and eventually the establishment of adaptive, T cell-dependent immune responses...
  8. Schiraldi M, Raucci A, Muñoz L, Livoti E, Celona B, Venereau E, et al. HMGB1 promotes recruitment of inflammatory cells to damaged tissues by forming a complex with CXCL12 and signaling via CXCR4. J Exp Med. 2012;209:551-63 pubmed publisher
    After tissue damage, inflammatory cells infiltrate the tissue and release proinflammatory cytokines. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), a nuclear protein released by necrotic and severely stressed cells, promotes cytokine release via its ..
  9. Loukili N, Rosenblatt Velin N, Li J, Clerc S, Pacher P, Feihl F, et al. Peroxynitrite induces HMGB1 release by cardiac cells in vitro and HMGB1 upregulation in the infarcted myocardium in vivo. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;89:586-94 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein actively secreted by immune cells and passively released by necrotic cells that initiates pro-inflammatory signalling through binding to the receptor for advance glycation end-..

More Information

Publications76

  1. van Zoelen M, Yang H, Florquin S, Meijers J, Akira S, Arnold B, et al. Role of toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and the receptor for advanced glycation end products in high-mobility group box 1-induced inflammation in vivo. Shock. 2009;31:280-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that HMGB-1 induces release of cytokines, activation of coagulation, and neutrophil recruitment in vivo via a mechanism that at least in part depends on TLR-4 and RAGE. ..
  2. Duan L, Wang C, Chen J, Gong Q, Zhu P, Zheng F, et al. High-mobility group box 1 promotes early acute allograft rejection by enhancing IL-6-dependent Th17 alloreactive response. Lab Invest. 2011;91:43-53 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we reported that extracellular high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as an innate alarmin implicated in cardiac allograft acute rejection...
  3. Sitia G, Iannacone M, Muller S, Bianchi M, Guidotti L. Treatment with HMGB1 inhibitors diminishes CTL-induced liver disease in HBV transgenic mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:100-7 pubmed
    ..We now report that the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is also involved in this process...
  4. Youn J, Shin J. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 is regulated by phosphorylation that redirects it toward secretion. J Immunol. 2006;177:7889-97 pubmed
    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein can be secreted by activated monocytes and macrophages and functions as a late mediator of sepsis...
  5. Kim J, Park J, Strassheim D, Douglas I, Diaz del Valle F, Asehnoune K, et al. HMGB1 contributes to the development of acute lung injury after hemorrhage. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;288:L958-65 pubmed
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a novel late mediator of inflammatory responses that contributes to endotoxin-induced acute lung injury and sepsis-associated lethality...
  6. Evankovich J, Cho S, Zhang R, Cardinal J, Dhupar R, Zhang L, et al. High mobility group box 1 release from hepatocytes during ischemia and reperfusion injury is mediated by decreased histone deacetylase activity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39888-97 pubmed publisher
    The mobilization and extracellular release of nuclear high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) by ischemic cells activates inflammatory pathways following liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
  7. Tsung A, Klune J, Zhang X, Jeyabalan G, Cao Z, Peng X, et al. HMGB1 release induced by liver ischemia involves Toll-like receptor 4 dependent reactive oxygen species production and calcium-mediated signaling. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2913-23 pubmed
    ..The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can activate inflammatory pathways when released from ischemic cells...
  8. Dhupar R, Klune J, Evankovich J, Cardinal J, Zhang M, Ross M, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 1 mediates acetylation and release of high mobility group box 1 from hepatocytes during murine liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Shock. 2011;35:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..The DAMP, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and the transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), have been independently associated as key ..
  9. Ronfani L, Ferraguti M, Croci L, Ovitt C, Scholer H, Consalez G, et al. Reduced fertility and spermatogenesis defects in mice lacking chromosomal protein Hmgb2. Development. 2001;128:1265-73 pubmed
    High mobility group 2 protein (Hmgb2) is a member of the HMGB protein family, which includes the ubiquitous Hmgb1 and the embryo-specific Hmgb3...
  10. Zhang X, Wheeler D, Tang Y, Guo L, Shapiro R, Ribar T, et al. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) IV mediates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and release of HMGB1 during lipopolysaccharide stimulation of macrophages. J Immunol. 2008;181:5015-23 pubmed
    The chromatin-binding factor high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as a proinflammatory cytokine and late mediator of mortality in murine endotoxemia...
  11. Calogero S, Grassi F, Aguzzi A, Voigtlander T, Ferrier P, Ferrari S, et al. The lack of chromosomal protein Hmg1 does not disrupt cell growth but causes lethal hypoglycaemia in newborn mice. Nat Genet. 1999;22:276-80 pubmed
    High mobility group 1 (HMG1) protein is an abundant component of all mammalian nuclei, and related proteins exist in all eukaryotes...
  12. Tsung A, Sahai R, Tanaka H, Nakao A, Fink M, Lotze M, et al. The nuclear factor HMGB1 mediates hepatic injury after murine liver ischemia-reperfusion. J Exp Med. 2005;201:1135-43 pubmed
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor that is released extracellularly as a late mediator of lethality in sepsis as well as after necrotic, but not apoptotic, death...
  13. Vaccari T, Beltrame M, Ferrari S, Bianchi M. Hmg4, a new member of the Hmg1/2 gene family. Genomics. 1998;49:247-52 pubmed
    ..The members of one such family, HMG1 and HMG2, are ubiquitously expressed and facilitate the formation of nucleoprotein complexes where the DNA is ..
  14. Chen G, Tang J, Zheng P, Liu Y. CD24 and Siglec-10 selectively repress tissue damage-induced immune responses. Science. 2009;323:1722-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that the CD24-Siglec G pathway protects the host against a lethal response to pathological cell death and discriminates danger- versus pathogen-associated molecular patterns. ..
  15. Su Z, Sun C, Zhou C, Liu Y, Zhu H, Sandoghchian S, et al. HMGB1 blockade attenuates experimental autoimmune myocarditis and suppresses Th17-cell expansion. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:3586-95 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a non-histone nuclear protein, has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases...
  16. Tang D, Kang R, Livesey K, Kroemer G, Billiar T, Van Houten B, et al. High-mobility group box 1 is essential for mitochondrial quality control. Cell Metab. 2011;13:701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an evolutionarily conserved chromatin-associated protein which maintains nuclear homeostasis, is also a critical ..
  17. Tsung A, Zheng N, Jeyabalan G, Izuishi K, Klune J, Geller D, et al. Increasing numbers of hepatic dendritic cells promote HMGB1-mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:119-28 pubmed
    ..High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a NF released by necrotic cells or secreted by stimulated cells, is one of a number of ligands promoting TLR4 ..
  18. Palumbo R, De Marchis F, Pusterla T, Conti A, Alessio M, Bianchi M. Src family kinases are necessary for cell migration induced by extracellular HMGB1. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:617-23 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB1 is a nuclear protein that signals tissue damage, as it is released by cells dying traumatically or secreted by activated innate immunity cells...
  19. Tang D, Kang R, Livesey K, Zeh H, Lotze M. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) activates an autophagic response to oxidative stress. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15:2185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) regulates autophagy in response to oxidative stress...
  20. Ditsworth D, Zong W, Thompson C. Activation of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP-1) induces release of the pro-inflammatory mediator HMGB1 from the nucleus. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17845-54 pubmed
    ..One mediator of this activation is high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). HMGB1 is normally a chromatin-associated protein and is sequestered at condensed chromatin during apoptosis...
  21. Kang R, Zhang Q, Hou W, Yan Z, Chen R, Bonaroti J, et al. Intracellular Hmgb1 inhibits inflammatory nucleosome release and limits acute pancreatitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:1097-107 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an abundant protein that regulates chromosome architecture and also functions as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule...
  22. Riuzzi F, Sorci G, Sagheddu R, Donato R. HMGB1-RAGE regulates muscle satellite cell homeostasis through p38-MAPK- and myogenin-dependent repression of Pax7 transcription. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1440-54 pubmed publisher
    ..myoblasts by binding to specific recognition sites in the Pax7 promoter, and that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) signaling was required for myogenin induction and myogenin-..
  23. Wang W, Wang B, Lu Q, Zhang W, Qin W, Liu X, et al. Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 improves myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Int J Cardiol. 2014;172:202-12 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important mediator of the inflammatory response. Its expression is increased in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), but its role is unclear...
  24. Yan W, Chang Y, Liang X, Cardinal J, Huang H, Thorne S, et al. High-mobility group box 1 activates caspase-1 and promotes hepatocellular carcinoma invasiveness and metastases. Hepatology. 2012;55:1863-75 pubmed publisher
    ..the mechanism by which the nuclear-damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), released under hypoxic stress, can induce an inflammatory response to promote invasion and metastasis in ..
  25. Qiu J, Xu J, Zheng Y, Wei Y, Zhu X, Lo E, et al. High-mobility group box 1 promotes metalloproteinase-9 upregulation through Toll-like receptor 4 after cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 2010;41:2077-82 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB1 is a nuclear protein and an alarmin that signals cell damage in response to injury...
  26. Schierbeck H, Lundbäck P, Palmblad K, Klevenvall L, Erlandsson Harris H, Andersson U, et al. Monoclonal anti-HMGB1 (high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1) antibody protection in two experimental arthritis models. Mol Med. 2011;17:1039-44 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding nuclear protein that can be released from dying cells and activated myeloid cells. Extracellularly, HMGB1 promotes inflammation...
  27. Youn J, Kwak M, Wu J, Kim E, Ji Y, Min H, et al. Identification of lipopolysaccharide-binding peptide regions within HMGB1 and their effects on subclinical endotoxemia in a mouse model. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can bind to and transfer LPS, consequently increasing LPS-induced TNF-? production in human peripheral blood ..
  28. Andrassy M, Volz H, Igwe J, Funke B, Eichberger S, Kaya Z, et al. High-mobility group box-1 in ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart. Circulation. 2008;117:3216-26 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor released by necrotic cells and by activated immune cells. HMGB1 signals via members of the toll-like receptor family and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)...
  29. Jiang W, Pisetsky D. Mechanisms of Disease: the role of high-mobility group protein 1 in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2007;3:52-8 pubmed
    High-mobility group protein 1 (HMG1) is a nonhistone nuclear protein that is a prototype of a dual-function alarmin whose immune activity is dependent upon its cellular location...
  30. Bonaldi T, Talamo F, Scaffidi P, Ferrera D, Porto A, Bachi A, et al. Monocytic cells hyperacetylate chromatin protein HMGB1 to redirect it towards secretion. EMBO J. 2003;22:5551-60 pubmed
    High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin component that, when leaked out by necrotic cells, triggers inflammation...
  31. Volz H, Seidel C, Laohachewin D, Kaya Z, Müller O, Pleger S, et al. HMGB1: the missing link between diabetes mellitus and heart failure. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:805-20 pubmed publisher
    ..glucose treatment of isolated cardiac fibroblasts, macrophages and cardiomyocytes led to a sustained induction of HMGB1 on the RNA and protein level followed by increased NF-?B binding activity with consecutively sustained TNF-? and ..
  32. Rovere Querini P, Capobianco A, Scaffidi P, Valentinis B, Catalanotti F, Giazzon M, et al. HMGB1 is an endogenous immune adjuvant released by necrotic cells. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:825-30 pubmed
    ..Necrotic cells contain and release innate adjuvants; necrotic cells also release high-mobility group B1 protein (HMGB1), an abundant and conserved constituent of vertebrate nuclei...
  33. Lin Q, Yang X, Fang D, Ren X, Zhou H, Fang J, et al. High-mobility group box-1 mediates toll-like receptor 4-dependent angiogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:1024-32 pubmed publisher
    ..of macrophages at the site of wounds, which was associated with reduced expression of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, an endogenous ligand for TLR4...
  34. Lamkanfi M, Sarkar A, Vande Walle L, Vitari A, Amer A, Wewers M, et al. Inflammasome-dependent release of the alarmin HMGB1 in endotoxemia. J Immunol. 2010;185:4385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced serum high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels in caspase 1-deficient mice correlated with their resistance to LPS...
  35. Orlova V, Choi E, Xie C, Chavakis E, Bierhaus A, Ihanus E, et al. A novel pathway of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory cell recruitment that requires Mac-1-integrin. EMBO J. 2007;26:1129-39 pubmed
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is released extracellularly upon cell necrosis acting as a mediator in tissue injury and inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms for the proinflammatory effect of HMGB1 are poorly understood...
  36. Guazzi S, Strangio A, Franzi A, Bianchi M. HMGB1, an architectural chromatin protein and extracellular signalling factor, has a spatially and temporally restricted expression pattern in mouse brain. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:29-33 pubmed
    b>HMGB1 is an abundant chromatin component, so far considered ubiquitous...
  37. Park J, Gamboni Robertson F, He Q, Svetkauskaite D, Kim J, Strassheim D, et al. High mobility group box 1 protein interacts with multiple Toll-like receptors. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C917-24 pubmed
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), originally described as a DNA-binding protein, can also be released extracellularly and functions as a late mediator of inflammatory responses...
  38. Agresti A, Scaffidi P, Riva A, Caiolfa V, Bianchi M. GR and HMGB1 interact only within chromatin and influence each other's residence time. Mol Cell. 2005;18:109-21 pubmed
    ..We prove here that in living cells, the glucocorticoid receptor and HMGB1 interact only within chromatin and not in the nucleoplasm and decrease each other's mobility...
  39. Giavara S, Kosmidou E, Hande M, Bianchi M, Morgan A, d Adda di Fagagna F, et al. Yeast Nhp6A/B and mammalian Hmgb1 facilitate the maintenance of genome stability. Curr Biol. 2005;15:68-72 pubmed
    ..that belong to the high-mobility group box (HMGB) superfamily and appear to be functionally related to mammalian Hmgb1. They bind to the minor groove of double-stranded DNA in a non-sequence-specific manner and thereby influence ..
  40. Chen G, Li J, Ochani M, Rendon Mitchell B, Qiang X, Susarla S, et al. Bacterial endotoxin stimulates macrophages to release HMGB1 partly through CD14- and TNF-dependent mechanisms. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:994-1001 pubmed
    ..macrophages to sequentially release early [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)] and late [high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)] proinflammatory cytokines. The requirement of CD14 and mitogen-activated protein kinases [MAPK; e.g...
  41. Ferrari S, Finelli P, Rocchi M, Bianchi M. The active gene that encodes human high mobility group 1 protein (HMG1) contains introns and maps to chromosome 13. Genomics. 1996;35:367-71 pubmed
    The human genome contains a large number of sequences related to the cDNA for High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMG1), which so far has hampered the cloning and mapping of the active HMG1 gene...
  42. Yanai H, Ban T, Wang Z, Choi M, Kawamura T, Negishi H, et al. HMGB proteins function as universal sentinels for nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses. Nature. 2009;462:99-103 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hmgb1(-/-) and Hmgb2(-/-) mouse cells are defective in type-I interferon and inflammatory cytokine induction by DNA or ..
  43. DAVE S, Tilstra J, Matsuoka K, Li F, DeMarco R, Beer Stolz D, et al. Ethyl pyruvate decreases HMGB1 release and ameliorates murine colitis. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:633-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>HMGB1 serves as an immunogenic stimuli causing release of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells...
  44. Rouhiainen A, Tumova S, Valmu L, Kalkkinen N, Rauvala H. Pivotal advance: analysis of proinflammatory activity of highly purified eukaryotic recombinant HMGB1 (amphoterin). J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:49-58 pubmed
    HMGB1 (amphoterin) is a 30-kDa heparin-binding protein that mediates transendothelial migration of monocytes and has proinflammatory cytokine-like activities...
  45. Ivanov S, Dragoi A, Wang X, Dallacosta C, Louten J, Musco G, et al. A novel role for HMGB1 in TLR9-mediated inflammatory responses to CpG-DNA. Blood. 2007;110:1970-81 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism of TLR9 activation by CpG-DNA remains elusive. Here we have identified HMGB1 as a CpG-ODN-binding protein...
  46. Germani A, Limana F, Capogrossi M. Pivotal advances: high-mobility group box 1 protein--a cytokine with a role in cardiac repair. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:41-5 pubmed
    The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been largely characterized for its role in inflammation...
  47. Nightingale K, Dimitrov S, Reeves R, Wolffe A. Evidence for a shared structural role for HMG1 and linker histones B4 and H1 in organizing chromatin. EMBO J. 1996;15:548-61 pubmed
    The high mobility group proteins 1 and 2 (HMG1/2) and histone B4 are major components of chromatin within the nuclei assembled during the incubation of Xenopus sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extract...
  48. Tang D, Shi Y, Kang R, Li T, Xiao W, Wang H, et al. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates macrophages and monocytes to actively release HMGB1. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:741-7 pubmed
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can be actively secreted by macrophages/monocytes in response to exogenous and endogenous inflammatory stimuli (such as bacterial endotoxin, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IFN-gamma) or passively released by ..
  49. Maeda S, Hikiba Y, Shibata W, Ohmae T, Yanai A, Ogura K, et al. Essential roles of high-mobility group box 1 in the development of murine colitis and colitis-associated cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;360:394-400 pubmed
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor released extracellularly as a proinflammatory cytokine...
  50. Prasad R, Liu Y, Deterding L, Poltoratsky V, Kedar P, Horton J, et al. HMGB1 is a cofactor in mammalian base excision repair. Mol Cell. 2007;27:829-41 pubmed
    ..Mass spectrometry identified the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) as specifically interacting with the BER intermediate...
  51. Xu H, Su Z, Wu J, Yang M, Penninger J, Martin C, et al. The alarmin cytokine, high mobility group box 1, is produced by viable cardiomyocytes and mediates the lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial dysfunction via a TLR4/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma pathway. J Immunol. 2010;184:1492-8 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an alarmin actively secreted by immune cells and passively released by necrotic nonimmune cells...
  52. Penzo M, Molteni R, Suda T, Samaniego S, Raucci A, Habiel D, et al. Inhibitor of NF-kappa B kinases alpha and beta are both essential for high mobility group box 1-mediated chemotaxis [corrected]. J Immunol. 2010;184:4497-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, IKKalpha can attenuate IKKbeta-initiated inflammatory responses. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin protein, is an extracellular signal of tissue damage-attracting cells in inflammation, tissue ..
  53. Straino S, Di Carlo A, Mangoni A, De Mori R, Guerra L, Maurelli R, et al. High-mobility group box 1 protein in human and murine skin: involvement in wound healing. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:1545-53 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a multifunctional cytokine involved in inflammatory responses and tissue repair...
  54. Taira J, Kida Y, Kuwano K, Higashimoto Y. Protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylates phosphoserines in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and secretion of high mobility group box 1. J Biochem. 2013;154:299-308 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a non-histone chromosomal protein, is a proinflammatory cytokine. There are two known pathways for the release of HMGB1 into the extracellular milieu-passive and active...
  55. Lu B, Nakamura T, Inouye K, Li J, Tang Y, Lundbäck P, et al. Novel role of PKR in inflammasome activation and HMGB1 release. Nature. 2012;488:670-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of caspase activation-dependent cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
  56. Dvoriantchikova G, Hernandez E, Grant J, Santos A, Yang H, Ivanov D. The high-mobility group box-1 nuclear factor mediates retinal injury after ischemia reperfusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7187-94 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group protein B1 (Hmgb1) is released from necrotic cells and induces an inflammatory response...
  57. Lange S, Mitchell D, Vasquez K. High mobility group protein B1 enhances DNA repair and chromatin modification after DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10320-5 pubmed publisher
    b>High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is a multifunctional protein with roles in chromatin structure, transcriptional regulation, V(D)J recombination, and inflammation...
  58. Dumitriu I, Baruah P, Valentinis B, Voll R, Herrmann M, Nawroth P, et al. Release of high mobility group box 1 by dendritic cells controls T cell activation via the receptor for advanced glycation end products. J Immunol. 2005;174:7506-15 pubmed
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an abundant and conserved nuclear protein that is released by necrotic cells and acts in the extracellular environment as a primary proinflammatory signal...
  59. Agresti A, Lupo R, Bianchi M, Muller S. HMGB1 interacts differentially with members of the Rel family of transcription factors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;302:421-6 pubmed
    b>HMGB1 is an architectural factor that enhances the DNA binding affinity of several proteins. We have investigated the influence of HMGB1 on DNA binding by members of the Rel family...
  60. Butteroni C, De Felici M, Scholer H, Pesce M. Phage display screening reveals an association between germline-specific transcription factor Oct-4 and multiple cellular proteins. J Mol Biol. 2000;304:529-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, HMG-1 was found to cooperate with Oct-4 in P19 EC cells. These results provide the first evidence of a non-viral factor that enhances Oct-4 distance-dependent transactivation in stem cells. ..
  61. Yao Y, Xu X, Zhang G, Zhang Y, Qian W, Rui T. Role of HMGB1 in doxorubicin-induced myocardial apoptosis and its regulation pathway. Basic Res Cardiol. 2012;107:267 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of present study is to investigate the role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in DOX-induced myocardial injury, and signal pathway involved in regulation of HMGB1 expression in cardiomyocytes ..
  62. Enokido Y, Yoshitake A, Ito H, Okazawa H. Age-dependent change of HMGB1 and DNA double-strand break accumulation in mouse brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:128-33 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB1 is an evolutionarily conserved non-histone chromatin-associated protein with key roles in maintenance of nuclear homeostasis; however, the function of HMGB1 in the brain remains largely unknown...
  63. Liu S, Stolz D, Sappington P, Macias C, Killeen M, Tenhunen J, et al. HMGB1 is secreted by immunostimulated enterocytes and contributes to cytomix-induced hyperpermeability of Caco-2 monolayers. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C990-9 pubmed
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a cytokine-like proinflammatory protein, is secreted by activated macrophages and released by necrotic cells. We hypothesized that immunostimulated enterocytes might be another source for this mediator...
  64. Kitahara T, Takeishi Y, Harada M, Niizeki T, Suzuki S, Sasaki T, et al. High-mobility group box 1 restores cardiac function after myocardial infarction in transgenic mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;80:40-6 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear DNA-binding protein and is released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses and promoting tissue repair and angiogenesis...
  65. Sappington P, Yang R, Yang H, Tracey K, Delude R, Fink M. HMGB1 B box increases the permeability of Caco-2 enterocytic monolayers and impairs intestinal barrier function in mice. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:790-802 pubmed
    ..The proinflammatory actions of HMGB1 have been localized to a region of the molecule called the B box...
  66. Stros M, Muselíková E. A role of basic residues and the putative intercalating phenylalanine of the HMG-1 box B in DNA supercoiling and binding to four-way DNA junctions. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35699-707 pubmed
  67. Venereau E, Casalgrandi M, Schiraldi M, Antoine D, Cattaneo A, De Marchis F, et al. Mutually exclusive redox forms of HMGB1 promote cell recruitment or proinflammatory cytokine release. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) orchestrates both processes by switching among mutually exclusive redox states...