Gene Symbol: Hmga2
Description: high mobility group AT-hook 2
Alias: 9430083A20Rik, HMGI-C, Hmgic, pygmy, high mobility group protein HMGI-C, high mobility group AT-hook protein 2, high mobility group protein I
Species: mouse
Products:     Hmga2

Top Publications

  1. Sinha Y, Wolff G, Baxter S, Domon O. Serum and pituitary concentrations of growth hormone and prolactin in pygmy mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1979;162:221-3 pubmed
  2. Xiang X, Benson K, Chada K. Mini-mouse: disruption of the pygmy locus in a transgenic insertional mutant. Science. 1990;247:967-9 pubmed
    ..and a genetic and molecular analysis showed that the insertional mutants were allelic to a spontaneous mutant, pygmy. The mice should be a useful model for the growth hormone-resistant human dwarf syndromes and could lead to a ..
  3. Cherath L, Benson K, Chada K. Identification and characterization of a novel conserved DNA repeat. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:611-6 pubmed
    Homozygous In(10)17Rk mice contain a paracentric inversion within Chromosome (Chr) 10 and exhibit a pygmy phenotype, suggesting that the distal inversion breakpoint is within the pygmy (pg) locus...
  4. Lord Grignon J, Abdouh M, Bernier G. Identification of genes expressed in retinal progenitor/stem cell colonies isolated from the ocular ciliary body of adult mice. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:992-9 pubmed
    ..By in situ hybridization screen, we found that Palmdelphin (Palm), Hmga2, and a novel transcript were expressed in the central nervous system of early embryos...
  5. Ashar H, CHOUINARD R, Dokur M, Chada K. In vivo modulation of HMGA2 expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..An emphasis has been placed on the HMGA2 studies which have defined its critical role in mesenchymal proliferation and differentiation.
  6. Hammond S, Sharpless N. HMGA2, microRNAs, and stem cell aging. Cell. 2008;135:1013-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2008; Nishino et al., 2008; Sanna et al., 2008; Weedon et al., 2008) link a chromatin-associated protein, HMGA2, to development, height, and mouse stem cell aging during late fetal development and young adulthood.
  7. Nishino J, Kim I, Chada K, Morrison S. Hmga2 promotes neural stem cell self-renewal in young but not old mice by reducing p16Ink4a and p19Arf Expression. Cell. 2008;135:227-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that the Hmga2 transcriptional regulator is highly expressed in fetal neural stem cells but that expression declines with age...
  8. Hirning Folz U, Wilda M, Rippe V, Bullerdiek J, Hameister H. The expression pattern of the Hmgic gene during development. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1998;23:350-7 pubmed
    ..used to perform a detailed analysis of the expression pattern of the gene for the architectural chromatin factor Hmgic. At early stages of fetal development (day 9...
  9. Zhou X, Benson K, Ashar H, Chada K. Mutation responsible for the mouse pygmy phenotype in the developmentally regulated factor HMGI-C. Nature. 1995;376:771-4 pubmed
    ..b>Pygmy is unique among these mutants because its phenotype cannot be explained by aberrations in the growth hormone-..

More Information


  1. Li Z, Gilbert J, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Qiu Q, Ramanujan K, et al. An HMGA2-IGF2BP2 axis regulates myoblast proliferation and myogenesis. Dev Cell. 2012;23:1176-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of one of these genes, Hmga2, increases coincident with satellite cell activation, and later its expression significantly declines correlating ..
  2. Ferguson M, Henry P, Currie R. Histone deacetylase inhibition is associated with transcriptional repression of the Hmga2 gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:3123-33 pubmed
    The high-mobility-group A2 protein (HMGA2) plays important functional roles in transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and chromatin structure...
  3. Malini E, Maurizio E, Bembich S, Sgarra R, Edomi P, Manfioletti G. HMGA Interactome: new insights from phage display technology. Biochemistry. 2011;50:3462-8 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group A proteins (HMGA1 and HMGA2) are architectural factors involved in chromatin remodelling and regulation of gene expression...
  4. Kishi Y, Fujii Y, Hirabayashi Y, Gotoh Y. HMGA regulates the global chromatin state and neurogenic potential in neocortical precursor cells. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1127-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, HMGA proteins contribute to the neurogenic potential of NPCs in the early stages of neocortical development, possibly through induction of an open chromatin state. ..
  5. Copley M, Babovic S, Benz C, Knapp D, Beer P, Kent D, et al. The Lin28b-let-7-Hmga2 axis determines the higher self-renewal potential of fetal haematopoietic stem cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:916-25 pubmed publisher adult HSCs elevates their self-renewal activity in transplanted irradiated hosts, as does overexpression of Hmga2, a well-established let-7 target that is upregulated in fetal HSCs...
  6. Mayr C, Hemann M, Bartel D. Disrupting the pairing between let-7 and Hmga2 enhances oncogenic transformation. Science. 2007;315:1576-9 pubmed
    ..chromosomal translocations previously associated with human tumors disrupt repression of High Mobility Group A2 (Hmga2) by let-7 miRNA...
  7. Fedele M, Visone R, De Martino I, Troncone G, Palmieri D, Battista S, et al. HMGA2 induces pituitary tumorigenesis by enhancing E2F1 activity. Cancer Cell. 2006;9:459-71 pubmed
    b>HMGA2 gene amplification and overexpression in human prolactinomas and the development of pituitary adenomas in HMGA2 transgenic mice showed that HMGA2 plays a crucial role in pituitary tumorigenesis...
  8. Thuault S, Valcourt U, Petersen M, Manfioletti G, Heldin C, Moustakas A. Transforming growth factor-beta employs HMGA2 to elicit epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:175-83 pubmed
    ..Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) gene is induced by the Smad pathway during EMT...
  9. Brants J, Ayoubi T, Chada K, Marchal K, Van de Ven W, Petit M. Differential regulation of the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein genes by architectural transcription factor HMGA2. FEBS Lett. 2004;569:277-83 pubmed
    The developmentally regulated architectural transcription factor, high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), is involved in growth regulation and plays an important role in embryogenesis and tumorigenesis...
  10. Morishita A, Zaidi M, Mitoro A, Sankarasharma D, Szabolcs M, Okada Y, et al. HMGA2 is a driver of tumor metastasis. Cancer Res. 2013;73:4289-99 pubmed publisher
    The non-histone chromatin-binding protein HMGA2 is expressed predominantly in the mesenchyme before its differentiation, but it is also expressed in tumors of epithelial origin...
  11. Shibanuma M, Ishikawa F, Kobayashi M, Katayama K, Miyoshi H, Wakamatsu M, et al. Critical roles of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-mediated pathway in disorganized epithelial phenotypes caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Cancer Sci. 2012;103:1803-10 pubmed publisher
    ..It is interesting to note that the expression of high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), a non-histone chromatin protein implicated in malignant neoplasms, was increased at the protein level through ..
  12. Keane M, de Magalhães J. MYCN/LIN28B/Let-7/HMGA2 pathway implicated by meta-analysis of GWAS in suppression of post-natal proliferation thereby potentially contributing to aging. Mech Ageing Dev. 2013;134:346-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of genome-wide association studies using growth and development-related traits revealed that two genes, HMGA2 and LIN28B, had multiple associations...
  13. Singh I, Mehta A, Contreras A, Boettger T, Carraro G, Wheeler M, et al. Hmga2 is required for canonical WNT signaling during lung development. BMC Biol. 2014;12:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we deciphered the role of the high-mobility-group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) during lung development by analyzing the lung of Hmga2-deficient mice (Hmga2(-/-))...
  14. Monzen K, Ito Y, Naito A, Kasai H, Hiroi Y, Hayashi D, et al. A crucial role of a high mobility group protein HMGA2 in cardiogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to the active transcription of their target genes. Here we show that HMGA2, a member of the HMGA sub-family of HMG proteins, has a critical function in cardiogenesis...
  15. Sgarra R, Lee J, Tessari M, Altamura S, Spolaore B, Giancotti V, et al. The AT-hook of the chromatin architectural transcription factor high mobility group A1a is arginine-methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 6. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3764-72 pubmed
    ..The in vivo association of HMGA and PRMT6 place this yet functionally uncharacterized methyltransferase in the well established functional context of the chromatin structure organization. ..
  16. Thuault S, Tan E, Peinado H, Cano A, Heldin C, Moustakas A. HMGA2 and Smads co-regulate SNAIL1 expression during induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that the high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) gene is required for TGF-beta to elicit EMT in mammary epithelial cells...
  17. Schalling M, Johansen J, Nordfors L, Lonnqvist F. Genes involved in animal models of obesity and anorexia. J Intern Med. 1999;245:613-9 pubmed
    ..The role of the Genome Project in developing a complete gene map will greatly facilitate transforming these OTLs to actual molecules involved in the biology of bodyweight. ..
  18. Rimoin D, Richmond L. The pygmy (pg) mutant of the mouse--a model of the human pygmy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1972;35:467-8 pubmed
  19. Sun M, Song C, Huang H, Frankenberger C, Sankarasharma D, Gomes S, et al. HMGA2/TET1/HOXA9 signaling pathway regulates breast cancer growth and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9920-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that depleting the architectural transcription factor high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) induces TET1...
  20. Chau K, Manfioletti G, Cheung Chau K, Fusco A, Dhomen N, Sowden J, et al. Derepression of HMGA2 gene expression in retinoblastoma is associated with cell proliferation. Mol Med. 2003;9:154-65 pubmed tissues, we performed Northern and Western blots and RT-PCR analyses, and immunohistochemistry to test for HMGA2 expression...
  21. Manfioletti G, Giancotti V, Bandiera A, Buratti E, Sautiere P, Cary P, et al. cDNA cloning of the HMGI-C phosphoprotein, a nuclear protein associated with neoplastic and undifferentiated phenotypes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:6793-7 pubmed
    ..Analysis of mRNA levels demonstrate that the HMGI-C gene is not expressed in a variety of mouse tissues but is expressed in Lewis lung carcinoma cells. ..
  22. De Martino I, Visone R, Wierinckx A, Palmieri D, Ferraro A, Cappabianca P, et al. HMGA proteins up-regulate CCNB2 gene in mouse and human pituitary adenomas. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported that transgenic mice carrying the Hmga1 or Hmga2 genes under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus promoter develop pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin ..
  23. Anand A, Chada K. In vivo modulation of Hmgic reduces obesity. Nat Genet. 2000;24:377-80 pubmed
    The HMGI family of proteins consists of three members, HMGIC, HMGI and HMGI(Y), that function as architectural factors and are essential components of the enhancesome...
  24. Chiou S, Kim Kiselak C, Risca V, Heimann M, Chuang C, Burds A, et al. A conditional system to specifically link disruption of protein-coding function with reporter expression in mice. Cell Rep. 2014;7:2078-86 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this potentially generalizable strategy, we generated and analyzed mice with this conditional knockin reporter targeted to the Hmga2 locus.
  25. Kwon B, Chintamaneni C, Kozak C, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. A melanocyte-specific gene, Pmel 17, maps near the silver coat color locus on mouse chromosome 10 and is in a syntenic region on human chromosome 12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:9228-32 pubmed
  26. Madison B, Jeganathan A, Mizuno R, Winslow M, Castells A, Cuatrecasas M, et al. Let-7 Represses Carcinogenesis and a Stem Cell Phenotype in the Intestine via Regulation of Hmga2. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005408 pubmed publisher
    ..with loss of Let-7 miRNA expression, and that a number of Let-7 targets were elevated, including Hmga1 and Hmga2. Functional studies in 3-D enteroids revealed that Hmga2 is necessary and sufficient to mediate many ..
  27. Benson K, Chada K. Molecular characterization of the mouse In(10)17Rk inversion and identification of a novel muscle-specific gene at the proximal breakpoint. Genetics. 2002;160:279-87 pubmed
    ..Homozygous In(10)17Rk mice exhibit a pygmy phenotype, suggesting that the distal inversion breakpoint is within the pygmy locus...
  28. Ashar H, Benson K, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Chada K. Ifg, Gli, Mdm1, Mdm2, and Mdm3: candidate genes for the mouse pg locus. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:608-11 pubmed
    ..genes that mapped to the distal end of Chromosome (Chr) 10 were considered as possible candidates for the mouse pygmy (pg) locus...
  29. Yang M, Yang S, Herrlinger S, Liang C, Dzieciatkowska M, Hansen K, et al. Lin28 promotes the proliferative capacity of neural progenitor cells in brain development. Development. 2015;142:1616-27 pubmed publisher NPCs could be attributed, at least in part, to the regulation of their mRNA targets that encode Igf1r and Hmga2. Thus, Lin28a and Lin28b have overlapping functions in temporally regulating NPC proliferation during early brain ..
  30. Zhou X, Benson K, Przybysz K, Liu J, Hou Y, Cherath L, et al. Genomic structure and expression of the murine Hmgi-c gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:4071-7 pubmed
    ..Hmgi-c gene, a member of the Hmgi gene family, contains five exons encompassing >110 kb of genomic DNA at the pygmy locus on mouse chromosome 10. Northern analysis identified a 4...
  31. Caron L, Bost F, Prot M, Hofman P, Binétruy B. A new role for the oncogenic high-mobility group A2 transcription factor in myogenesis of embryonic stem cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:6281-91 pubmed
    ..This effect was prevented by overexpression of exogenous HMGA-2. Our results reveal a novel function of HMGA-2 in skeletal muscle differentiation. ..
  32. Lam K, Muselman A, Du R, Harada Y, Scholl A, Yan M, et al. Hmga2 is a direct target gene of RUNX1 and regulates expansion of myeloid progenitors in mice. Blood. 2014;124:2203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..From this analysis, we identified and confirmed that Hmga2, a known oncogene, as a direct target of RUNX1...
  33. Nissley S, Knazek R, Wolff G. Somatomedin activity in sera of genetically small mice. Horm Metab Res. 1980;12:158-64 pubmed
    ..mice [Snell (dw/dw), Ames (df/df), and little (lit/lit)] whereas somatomedin activity was normal in serum from the pygmy (pg/pg)) mouse, a mutant proposed as a model for growth hormone resistance...
  34. Liu H, Wang X, Liu S, Li H, Yuan X, Feng B, et al. Effects and mechanism of miR-23b on glucose-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in diabetic nephropathy. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;70:149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, miR-23b suppressed EMT in diabetic nephropathy by targeting high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), thereby repressing PI3K-AKT signalling pathway activation...
  35. Sun M, Gomes S, Chen P, Frankenberger C, Sankarasharma D, Chung C, et al. RKIP and HMGA2 regulate breast tumor survival and metastasis through lysyl oxidase and syndecan-2. Oncogene. 2014;33:3528-37 pubmed publisher
    ..from our laboratory identified the architectural transcription factor and oncogene, high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), as a target of inhibition by RKIP. Here we identify two signaling pathways that promote HMGA2-driven metastasis...
  36. Papaioannou G, Inloes J, Nakamura Y, Paltrinieri E, Kobayashi T. let-7 and miR-140 microRNAs coordinately regulate skeletal development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3291-300 pubmed publisher
  37. Scala S, Portella G, Vitagliano D, Ledent C, Chiappetta G, Giancotti V, et al. HMGI-C gene expression is not required for in vivo thyroid cell transformation. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:251-6 pubmed
    ..whether HMGI proteins are also required for in vivo thyroid carcinogenesis, mice carrying a disrupted HMGI-C gene (pygmy mice) were either treated with radioactive iodine or crossed with transgenic mice carrying the E7 papilloma virus ..
  38. D ARMIENTO J, Imai K, Schiltz J, Kolesnekova N, Sternberg D, Benson K, et al. Identification of the benign mesenchymal tumor gene HMGA2 in lymphangiomyomatosis. Cancer Res. 2007;67:1902-9 pubmed
    The normal expression pattern of HMGA2, an architectural transcription factor, is primarily restricted to cells of the developing mesenchyme before their overt differentiation during organogenesis...
  39. Kobayashi T, Lu J, Cobb B, Rodda S, McMahon A, Schipani E, et al. Dicer-dependent pathways regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the critical role of the Dicer-dependent pathway in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during skeletal development. ..
  40. Chieffi P, Battista S, Barchi M, Di Agostino S, Pierantoni G, Fedele M, et al. HMGA1 and HMGA2 protein expression in mouse spermatogenesis. Oncogene. 2002;21:3644-50 pubmed
    The high-mobility group A (HMGA) nonhistone chromosomal proteins HMGA1 and HMGA2 play a role in determining chromatin structure and in regulating the transcription of several genes...
  41. Wang Y, Liu J, Tang H, Nie J, Zhu J, Wen L, et al. miR?221 targets HMGA2 to inhibit bleomycin?induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating TGF??1/Smad3-induced EMT. Int J Mol Med. 2016;38:1208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..High mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), is a key regulator of EMT...
  42. Di Agostino S, Fedele M, Chieffi P, Fusco A, Rossi P, Geremia R, et al. Phosphorylation of high-mobility group protein A2 by Nek2 kinase during the first meiotic division in mouse spermatocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1224-32 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the architectural chromatin protein HMGA2 is highly expressed in male meiotic cells...
  43. D ARMIENTO J, Shiomi T, Marks S, Geraghty P, Sankarasharma D, Chada K. Mesenchymal Tumorigenesis Driven by TSC2 Haploinsufficiency Requires HMGA2 and Is Independent of mTOR Pathway Activation. Cancer Res. 2016;76:844-54 pubmed publisher
    ..High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2), an architectural transcription factor, is known to regulate mesenchymal differentiation and drive mesenchymal ..
  44. Terskikh A, Easterday M, Li L, Hood L, Kornblum H, Geschwind D, et al. From hematopoiesis to neuropoiesis: evidence of overlapping genetic programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7934-9 pubmed
  45. Tessari M, Gostissa M, Altamura S, Sgarra R, Rustighi A, Salvagno C, et al. Transcriptional activation of the cyclin A gene by the architectural transcription factor HMGA2. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:9104-16 pubmed
    ..Hmga2 knockout results in the pygmy phenotype in mice and in a decreased growth rate of embryonic fibroblasts, thus indicating a role for HMGA2 in ..
  46. Zhu S, Deng S, Ma Q, Zhang T, Jia C, Zhuo D, et al. MicroRNA-10A* and MicroRNA-21 modulate endothelial progenitor cell senescence via suppressing high-mobility group A2. Circ Res. 2013;112:152-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified 2 microRNAs, microRNA-10A* (miR-10A*), and miR-21, and their common target gene Hmga2 as critical regulators for EPC senescence...
  47. Price K, Woolf A, Long D. Unraveling the genetic landscape of bladder development in mice. J Urol. 2009;181:2366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide novel insights into molecules that orchestrate bladder development and highlight genes that may be involved in diseases associated with abnormal differentiation. ..
  48. Schwanbeck R, Manfioletti G, Wisniewski J. Architecture of high mobility group protein I-C.DNA complex and its perturbation upon phosphorylation by Cdc2 kinase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:1793-801 pubmed
    ..Our data stress the importance of conformation of the DNA binding site and protein phosphorylation for its function. ..
  49. Baldassarre G, Fedele M, Battista S, Vecchione A, Klein Szanto A, Santoro M, et al. Onset of natural killer cell lymphomas in transgenic mice carrying a truncated HMGI-C gene by the chronic stimulation of the IL-2 and IL-15 pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7970-5 pubmed
    Rearrangements of the high mobility group protein I-C (HMGI-C) gene, consisting in the loss of the carboxyl-terminal tail, have been frequently detected in benign human tumors of mesenchymal origin...
  50. Navarra A, Musto A, Gargiulo A, Petrosino G, Pierantoni G, Fusco A, et al. Hmga2 is necessary for Otx2-dependent exit of embryonic stem cells from the pluripotent ground state. BMC Biol. 2016;14:24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hmga2 is a member of the high-mobility group family of proteins, non-histone components of chromatin whose expression is ..
  51. Lin H, Xiong Y, Ho Y, Zhou B, Nguyen H, Deng H, et al. Transcriptional regulation by targeted expression of architectural transcription factor high mobility group A2 in salivary glands of transgenic mice. Eur J Oral Sci. 2007;115:30-9 pubmed
    High mobility group A2 (HMGA2) protein is a non-histone architectural transcription factor...
  52. Gurtan A, Ravi A, Rahl P, Bosson A, Jnbaptiste C, Bhutkar A, et al. Let-7 represses Nr6a1 and a mid-gestation developmental program in adult fibroblasts. Genes Dev. 2013;27:941-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, let-7 is required for the continual suppression of embryonic gene expression in adult cells, a mechanism that may underlie its tumor-suppressive function. ..
  53. Zong Y, Huang J, Sankarasharma D, Morikawa T, Fukayama M, Epstein J, et al. Stromal epigenetic dysregulation is sufficient to initiate mouse prostate cancer via paracrine Wnt signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E3395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We use Hmga2 (High-mobility group AT-hook 2) an epigenetic regulator, to modify prostate stromal cells, and demonstrate that ..
  54. Wang H, Sun Z, Wang Y, Hu Z, Zhou H, Zhang L, et al. miR-33-5p, a novel mechano-sensitive microRNA promotes osteoblast differentiation by targeting Hmga2. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23170 pubmed publisher
    ..Through bioinformatics analysis and a luciferase assay, we subsequently confirmed that Hmga2 is a target gene of miR-33-5p that negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation...
  55. Manfioletti G, Rustighi A, Mantovani F, Goodwin G, Giancotti V. Isolation and characterization of the gene coding for murine high-mobility-group protein HMGI-C. Gene. 1995;167:249-53 pubmed
    ..A highly homologous pseudogene is also present in the mouse genome. Our results on Hmgi-c structure provide basic information to carry out further studies on the regulation of its expression. ..
  56. Ahmed K, Tsai C, Lee W. Derepression of HMGA2 via removal of ZBRK1/BRCA1/CtIP complex enhances mammary tumorigenesis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4464-71 pubmed publisher
    The high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), a DNA architectural protein, is highly regulated during development and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Indeed, HMGA2 was overexpressed in many different kinds of tumors...
  57. Dutta A, Hutchison R, Mohi G. Hmga2 promotes the development of myelofibrosis in Jak2V617F knockin mice by enhancing TGF-?1 and Cxcl12 pathways. Blood. 2017;130:920-932 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated expression of high-mobility group AT hook 2 (HMGA2) has also been frequently observed in patients with MF...
  58. Cui T, Wei S, Brew K, Leng F. Energetics of binding the mammalian high mobility group protein HMGA2 to poly(dA-dT)2 and poly(dA)-poly(dT). J Mol Biol. 2005;352:629-45 pubmed
    The mammalian high mobility group protein A2 (HMGA2) is a chromosomal architectural transcription factor involved in oncogenesis and cell transformation...
  59. Yuan Y, Xi Y, Chen J, Zhu P, Kang J, Zou Z, et al. STAT3 stimulates adipogenic stem cell proliferation and cooperates with HMGA2 during the early stage of differentiation to promote adipogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:1360-1366 pubmed publisher
    ..differentiating cells, we demonstrated that STAT3 protein co-localized with high-mobility-group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), which was reported to promote adipogenesis in a previous study...
  60. Xi Y, Shen W, Ma L, Zhao M, Zheng J, Bu S, et al. HMGA2 promotes adipogenesis by activating C/EBPβ-mediated expression of PPARγ. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;472:617-23 pubmed publisher
    ..High mobility group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), an architectural transcription factor, has been reported to play an essential role in preadipocyte proliferation,..
  61. Moon H, Donahue L, Choi E, Scumpia P, Lowry W, Grenier J, et al. Melanocyte Stem Cell Activation and Translocation Initiate Cutaneous Melanoma in Response to UV Exposure. Cell Stem Cell. 2017;21:665-678.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the chromatin-remodeling factor Hmga2 in the skin plays a critical role in UVB-mediated melanomagenesis...
  62. KING J. Pygmy, a dwarfing gene in the house mouse. J Hered. 1950;41:249-52 pubmed
  63. Fedele M, Battista S, Kenyon L, Baldassarre G, Fidanza V, Klein Szanto A, et al. Overexpression of the HMGA2 gene in transgenic mice leads to the onset of pituitary adenomas. Oncogene. 2002;21:3190-8 pubmed
    Overexpression of the HMGA2 gene is a common feature of neoplastic cells both in experimental and human models...
  64. Peters L, John K, Lu F, Eicher E, Higgins A, Yialamas M, et al. Ank3 (epithelial ankyrin), a widely distributed new member of the ankyrin gene family and the major ankyrin in kidney, is expressed in alternatively spliced forms, including forms that lack the repeat domain. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:313-30 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Ank3 is a broadly distributed epithelial ankyrin and is the major ankyrin in the kidney and other tissues, where it plays an important role in the polarized distribution of many integral membrane proteins. ..
  65. Lanahan A, Williams J, Sanders L, Nathans D. Growth factor-induced delayed early response genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:3919-29 pubmed
    ..In 3T3 cells, the delayed early gene response to growth factors appears to be at least as complex as the immediate-early gene response previously described. ..
  66. Schiltz J, Kesari K, Ashar H, Chada K. Hmgi-c-independent Activation of MuRantes in Vivo. Cell Growth Differ. 2002;13:39-45 pubmed
    ..Each of these systems clearly demonstrates that Hmgi-c is not required for the activation of MuRantes expression. ..
  67. Huang H, Li H, Chen X, Yang Y, Li X, Li W, et al. HMGA2, a driver of inflammation, is associated with hypermethylation in acute liver injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;328:34-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the High Mobility Group A protein2 (HMGA2) occurs as a driver at critical stage of hepatocellular carcinoma, herein, we investigated the role of HMGA2 in ..
  68. Golden E, Benito Gonzalez A, Doetzlhofer A. The RNA-binding protein LIN28B regulates developmental timing in the mammalian cochlea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E3864-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results implicate a key role for the LIN28B/let-7 axis in regulating postnatal SC plasticity. ..
  69. Smeti I, Watabe I, Savary E, Fontbonne A, Zine A. HMGA2, the architectural transcription factor high mobility group, is expressed in the developing and mature mouse cochlea. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88757 pubmed publisher
    b>Hmga2 protein belongs to the non-histone chromosomal high-mobility group (HMG) protein family...
  70. Federico A, Forzati F, Esposito F, Arra C, Palma G, Barbieri A, et al. Hmga1/Hmga2 double knock-out mice display a "superpygmy" phenotype. Biol Open. 2014;3:372-8 pubmed publisher
    The HMGA1 and HMGA2 genes code for proteins belonging to the High Mobility Group A family. Several genes are negatively or positively regulated by both these proteins, but a number of genes are specifically regulated by only one of them...
  71. Schiltz J, Rustighi A, Tessari M, Liu J, Braghetta P, Sgarra R, et al. Hmga2 promoter analysis in transgenic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:718-23 pubmed
    b>HMGA2(2) belongs to the high mobility group A (HMGA) family of architectural transcription factors which participate in a wide variety of nuclear processes ranging from transcription to recombination, playing an important role in ..
  72. Chin M, Pellacani A, Wang H, Lin S, Jain M, Perrella M, et al. Enhancement of serum-response factor-dependent transcription and DNA binding by the architectural transcription factor HMG-I(Y). J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9755-60 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that members of the HMG-I family play an important role in SRF-dependent transcription and that their effect is mediated primarily by a protein-protein interaction. ..