Gene Symbol: Hmga1
Description: high mobility group AT-hook 1
Alias: AL023995, Hmga1a, Hmga1b, Hmgi, Hmgiy, Hmgy, high mobility group protein HMG-I/HMG-Y, high mobility group AT-hook protein 1, high mobility group protein A1, high mobility group protein I
Species: mouse
Products:     Hmga1

Top Publications

  1. Du W, Maniatis T. The high mobility group protein HMG I(Y) can stimulate or inhibit DNA binding of distinct transcription factor ATF-2 isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11318-22 pubmed
  2. Battista S, Fedele M, Martinez Hoyos J, Pentimalli F, Pierantoni G, Visone R, et al. High-mobility-group A1 (HMGA1) proteins down-regulate the expression of the recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2). Biochem J. 2005;389:91-7 pubmed
    b>HMGA1 (high-mobility-group A1) proteins are architectural transcription factors that are found overexpressed in embryogenesis and malignant tumours...
  3. Li Y, Lu J, Prochownik E. Dual role for SUMO E2 conjugase Ubc9 in modulating the transforming and growth-promoting properties of the HMGA1b architectural transcription factor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13363-71 pubmed
    Members of the HMGA1 (high mobility group A1) family of architectural transcription factors, HMGA1a and HMGA1b, play important roles in many normal cellular processes and in tumorigenesis...
  4. Brocher J, Vogel B, Hock R. HMGA1 down-regulation is crucial for chromatin composition and a gene expression profile permitting myogenic differentiation. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used mouse C2C12 myoblasts and C2C12 cells stably over-expressing HMGA1a-eGFP to study the impact of deregulated HMGA1 expression levels on cellular differentiation...
  5. Chiefari E, Paonessa F, Iiritano S, Le Pera I, Palmieri D, Brunetti G, et al. The cAMP-HMGA1-RBP4 system: a novel biochemical pathway for modulating glucose homeostasis. BMC Biol. 2009;7:24 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that mice lacking the high mobility group A1 gene (Hmga1-knockout mice) developed a type 2-like diabetic phenotype, in which cell-surface insulin receptors were dramatically reduced (below 10% of those in the ..
  6. Chieffi P, Battista S, Barchi M, Di Agostino S, Pierantoni G, Fedele M, et al. HMGA1 and HMGA2 protein expression in mouse spermatogenesis. Oncogene. 2002;21:3644-50 pubmed
    ..analysis with antibodies against the HMGA1 gene product revealed only the HMG1c isoform (27 kDa) in the testis; HMGA1a and HMGA1b were undetectable. These three isoforms are encoded by the HMGA1 gene through alternative splicing...
  7. Battista S, Pentimalli F, Baldassarre G, Fedele M, Fidanza V, Croce C, et al. Loss of Hmga1 gene function affects embryonic stem cell lympho-hematopoietic differentiation. FASEB J. 2003;17:1496-8 pubmed
    By interacting with transcription machinery, high-mobility group A 1 (HMGA1) proteins alter the chromatin structure and thereby regulate the transcriptional activity of several genes...
  8. Foti D, Chiefari E, Fedele M, Iuliano R, Brunetti L, Paonessa F, et al. Lack of the architectural factor HMGA1 causes insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and mice. Nat Med. 2005;11:765-73 pubmed
    ..Here we report a genetic flaw that markedly reduced the intracellular expression of the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein, and adversely affected insulin receptor expression in cells and tissues from four subjects with insulin ..
  9. Zhou X, Benson K, Ashar H, Chada K. Mutation responsible for the mouse pygmy phenotype in the developmentally regulated factor HMGI-C. Nature. 1995;376:771-4 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the pygmy phenotype arises from the inactivation of Hmgi-c (ref...

More Information


  1. Liu J, Schiltz J, Ashar H, Chada K. Hmga1 is required for normal sperm development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003;66:81-9 pubmed
    ..Although the biochemical function of Hmga1 has been studied in vitro, to provide in vivo insight into its biological function, a targeted disruption of Hmga1 ..
  2. Fedele M, Fidanza V, Battista S, Pentimalli F, Klein Szanto A, Visone R, et al. Haploinsufficiency of the Hmga1 gene causes cardiac hypertrophy and myelo-lymphoproliferative disorders in mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2536-43 pubmed
    The HMGA1 protein is a major factor in chromatin architecture and gene control. It plays a critical role in neoplastic transformation...
  3. Bloch M, Prock A, Paonessa F, Benz V, Bähr I, Herbst L, et al. High-mobility group A1 protein: a new coregulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-mediated transrepression in the vasculature. Circ Res. 2012;110:394-405 pubmed publisher
    ..PPAR?-mediated transrepression of the MMP-9 gene was dependent on the presence of the high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein, a gene highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, newly identified by oligonucleotide array ..
  4. Kishi Y, Fujii Y, Hirabayashi Y, Gotoh Y. HMGA regulates the global chromatin state and neurogenic potential in neocortical precursor cells. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1127-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, HMGA proteins contribute to the neurogenic potential of NPCs in the early stages of neocortical development, possibly through induction of an open chromatin state. ..
  5. Chiappetta G, Avantaggiato V, Visconti R, Fedele M, Battista S, Trapasso F, et al. High level expression of the HMGI (Y) gene during embryonic development. Oncogene. 1996;13:2439-46 pubmed
    The HMGI protein family includes three proteins, named HMG-I, HMG-Y and HMGI-C. The first two proteins are coded for by the same gene, HMGI (Y), through an alternative splicing mechanism...
  6. Disney J, Johnson K, Magnuson N, Sylvester S, Reeves R. High-mobility group protein HMG-I localizes to G/Q- and C-bands of human and mouse chromosomes. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:1975-82 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first well-characterized mammalian protein that localizes primarily to G-band regions of chromosomes. ..
  7. Beckers J, Herrmann F, Rieger S, Drobyshev A, Horsch M, Hrabe de Angelis M, et al. Identification and validation of novel ERBB2 (HER2, NEU) targets including genes involved in angiogenesis. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:590-7 pubmed
    ..Supplementary material for this article can be found on the International Journal of Cancer website at ..
  8. Federico A, Forzati F, Esposito F, Arra C, Palma G, Barbieri A, et al. Hmga1/Hmga2 double knock-out mice display a "superpygmy" phenotype. Biol Open. 2014;3:372-8 pubmed publisher
    The HMGA1 and HMGA2 genes code for proteins belonging to the High Mobility Group A family. Several genes are negatively or positively regulated by both these proteins, but a number of genes are specifically regulated by only one of them...
  9. Himes S, Coles L, Reeves R, Shannon M. High mobility group protein I(Y) is required for function and for c-Rel binding to CD28 response elements within the GM-CSF and IL-2 promoters. Immunity. 1996;5:479-89 pubmed
    ..Expression of HMG I or c-Rel antisense RNA inhibited CD28 activation of the IL-2 and GM-CSF promoters, implying that HMG I(Y) enhancement of c-Rel binding plays an important role in the activity of the CD28REs. ..
  10. Chin M, Pellacani A, Wang H, Lin S, Jain M, Perrella M, et al. Enhancement of serum-response factor-dependent transcription and DNA binding by the architectural transcription factor HMG-I(Y). J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9755-60 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that members of the HMG-I family play an important role in SRF-dependent transcription and that their effect is mediated primarily by a protein-protein interaction. ..
  11. Liu J, Schiltz J, Shah P, Benson K, Chada K. Genomic structure and expression of the murine Hmgi(y) gene. Gene. 2000;246:197-207 pubmed
    Mammalian HMGI proteins belong to the high mobility group (HMG) of small non-histone nuclear proteins, and function as architectural factors to mediate structural changes in DNA...
  12. Lanahan A, Williams J, Sanders L, Nathans D. Growth factor-induced delayed early response genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:3919-29 pubmed
    ..Among the former are cDNAs encoding nonhistone chromosomal proteins [HMGI(Y) and HMGI-C], adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), a protein related to human macrophage migration ..
  13. Schiltz J, Kesari K, Ashar H, Chada K. Hmgi-c-independent Activation of MuRantes in Vivo. Cell Growth Differ. 2002;13:39-45 pubmed
    The architectural factor HMGI-C is of considerable interest for its recognized roles in mammalian development and tumorigenesis. As a result, the identification of downstream target genes of HMGI-C is the present focus of active research...
  14. Beaujean N, Bouniol Baly C, Monod C, Kissa K, Jullien D, Aulner N, et al. Induction of early transcription in one-cell mouse embryos by microinjection of the nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG-I. Dev Biol. 2000;221:337-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that general chromosomal architectural factors such as HMG-I can modulate the accessibility of chromatin to specialized regulatory factors, thereby promoting a transcriptionally competent state. ..
  15. Hillion J, Roy S, Heydarian M, Cope L, Xian L, Koo M, et al. The High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) gene is highly overexpressed in human uterine serous carcinomas and carcinosarcomas and drives Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in a subset of tumors. Gynecol Oncol. 2016;141:580-587 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that Hmga1a transgenic mice develop uterine tumors with complete penetrance...
  16. Johnson K, Cook S, Davisson M. Chromosomal localization of the murine gene and two related sequences encoding high-mobility-group I and Y proteins. Genomics. 1992;12:503-9 pubmed
    ..HMG-I and HMG-Y are alternatively spliced products of a single functional gene, designated Hmgi in the mouse. Here, we report the occurrence of at least three distinct Hmgi-related loci in the mouse...
  17. Ferranti P, Malorni A, Marino G, Pucci P, Goodwin G, Manfioletti G, et al. Mass spectrometric analysis of the HMGY protein from Lewis lung carcinoma. Identification of phosphorylation sites. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:22486-9 pubmed
    The primary structure of the Lewis lung carcinoma protein HMGY belonging to the nuclear group of proteins HMGI (high mobility group I) was determined using electrospray and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry...
  18. Johnson K, Lehn D, Elton T, Barr P, Reeves R. Complete murine cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and tissue expression of the high mobility group protein HMG-I(Y). J Biol Chem. 1988;263:18338-42 pubmed
  19. Forzati F, Federico A, Pallante P, Abbate A, Esposito F, Malapelle U, et al. CBX7 is a tumor suppressor in mice and humans. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:612-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that CBX7 is a tumor suppressor and that its loss plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer. ..
  20. Martins V, Busch K, Juraeva D, Blum C, Ludwig C, Rasche V, et al. Cell competition is a tumour suppressor mechanism in the thymus. Nature. 2014;509:465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of cell competition leads to progenitor self-renewal, upregulation of Hmga1, transformation, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) resembling the human disease in pathology, ..
  21. Giancotti V, Bandiera A, Ciani L, Santoro D, Crane Robinson C, Goodwin G, et al. High-mobility-group (HMG) proteins and histone H1 subtypes expression in normal and tumor tissues of mouse. Eur J Biochem. 1993;213:825-32 pubmed
    ..with reverse-phase HPLC and electrophoresis to quantify the amounts of chromosomal proteins HMG17, HMG14 and HMGI, relative to histone H1. Normal lung and thymus contain approximately 3% HMG17/HMG14 but only approximately 2% HMGI...
  22. Xi Y, Li Y, Tang H. High mobility group A1 protein acts as a new target of Notch1 signaling and regulates cell proliferation in T leukemia cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;374:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we detected the overexpression of the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) and activation of Notch1 signaling in mouse thymic lymphomas...
  23. Lei X, Xu J, Ma W, Qiao C, Newman M, Hammond S, et al. Determinants of mRNA recognition and translation regulation by Lin28. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3574-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover a putative yet unexpected motif that may constitute a mechanistic base for the multitude of functions regulated by Lin28 in both stem cells and cancer cells. ..
  24. Takeuchi I, Takaha N, Nakamura T, Hongo F, Mikami K, Kamoi K, et al. High mobility group protein AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) is associated with the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2012;72:1124-32 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that the level of high mobility group protein AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) is low in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (PCa) cells (LNCaP), but is high in androgen-independent PCa cells (DU145 and PC-3) and that HMGA1 is a ..
  25. Massimi I, Guerrieri F, Petroni M, Veschi V, Truffa S, Screpanti I, et al. The HMGA1 protoncogene frequently deregulated in cancer is a transcriptional target of E2F1. Mol Carcinog. 2013;52:526-34 pubmed publisher
    Reactivation of the HMGA1 protoncogene is very frequent in human cancer, but still very little is known on the molecular mechanisms leading to this event...
  26. Xi Y, Watanabe S, Hino Y, Sakamoto C, Nakatsu Y, Okada S, et al. Hmga1 is differentially expressed and mediates silencing of the CD4/CD8 loci in T cell lineages and leukemic cells. Cancer Sci. 2012;103:439-47 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group A1 (Hmga1) protein is an architectural chromatin factor, and aberrant Hmga1 expression in mice causes hematopoietic malignancies with defects in cellular differentiation...
  27. Malini E, Maurizio E, Bembich S, Sgarra R, Edomi P, Manfioletti G. HMGA Interactome: new insights from phage display technology. Biochemistry. 2011;50:3462-8 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group A proteins (HMGA1 and HMGA2) are architectural factors involved in chromatin remodelling and regulation of gene expression...
  28. Akaboshi S, Watanabe S, Hino Y, Sekita Y, Xi Y, Araki K, et al. HMGA1 is induced by Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and maintains cell proliferation in gastric cancer. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1675-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that HMGA1 is induced by the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and maintains proliferation of gastric cancer cells...
  29. Bansod S, Kageyama R, Ohtsuka T. Hes5 regulates the transition timing of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in mammalian neocortical development. Development. 2017;144:3156-3167 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Hmga genes (Hmga1/2) were downregulated in the neocortical regions of Hes5-overexpressing brain, whereas they were upregulated ..
  30. Leman E, Madigan M, Brunagel G, Takaha N, Coffey D, Getzenberg R. Nuclear matrix localization of high mobility group protein I(Y) in a transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2003;88:599-608 pubmed
    ..One of the identified NMPs, E3E, has a similar molecular weight (22 kDa) with a protein known as HMGI(Y)...
  31. Pierantoni G, Battista S, Pentimalli F, Fedele M, Visone R, Federico A, et al. A truncated HMGA1 gene induces proliferation of the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytic cells: a model of human lipomas. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:1861-9 pubmed
    ..Rearrangements of HMGA1 and HMGA2 genes, consequent to chromosomal translocation, have been frequently detected in human benign tumours of ..
  32. Iiritano S, Chiefari E, Ventura V, Arcidiacono B, Possidente K, Nocera A, et al. The HMGA1-IGF-I/IGFBP system: a novel pathway for modulating glucose uptake. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1578-89 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that loss of the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein expression, induced in mice by disrupting the Hmga1 gene, considerably decreased insulin receptor expression in the major target tissues of insulin action, ..
  33. Visone R, Iuliano R, Palmieri D, Server I, Chiappetta G, De Martino I, et al. Hmga1 null mice are less susceptible to chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. Eur J Cancer. 2008;44:318-25 pubmed
    The HMGA1 proteins have a critical role in the process of carcinogenesis...
  34. Balcerczak M, Pasz Walczak G, Balcerczak E, Wojtylak M, Kordek R, Mirowski M. HMGI(Y) gene expression in colorectal cancer: comparison with some histological typing, grading, and clinical staging. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199:641-6 pubmed
    We investigated HMGI(Y) gene expression in 81 pairs of frozen samples obtained from colorectal carcinomas and adjacent normal colorectal mucosas and in four samples from colorectal mucosa from patients without neoplastic diseases...
  35. Bustin M, Lehn D, Landsman D. Structural features of the HMG chromosomal proteins and their genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1049:231-43 pubmed
  36. Zhou W, Zhong C, Luo X, Zhang Y, Zhang G, Zhou D, et al. miR-625 suppresses cell proliferation and migration by targeting HMGA1 in breast cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;470:838-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>HMGA1 was confirmed as a direct target of miR-625...
  37. Di Cello F, Dhara S, Hristov A, Kowalski J, Elbahloul O, Hillion J, et al. Inactivation of the Cdkn2a locus cooperates with HMGA1 to drive T-cell leukemogenesis. Leuk Lymphoma. 2013;54:1762-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that HMGA1a transgenic mice develop aggressive T-ALL, indicating that HMGA1 causes leukemic transformation in vivo...
  38. Bianconcini A, Lupo A, Capone S, Quadro L, Monti M, Zurlo D, et al. Transcriptional activity of the murine retinol-binding protein gene is regulated by a multiprotein complex containing HMGA1, p54 nrb/NonO, protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1)/liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1). Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2189-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This latter region contains several binding sites for the structural HMGA1 proteins, which are important to promoter regulation...
  39. Semple R. From bending DNA to diabetes: the curious case of HMGA1. J Biol. 2009;8:64 pubmed publisher
    Although mice lacking the architectural DNA binding factor HMGA1 are diabetic and express very low levels of the insulin receptor, they have increased insulin sensitivity...
  40. Nishino J, Kim I, Chada K, Morrison S. Hmga2 promotes neural stem cell self-renewal in young but not old mice by reducing p16Ink4a and p19Arf Expression. Cell. 2008;135:227-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Hmga2 thus promotes fetal and young-adult stem cell self-renewal by decreasing p16(Ink4a)/p19(Arf) expression. Changes in let-7 and Hmga2 expression during aging contribute to the decline in neural stem cell function. ..
  41. Okuda H, Manabe T, Yanagita T, Matsuzaki S, Bando Y, Katayama T, et al. Novel interaction between HMGA1a and StIP1 in murine terminally differentiated retina. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;33:81-7 pubmed
    High mobility group protein A1a (HMGA1a) is expressed at high levels in embryonic cells and has been implicated in their transcriptional regulation...
  42. Chau K, Manfioletti G, Cheung Chau K, Fusco A, Dhomen N, Sowden J, et al. Derepression of HMGA2 gene expression in retinoblastoma is associated with cell proliferation. Mol Med. 2003;9:154-65 pubmed
    ..Our discovery of derepression of HMGA2 gene expression in retinoblastoma provides the 1st evidence that this protein might contribute to neoplastic transformation of retina cells. ..
  43. Martinez Hoyos J, Ferraro A, Sacchetti S, Keller S, De Martino I, Borbone E, et al. HAND1 gene expression is negatively regulated by the High Mobility Group A1 proteins and is drastically reduced in human thyroid carcinomas. Oncogene. 2009;28:876-85 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGA1 proteins exert their major physiological function during embryonic development and play a critical role in neoplastic transformation...
  44. De Martino I, Visone R, Fedele M, Petrocca F, Palmieri D, Martinez Hoyos J, et al. Regulation of microRNA expression by HMGA1 proteins. Oncogene. 2009;28:1432-42 pubmed publisher
    The High Mobility Group proteins HMGA1 are nuclear architectural factors that play a critical role in a wide range of biological processes...
  45. Sgarra R, Lee J, Tessari M, Altamura S, Spolaore B, Giancotti V, et al. The AT-hook of the chromatin architectural transcription factor high mobility group A1a is arginine-methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 6. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3764-72 pubmed
    The HMGA1a protein belongs to the high mobility group A (HMGA) family of architectural nuclear factors, a group of proteins that plays an important role in chromatin dynamics...
  46. Gurish M, Johnson K, Webster M, Stevens R, Nadeau J. Location of the mouse mast cell protease 7 gene (Mcpt7) to chromosome 17. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:656-7 pubmed
  47. Pierantoni G, Conte A, Rinaldo C, Tornincasa M, Gerlini R, Valente D, et al. Hmga1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts display downregulation of spindle assembly checkpoint gene expression associated to nuclear and karyotypic abnormalities. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:812-8 pubmed publisher
    The High Mobility Group A1 proteins (HMGA1) are nonhistone chromatinic proteins with a critical role in development and cancer...
  48. Sato S, Miura H, Yamamoto H, Takeuchi T. Identification of nuclear factors that bind to the mouse tyrosinase gene regulatory region. Pigment Cell Res. 1994;7:279-84 pubmed
  49. McCarthy K, McDevit D, Andreucci A, Reeves R, Nikolajczyk B. HMGA1 co-activates transcription in B cells through indirect association with DNA. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42106-14 pubmed
    ..Only the appropriate combination of transcription factors results in B cell-specific enhancer activation. HMGA1 (formerly (HMG-I(Y)) is a proposed co-activator of the ETS transcription factors required for mu enhancer activity...
  50. Chau K, Keane Myers A, Fedele M, Ikeda Y, Creusot R, Menozzi L, et al. IFN-gamma gene expression is controlled by the architectural transcription factor HMGA1. Int Immunol. 2005;17:297-306 pubmed
    ..This finding is supported by our direct studies of T cells isolated from the HMGA1-transgenic mice displaying an up-regulation of IFN-gamma production and of HMGA1-deficient mice exhibited a ..
  51. Fedele M, Pentimalli F, Baldassarre G, Battista S, Klein Szanto A, Kenyon L, et al. Transgenic mice overexpressing the wild-type form of the HMGA1 gene develop mixed growth hormone/prolactin cell pituitary adenomas and natural killer cell lymphomas. Oncogene. 2005;24:3427-35 pubmed
    Overexpression of HMGA1 proteins is a constant feature of human carcinomas. Moreover, rearrangements of this gene have been detected in several human benign tumors of mesenchymal origin...
  52. Dement G, Treff N, Magnuson N, Franceschi V, Reeves R. Dynamic mitochondrial localization of nuclear transcription factor HMGA1. Exp Cell Res. 2005;307:388-401 pubmed
    ..murine NIH3T3 cells and transgenic human MCF-7 breast cancer epithelial cells expressing a hemagglutinin tagged-HMGA1a fusion protein...
  53. De Martino I, Visone R, Wierinckx A, Palmieri D, Ferraro A, Cappabianca P, et al. HMGA proteins up-regulate CCNB2 gene in mouse and human pituitary adenomas. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported that transgenic mice carrying the Hmga1 or Hmga2 genes under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus promoter develop pituitary adenomas secreting ..
  54. Pedulla M, Treff N, Resar L, Reeves R. Sequence and analysis of the murine Hmgiy (Hmga1) gene locus. Gene. 2001;271:51-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the first complete sequence of the murine Hmgiy (a.k.a. Hmga1) gene and provide a detailed comparison of this with the sequence and organization of the human HMGIY gene, ..
  55. Chiefari E, Nevolo M, Arcidiacono B, Maurizio E, Nocera A, Iiritano S, et al. HMGA1 is a novel downstream nuclear target of the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Sci Rep. 2012;2:251 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) protein is an important nuclear factor that activates gene transcription by binding to AT-rich sequences in the promoter region of DNA...
  56. Dhar A, Hu J, Reeves R, Resar L, Colburn N. Dominant-negative c-Jun (TAM67) target genes: HMGA1 is required for tumor promoter-induced transformation. Oncogene. 2004;23:4466-76 pubmed
    ..HMGA1 is not however sufficient as HMGA1a or HMGA1b overexpression did not confer transformation sensitivity on P- cells...
  57. Grant M, Baron R, Macias A, Layne M, Perrella M, Rigby A. Netropsin improves survival from endotoxaemia by disrupting HMGA1 binding to the NOS2 promoter. Biochem J. 2009;418:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The HMGA1 (high-mobility group A1) architectural transcription factor facilitates NOS2 induction by binding a specific AT-..