Gene Symbol: Hc
Description: hemolytic complement
Alias: C5a, Hfib2, complement C5, hepatic fibrogenesis 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Hc

Top Publications

  1. Karp C, Grupe A, Schadt E, Ewart S, Keane Moore M, Cuomo P, et al. Identification of complement factor 5 as a susceptibility locus for experimental allergic asthma. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:221-6 pubmed
    ..Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is able to prevent or reverse experimental allergic asthma. Blockade of the C5a receptor rendered human monocytes unable to produce IL-12, mimicking blunted IL-12 production by macrophages from ..
  2. Banerjee S, Anderson G, Luthra H, David C. Influence of complement C5 and V beta T cell receptor mutations on susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis in mice. J Immunol. 1989;142:2237-43 pubmed
    ..These studies show that complement C5 does not play a significant role in CIA susceptibility, and further implicate the V beta TCR mutation in the ..
  3. Wheat W, Wetsel R, Falus A, Tack B, Strunk R. The fifth component of complement (C5) in the mouse. Analysis of the molecular basis for deficiency. J Exp Med. 1987;165:1442-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the primary transcript of the C5-deficient gene is abnormal, retarding the processing of the C5 mRNA, and that the C5-deficient mRNA codes for an abnormal protein. ..
  4. Wang Y, Kristan J, Hao L, Lenkoski C, Shen Y, Matis L. A role for complement in antibody-mediated inflammation: C5-deficient DBA/1 mice are resistant to collagen-induced arthritis. J Immunol. 2000;164:4340-7 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, these C5-deficient mice are highly resistant to the induction of CIA. These data provide evidence for an important role of complement in Ab-triggered inflammation and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. ..
  5. Ooi Y, Colten H. Genetic defect in secretion of complement C5 in mice. Nature. 1979;282:207-8 pubmed
    ..Using similar methods, we now find that C5 deficiency in each of five different mouse strains (AKR, SWR, DBA/2J8 A/HeJ and B10.D2/old line) is due to a failure in secretion of C5 protein and not to a failure in biosynthesis of pro-C5. ..
  6. Rittirsch D, Flierl M, Nadeau B, Day D, Huber Lang M, Mackay C, et al. Functional roles for C5a receptors in sepsis. Nat Med. 2008;14:551-7 pubmed publisher
    The function of the C5a receptors, C5ar (encoded by C5ar) and C5l2 (encoded by Gpr77), especially of C5l2, which was originally termed a 'default receptor', remains a controversial topic...
  7. Nozaki M, Raisler B, Sakurai E, Sarma J, Barnum S, Lambris J, et al. Drusen complement components C3a and C5a promote choroidal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2328-33 pubmed
    ..Here we provide evidence that bioactive fragments of these complement components (C3a and C5a) are present in drusen of patients with AMD, and that C3a and C5a induce VEGF expression in vitro and in vivo...
  8. Garcia S, DiSanto J, Stockinger B. Following the development of a CD4 T cell response in vivo: from activation to memory formation. Immunity. 1999;11:163-71 pubmed
    ..They differ qualitatively from naive T cells, suggesting that accelerated CD4 memory responses can occur without the need for increased frequencies of specific T cells. ..
  9. Flierl M, Rittirsch D, Nadeau B, Day D, Zetoune F, Sarma J, et al. Functions of the complement components C3 and C5 during sepsis. FASEB J. 2008;22:3483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, during sepsis, blockade of C5a or its receptors (rather than C5) seems a more promising strategy, because C5a-blockade still allows for MAC ..

More Information


  1. Mori L, De Libero G. Genetic control of susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis in T cell receptor beta-chain transgenic mice. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41:256-62 pubmed
    ..A strict association of CIA with the presence of functional complement C5 allele (Hc1) was found, suggesting that Hc1 or a closely linked gene might be one of these essential genes...
  2. Strainic M, Liu J, Huang D, An F, Lalli P, Muqim N, et al. Locally produced complement fragments C5a and C3a provide both costimulatory and survival signals to naive CD4+ T cells. Immunity. 2008;28:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that locally produced C5a and C3a anaphylatoxins interacting with their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), C5aR and C3aR, on APCs and T ..
  3. Flierl M, Rittirsch D, Chen A, Nadeau B, Day D, Sarma J, et al. The complement anaphylatoxin C5a induces apoptosis in adrenomedullary cells during experimental sepsis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2560 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the cascades crucially involved in its pathogenesis is the complement system. Especially the anaphylatoxin C5a has been shown to have numerous harmful effects during sepsis...
  4. Hashimoto M, Hirota K, Yoshitomi H, Maeda S, Teradaira S, Akizuki S, et al. Complement drives Th17 cell differentiation and triggers autoimmune arthritis. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>C5a, a chief component of complement activation produced via all three complement pathways (i.e...
  5. Nilsson U, Muller Eberhard H. Deficiency of the fifth component of complement in mice with an inherited complement defect. J Exp Med. 1967;125:1-16 pubmed
    ..The protein MuB1 (or hc'), which is present in normal mouse serum but absent from the serum of complement-deficient mice, was shown to be ..
  6. Manthey H, Thomas A, Shiels I, Zernecke A, Woodruff T, Rolfe B, et al. Complement C5a inhibition reduces atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. FASEB J. 2011;25:2447-55 pubmed publisher
    The complement C5a receptor, CD88, is present on many of the cells found within human atherosclerotic plaques, but little is known about the role of C5a in atherogenesis...
  7. Mullick A, Elias M, Picard S, Bourget L, Jovcevski O, Gauthier S, et al. Dysregulated inflammatory response to Candida albicans in a C5-deficient mouse strain. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5868-76 pubmed
    ..albicans, confirming the causative role of C5 deficiency in the dysregulated cytokine response...
  8. Kassiotis G, Garcia S, Simpson E, Stockinger B. Impairment of immunological memory in the absence of MHC despite survival of memory T cells. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:244-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to their survival, maintenance of the typical quality of memory T cells crucially depends on MHC-derived signals. ..
  9. Ratajczak M, Lee H, Wysoczynski M, Wan W, Marlicz W, Laughlin M, et al. Novel insight into stem cell mobilization-plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate is a major chemoattractant that directs the egress of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells from the bone marrow and its level in peripheral blood increases during mobilization du. Leukemia. 2010;24:976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude and propose a new paradigm that S1P is a crucial chemoattractant for BM-residing HSPCs and that CC through MAC induces the release of S1P from erythrocytes for optimal egress/mobilization of HSPCs. ..
  10. Bosmann M, Haggadone M, Hemmila M, Zetoune F, Sarma J, Ward P. Complement activation product C5a is a selective suppressor of TLR4-induced, but not TLR3-induced, production of IL-27(p28) from macrophages. J Immunol. 2012;188:5086-93 pubmed publisher
    There is accumulating evidence that the complement activation product, C5a, can orchestrate cellular immune functions. IL-27(p28/EBI3) is an emerging key player essential for regulating inflammatory responses and T cells...
  11. Lalli P, Strainic M, Yang M, Lin F, Medof M, Heeger P. Locally produced C5a binds to T cell-expressed C5aR to enhance effector T-cell expansion by limiting antigen-induced apoptosis. Blood. 2008;112:1759-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were traced to locally produced C5a, which through binding to T cell-expressed C5aR, enhanced expression of Bcl-2 and prevented Fas up-regulation...
  12. Zal T, Volkmann A, Stockinger B. Mechanisms of tolerance induction in major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted T cells specific for a blood-borne self-antigen. J Exp Med. 1994;180:2089-99 pubmed
    ..This indicates that endogenous T cell receptor rearrangements possibly leading to the expression of two receptors might be a prerequisite for their survival and export into the periphery. ..
  13. Strainic M, Shevach E, An F, Lin F, Medof M. Absence of signaling into CD4? cells via C3aR and C5aR enables autoinductive TGF-?1 signaling and induction of Foxp3? regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:162-71 pubmed publisher
    Signaling through the G protein-coupled receptors for the complement fragments C3a and C5a (C3aR and C5aR, respectively) by dendritic cells and CD4(+) cells provides costimulatory and survival signals to effector T cells...
  14. Lee H, Wu W, Wysoczynski M, Liu R, Zuba Surma E, Kucia M, et al. Impaired mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in C5-deficient mice supports the pivotal involvement of innate immunity in this process and reveals novel promobilization effects of granulocytes. Leukemia. 2009;23:2052-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To explain this, we postulated that activation/cleavage of CC releases C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins that differently regulate mobilization...
  15. Arumugam T, Tang S, Lathia J, Cheng A, Mughal M, Chigurupati S, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) protects the brain against experimental stroke by preventing complement-mediated neuronal cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14104-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a major role for complement-mediated cell death in ischemic brain injury and the prospect of using IVIG in relatively low doses as an interventional therapy for stroke. ..
  16. Haviland D, Haviland J, Fleischer D, Wetsel R. Structure of the murine fifth complement component (C5) gene. A large, highly interrupted gene with a variant donor splice site and organizational homology with the third and fourth complement component genes. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:11818-25 pubmed
    ..The C5a coding sequence was split between two exons...
  17. Girardi G, Berman J, Redecha P, Spruce L, Thurman J, Kraus D, et al. Complement C5a receptors and neutrophils mediate fetal injury in the antiphospholipid syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1644-54 pubmed
    ..Here we identify complement component C5 (and particularly its cleavage product C5a) and neutrophils as key mediators of fetal injury, and we show that Ab's or peptides that block C5a-C5a receptor ..
  18. Griffin R, Costigan M, Brenner G, Ma C, Scholz J, Moss A, et al. Complement induction in spinal cord microglia results in anaphylatoxin C5a-mediated pain hypersensitivity. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8699-708 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that the terminal complement component C5 and the C5a receptor (C5aR) are upregulated in spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury...
  19. Huber Lang M, Sarma J, Zetoune F, Rittirsch D, Neff T, McGuire S, et al. Generation of C5a in the absence of C3: a new complement activation pathway. Nat Med. 2006;12:682-7 pubmed
    ..injury in wild-type and C3-/- mice after deposition of IgG immune complexes was of equivalent intensity and was C5a dependent, but injury was greatly attenuated in Hc-/- mice (Hc encodes C5)...
  20. Zal T, Weiss S, Mellor A, Stockinger B. Expression of a second receptor rescues self-specific T cells from thymic deletion and allows activation of autoreactive effector function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9102-7 pubmed
  21. Shushakova N, Skokowa J, Schulman J, Baumann U, Zwirner J, Schmidt R, et al. C5a anaphylatoxin is a major regulator of activating versus inhibitory FcgammaRs in immune complex-induced lung disease. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:1823-30 pubmed
    IgG Fc receptors (FcgammaRs, especially FcgammaRIII) and complement (in particular, C5a anaphylatoxin) are critical effectors of the acute inflammatory response to immune complexes (ICs)...
  22. Mastellos D, Papadimitriou J, Franchini S, Tsonis P, Lambris J. A novel role of complement: mice deficient in the fifth component of complement (C5) exhibit impaired liver regeneration. J Immunol. 2001;166:2479-86 pubmed
    ..Reconstitution of C5-deficient mice with murine C5 or C5a significantly restored hepatocyte regeneration after toxic injury...
  23. Sun L, Guo R, Gao H, Sarma J, Zetoune F, Ward P. Attenuation of IgG immune complex-induced acute lung injury by silencing C5aR in lung epithelial cells. FASEB J. 2009;23:3808-18 pubmed publisher
    ..of neutrophils [polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)] in the alveolar compartment, these changes being complement (C5a) and C5a receptor (C5aR) dependent...
  24. Ferreira C, Barthlott T, Garcia S, Zamoyska R, Stockinger B. Differential survival of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells. J Immunol. 2000;165:3689-94 pubmed
    ..However, expression levels of Bcl-2 in either transgenic or polyclonal naive CD4 and CD8 T cells are similar, excluding a role for this molecule as a key factor in differential survival of CD4 vs CD8 T cells. ..
  25. Wetsel R, Fleischer D, Haviland D. Deficiency of the murine fifth complement component (C5). A 2-base pair gene deletion in a 5'-exon. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2435-40 pubmed
  26. Zhou W, Farrar C, Abe K, Pratt J, Marsh J, Wang Y, et al. Predominant role for C5b-9 in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:1363-71 pubmed
    ..C6-deficient mice treated with antibody to block C5a generation showed no additional protection from I/R injury...
  27. Gervais F, Stevenson M, Skamene E. Genetic control of resistance to Listeria monocytogenes: regulation of leukocyte inflammatory responses by the Hc locus. J Immunol. 1984;132:2078-83 pubmed
    ..The SDP of A and B alleles at the Lr-1 locus was fully concordant with that observed for the Hc locus (controlling the level of the C5 component of complement)...
  28. Rittirsch D, Flierl M, Day D, Nadeau B, McGuire S, Hoesel L, et al. Acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide is independent of complement activation. J Immunol. 2008;180:7664-72 pubmed
    ..LPS-induced ALI was neutrophil-dependent, but it was not associated with generation of C5a in the lung and was independent of C3, C5, or C5a...
  29. Mocco J, Mack W, Ducruet A, Sosunov S, Sughrue M, Hassid B, et al. Complement component C3 mediates inflammatory injury following focal cerebral ischemia. Circ Res. 2006;99:209-17 pubmed
    ..05). Together, these results establish C3 activation as the key constituent in complement-related inflammatory tissue injury following stroke and suggest a C3a anaphylatoxin-mediated mechanism. ..
  30. Tu Z, Bu H, Dennis J, Lin F. Efficient osteoclast differentiation requires local complement activation. Blood. 2010;116:4456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..to C3, WT BM cells locally produced all other complement components required to activate C3 and to generate C3a/C5a through the alter-native pathway, which is required for efficient OC differentiation...
  31. Moulton R, Mashruwala M, Smith A, Lindsey D, Wetsel R, Haviland D, et al. Complement C5a anaphylatoxin is an innate determinant of dendritic cell-induced Th1 immunity to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:956-67 pubmed
    ..Complement C5a (anaphylatoxin) secreted by mycobacteria-infected macrophages regulates IL-12p70 production...
  32. Hughes A. Phylogeny of the C3/C4/C5 complement-component gene family indicates that C5 diverged first. Mol Biol Evol. 1994;11:417-25 pubmed
    ..This phylogeny is most consistent with the hypothesis that the alternative complement pathway was the first to evolve, followed by the terminal pathway and then by the classical pathway. ..
  33. Qu X, Jilling T, Neerhof M, Luo K, Hirsch E, Thaete L. Unilateral uterine ischemia/reperfusion-induced bilateral fetal loss and fetal growth restriction in a murine model require intact complement component 5. J Reprod Immunol. 2012;95:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current model, this pathological process is completely dependent on intact complement component 5. ..
  34. Lynch D, Kay P. Studies on the polymorphism of the fifth component of complement in laboratory mice. Exp Clin Immunogenet. 1995;12:253-60 pubmed
    The fifth component of complement C5, as well as C3, plays an important role in the inflammatory response...
  35. Vik D. Regulation of expression of the complement factor H gene in a murine liver cell line by interferon-gamma. Scand J Immunol. 1996;44:215-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, IFN-gamma stimulates factor H mRNA transcription through a protein intermediary that interacts with the promoter between positions -83 and -236. ..
  36. McDonald C, Cahill L, Ho K, Yang J, Kim H, Silver K, et al. Experimental Malaria in Pregnancy Induces Neurocognitive Injury in Uninfected Offspring via a C5a-C5a Receptor Dependent Pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005140 pubmed publisher
    ..Complement activation, in particular C5a, may contribute to neuropathology and adverse outcomes during MIP...
  37. Kasahara M, Hayashi M, Tanaka K, Inoko H, Sugaya K, Ikemura T, et al. Chromosomal localization of the proteasome Z subunit gene reveals an ancient chromosomal duplication involving the major histocompatibility complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9096-101 pubmed
    ..3 and 9q33-q34). These observations have implications in understanding the genomic organization of the present-day MHC and offer insights into the origin of the MHC. ..
  38. Miller C, Cook D, Kotwal G. Two chemotactic factors, C5a and MIP-1alpha, dramatically alter the mortality from zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS): C5a contributes to MODS while MIP-1alpha has a protective role. Mol Immunol. 1996;33:1135-7 pubmed
    ..It has been demonstrated in this assay that MIP-1alpha has a protective role against MODS mortality, while C5a contributes to MODS mortality...
  39. Barthlott T, Stockinger B. Lineage fate alteration of thymocytes developing in an MHC environment containing MHC/peptide ligands with antagonist properties. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:3595-601 pubmed
    ..Despite the presence of these unidentified MHC class II ligands in the H-2(q) background and their potential influence on developing A18 thymocytes, however, MHC class I molecules were essential for thymic selection of A18 CD8 T cells. ..
  40. Yu M, Zou W, Peachey N, McIntyre T, Liu J. A novel role of complement in retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7684-92 pubmed publisher
    ..lacking the main complement component C3 and the receptors for complement activation fragments C3a (C3aR) and/or C5a (C5aR). Complement mutant mice were studied along with wild-type (WT) littermates from 6 weeks to 14 months of age...
  41. Gancz D, Donin N, Fishelson Z. Involvement of the c-jun N-terminal kinases JNK1 and JNK2 in complement-mediated cell death. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that complement C5b-9 induce a JNK/Bid-dependent and JNK-independent necrotic cell death. Both JNK1 and JNK2 have cytotoxic potential, however JNK2 is the primary signal transducer. ..
  42. Moen C, Snoek M, Hart A, Demant P. Scc-1, a novel colon cancer susceptibility gene in the mouse: linkage to CD44 (Ly-24, Pgp-1) on chromosome 2. Oncogene. 1992;7:563-6 pubmed
    ..The mapping of the Scc-1 gene indicates that the RCS system can be used to map and study the presently unknown genes which control cancer development. ..
  43. Pilz A, Prohaska R, Peters J, Abbott C. Genetic linkage analysis of the Ak1, Col5a1, Epb7.2, Fpgs, Grp78, Pbx3, and Notch1 genes in the region of mouse chromosome 2 homologous to human chromosome 9q. Genomics. 1994;21:104-9 pubmed
    ..genes were mapped with respect to the genes for Grp78, Rxra, Notch1 (the mouse homologue of TAN1), Spna2, Abl, and Hc (the mouse homologue of C5), all of which have previously been mapped by linkage analysis on MMU2 and have human ..
  44. Mbikay M, Tadros H, Seidah N, Simpson E. Linkage mapping of the gene for the LIM-homeoprotein LIM3 (locus Lhx3) to mouse chromosome 2. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:818-9 pubmed
  45. Kyriakides C, Austen W, Wang Y, Favuzza J, Kobzik L, Moore F, et al. Membrane attack complex of complement and neutrophils mediate the injury of acid aspiration. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:2357-61 pubmed
    ..protection was noted in C5-deficient neutropenic mice, indicating that neutrophil-mediated injury does not require C5a. Thus acid aspiration injury is mediated by the membrane attack complex and neutrophils...
  46. Johansson A, Sundler M, Kjellen P, Johannesson M, Cook A, Lindqvist A, et al. Genetic control of collagen-induced arthritis in a cross with NOD and C57BL/10 mice is dependent on gene regions encoding complement factor 5 and FcgammaRIIb and is not associated with loci controlling diabetes. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:1847-56 pubmed
    ..The genetic control of arthritis is unique in comparison to diabetes, since none of these loci have been identified in analysis of diabetes susceptibility. ..
  47. Lei Y, Lu C, Chen L, Ge K, Yang L, Li W, et al. C5a/C5aR pathway is essential for up-regulating SphK1 expression through p38-MAPK activation in acute liver failure. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:10148-10157 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of the complement 5a (C5a)/C5a receptor (C5aR) pathway in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure (ALF) in a mouse model...
  48. Wezel A, De Vries M, Lagraauw H, Foks A, Kuiper J, Quax P, et al. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18:2020-30 pubmed publisher
    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet...
  49. Pilione M, Agosto L, Kennett M, Harvill E. CD11b is required for the resolution of inflammation induced by Bordetella bronchiseptica respiratory infection. Cell Microbiol. 2006;8:758-68 pubmed
    ..bronchiseptica. These data provide new insight into the key role CD11b plays in the resolution of damage in the lower respiratory tract, as well as the B. bronchiseptica virulence determinant that induces it. ..
  50. Volkmann A, Zal T, Stockinger B. Antigen-presenting cells in the thymus that can negatively select MHC class II-restricted T cells recognizing a circulating self antigen. J Immunol. 1997;158:693-706 pubmed
    ..Their failure to present exogenous self Ag for negative selection suggests that macrophages concentrate on their primary function in the thymus, the disposal of dying thymocytes. ..
  51. Wright R, Bikoff E, Stockinger B. The Ii41 isoform of invariant chain mediates both positive and negative selection events in T-cell receptor transgenic mice. Immunology. 1998;95:309-13 pubmed
    ..The data show that Ii41 fully substitutes for wild-type invariant chain in both positive and negative selection events during functional maturation of T cells with specificity for a natural, blood-borne self antigen. ..
  52. Patel S, Berghout J, Lovegrove F, Ayi K, Conroy A, Serghides L, et al. C5 deficiency and C5a or C5aR blockade protects against cerebral malaria. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..that excessive activation of the complement system may confer susceptibility to CM, we investigated the role of C5/C5a in the development of CM...
  53. Yang Z, Conrad T, Zhou Z, Chen J, Dutow P, Klos A, et al. Complement factor C5 but not C3 contributes significantly to hydrosalpinx development in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum. Infect Immun. 2014;82:3154-63 pubmed publisher
  54. Kassiotis G, Zamoyska R, Stockinger B. Involvement of avidity for major histocompatibility complex in homeostasis of naive and memory T cells. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1007-16 pubmed
    ..In contrast to naive T cells, however, memory T cells can reach a homeostatic equilibrium, in which survival/self-renewal of each clone is dissociated from their avidity for MHC-derived signals. ..
  55. McIndoe R, Bohlman B, Chi E, Schuster E, Lindhardt M, Hood L. Localization of non-Mhc collagen-induced arthritis susceptibility loci in DBA/1j mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2210-4 pubmed
    ..This locus (Cia4) was located on chromosome 2 and was linked to the same region as Cia2. Determining the identity of these loci may provide insights into the etiology of human rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  56. Petit J. Resistance to listeriosis in mice that are deficient in the fifth component of complement. Infect Immun. 1980;27:61-7 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the defect of mice lacking C5 lies not in the absence of serum C5 but somewhere at the level of the macrophage. ..
  57. Stockinger B, Zal T, Zal A, Gray D. B cells solicit their own help from T cells. J Exp Med. 1996;183:891-9 pubmed
    ..We show in this paper that B cell presentation in vitro induces a switch to the Th2 subset indicated by production of IL-4, and targetting C5 to B cells in vivo results in the generation of C5-specific antibodies. ..
  58. McKinley L, Kim J, Bolgos G, Siddiqui J, Remick D. Allergens induce enhanced bronchoconstriction and leukotriene production in C5 deficient mice. Respir Res. 2006;7:129 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of complement in a murine model of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation...
  59. Woehrl B, Brouwer M, Murr C, Heckenberg S, Baas F, Pfister H, et al. Complement component 5 contributes to poor disease outcome in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3943-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with these human data, C5a receptor-deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis had lower CSF wbc counts and decreased brain damage compared ..
  60. Ma N, Xing C, Xiao H, Wang Y, Wang K, Hou C, et al. C5a regulates IL-12+ DC migration to induce pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in sepsis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69779 pubmed publisher
    It is well known that complement system C5a is excessively activated during the onset of sepsis. However, it is unclear whether C5a can regulate dentritic cells (DCs) to stimulate adaptive immune cells such as Th1 and Th17 in sepsis.
  61. Chen G, Yang Y, Gao X, Dou Y, Wang H, Han G, et al. Blockade of complement activation product C5a activity using specific antibody attenuates intestinal damage in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced model of colitis. Lab Invest. 2011;91:472-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In accordance with this, the sustained activation of complement in serum and colon (including elevated C3a and C5a levels, enhanced hemolytic activity, downregulated expression of C5a receptors) was observed, following the ..
  62. Joseph D, Sullivan P, Wang Y, Kozak C, Fenstermacher D, Behrendsen M, et al. Characterization and expression of the complementary DNA encoding rat histidine decarboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:733-7 pubmed
    ..The 469 amino acid residues from the amino-terminal portion of the protein share 50% identity with rat and Drosophila L-dopa decarboxylases and much less homology with other characterized amino acid decarboxylases. ..
  63. Daniel D, Dai G, Singh C, Lindsey D, Smith A, Dhandayuthapani S, et al. The reduced bactericidal function of complement C5-deficient murine macrophages is associated with defects in the synthesis and delivery of reactive oxygen radicals to mycobacterial phagosomes. J Immunol. 2006;177:4688-98 pubmed
    b>Complement C5-deficient (C5(-/-)) macrophages derived from B.10 congenic mice were found to be defective in killing intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)...
  64. Kim C, Wu W, Wysoczynski M, Abdel Latif A, Sunkara M, Morris A, et al. Conditioning for hematopoietic transplantation activates the complement cascade and induces a proteolytic environment in bone marrow: a novel role for bioactive lipids and soluble C5b-C9 as homing factors. Leukemia. 2012;26:106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that an increase in BM levels of proteolytic enzyme-resistant S1P and C1P and activation of CC, which leads to the generation of MAC, has an important and previously underappreciated role in the homing of transplanted HSPCs. ..
  65. Miwa T, Zhou L, Kimura Y, Kim D, Bhandoola A, Song W. Complement-dependent T-cell lymphopenia caused by thymocyte deletion of the membrane complement regulator Crry. Blood. 2009;113:2684-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Crry is essential for mature T-cell survival in the periphery but not for lymphogenesis in the thymus. The observation that the thymus is a complement-privileged site may have implications for complement-based antitumor therapies. ..
  66. Girardi G, Yarilin D, Thurman J, Holers V, Salmon J. Complement activation induces dysregulation of angiogenic factors and causes fetal rejection and growth restriction. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2165-75 pubmed
    ..Here we show that complement activation, particularly C5a, is a required intermediary event in the pathogenesis of placental and fetal injury in an antibody-independent ..
  67. Joziasse D, Shaper N, Shaper J, Kozak C. Gene for murine alpha 1----3-galactosyltransferase is located in the centromeric region of chromosome 2. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1991;17:201-5 pubmed
    ..Using an intersubspecies back-cross, this locus was positioned to the centromeric region on this chromosome, near the Hc locus.
  68. Patel S, Thelander E, Hernandez M, Montenegro J, Hassing H, Burton C, et al. ApoE(-/-) mice develop atherosclerosis in the absence of complement component C5. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;286:164-70 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the case in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit, activation of the terminal complex of complement does not play a major role in the development of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice. ..
  69. Addis Lieser E, Köhl J, Chiaramonte M. Opposing regulatory roles of complement factor 5 in the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. J Immunol. 2005;175:1894-902 pubmed
    ..Complement factor 5 (C5) and its cleavage product C5a are critical mediators in inflammatory diseases...
  70. Borkowska S, Suszynska M, Mierzejewska K, Ismail A, Budkowska M, Salata D, et al. Novel evidence that crosstalk between the complement, coagulation and fibrinolysis proteolytic cascades is involved in mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Leukemia. 2014;28:2148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..of the complement cascade (ComC) and cleavage of C5 by C5 convertase are enabling events in the release of C5a that plays a crucial role in the egress of HSPCs from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB) and explains why ..
  71. Wang L, Han G, Wang R, Chen G, Xu R, Xiao H, et al. Regulation of IL-8 production by complement-activated product, C5a, in vitro and in vivo during sepsis. Clin Immunol. 2010;137:157-65 pubmed publisher
    Excessive complement-activated product complement 5a (C5a) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis development...
  72. Fossati Jimack L, Ling G, Baudino L, Szajna M, Manivannan K, Zhao J, et al. Intranasal peptide-induced tolerance and linked suppression: consequences of complement deficiency. Immunology. 2015;144:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that the classical pathway and C3 play a critical role in the peptide-mediated induction of tolerance to HY by modulating DC function. ..
  73. Welsh K, Abbott A, Hwang S, Indrigo J, Armitige L, Blackburn M, et al. A role for tumour necrosis factor-alpha, complement C5 and interleukin-6 in the initiation and development of the mycobacterial cord factor trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate induced granulomatous response. Microbiology. 2008;154:1813-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The precise roles of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, complement C5 and interleukin (IL)-6 in the molecular events that lead to the initiation and maintenance of the ..
  74. Pedroni S, Gonzalez J, Wade J, Jansen M, Serio A, Marshall I, et al. Complement inhibition and statins prevent fetal brain cortical abnormalities in a mouse model of preterm birth. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a mouse model of preterm birth (PTB), we demonstrated that complement component C5a contributes to fetal cortical brain injury...