Gene Symbol: Hbb-bh1
Description: hemoglobin Z, beta-like embryonic chain
Alias: betaH1, hemoglobin subunit beta-H1, beta Hl globin, beta-H1-globin, hemoglobin beta-H1 chain, minor beta-globin, protein Z
Species: mouse
Products:     Hbb-bh1

Top Publications

  1. Silver L, Palis J. Initiation of murine embryonic erythropoiesis: a spatial analysis. Blood. 1997;89:1154-64 pubmed
    ..and spatial development of mammalian embryonic hematopoiesis, we examined their expression patterns, and that of betaH1-globin, in normal mouse conceptuses by means of in situ hybridization...
  2. Palis J, Robertson S, Kennedy M, Wall C, Keller G. Development of erythroid and myeloid progenitors in the yolk sac and embryo proper of the mouse. Development. 1999;126:5073-84 pubmed
  3. Palis J, Kingsley P. Differential gene expression during early murine yolk sac development. Mol Reprod Dev. 1995;42:19-27 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that at E7.5, the yolk sac endoderm provides differentiated liver-like functions, while the newly developing extraembryonic mesoderm is still a largely undifferentiated tissue. ..
  4. Bertrand J, Jalil A, Klaine M, Jung S, Cumano A, Godin I. Three pathways to mature macrophages in the early mouse yolk sac. Blood. 2005;106:3004-11 pubmed
    ..Both YS-derived precursors followed a developmental pathway common to adult Mphi and could be qualified as definitive. ..
  5. Trimborn T, Gribnau J, Grosveld F, Fraser P. Mechanisms of developmental control of transcription in the murine alpha- and beta-globin loci. Genes Dev. 1999;13:112-24 pubmed
    ..in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate that all seven murine globin genes (zeta, alpha1, alpha2, epsilony, betaH1, betamaj, and betamin) are transcribed during primitive erythropoiesis, however transcription of the zeta, ..
  6. Shalaby F, Rossant J, Yamaguchi T, Gertsenstein M, Wu X, Breitman M, et al. Failure of blood-island formation and vasculogenesis in Flk-1-deficient mice. Nature. 1995;376:62-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Flk-1 is essential for yolk-sac blood-island formation and vasculogenesis in the mouse embryo. ..
  7. Belaoussoff M, Farrington S, Baron M. Hematopoietic induction and respecification of A-P identity by visceral endoderm signaling in the mouse embryo. Development. 1998;125:5009-18 pubmed
    ..Therefore, primitive endoderm signaling is a critical early determinant of hematopoietic and vascular development and plays a decisive role in anterior-posterior patterning during mouse embryogenesis. ..
  8. Gory Fauré S, Prandini M, Pointu H, Roullot V, Pignot Paintrand I, Vernet M, et al. Role of vascular endothelial-cadherin in vascular morphogenesis. Development. 1999;126:2093-102 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that VE-cadherin is dispensable for endothelial homophilic adhesion but is required for vascular morphogenesis. ..
  9. Takabayashi S, Katoh H. A mutant mouse with severe anemia and skin abnormalities controlled by a new allele of the flaky skin (fsn) locus. Exp Anim. 2005;54:339-47 pubmed
    ..5 dpc to 18.5 dpc). Time differences in the appearance of the different phenotypes observed in various tissue and organs of fsn homozygotes suggest they are caused by expression of the fsn gene at different developmental stages. ..

More Information


  1. Sankaran V, Xu J, Ragoczy T, Ippolito G, Walkley C, Maika S, et al. Developmental and species-divergent globin switching are driven by BCL11A. Nature. 2009;460:1093-7 pubmed publisher
    ..By comparing the ontogeny of beta-globin gene regulation in mice and humans, we have shown that alterations in the expression of a trans-acting factor constitute a critical driver of gene expression changes during evolution. ..
  2. Basu P, Morris P, Haar J, Wani M, Lingrel J, Gaensler K, et al. KLF2 is essential for primitive erythropoiesis and regulates the human and murine embryonic beta-like globin genes in vivo. Blood. 2005;106:2566-71 pubmed
    ..KLF2 also plays a role in the maturation and/or stability of erythroid cells in the yolk sac. KLF2-/- embryos have a significantly increased number of primitive erythroid cells undergoing apoptotic cell death. ..
  3. Liu X, Li X, Wang Y, Shu R, Wang L, Lu S, et al. Disruption of palladin leads to defects in definitive erythropoiesis by interfering with erythroblastic island formation in mouse fetal liver. Blood. 2007;110:870-6 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that palladin is crucial for definitive erythropoiesis and erythroblastic island formation and, especially, required for normal function of macrophages in fetal liver. ..
  4. SMITH E, Luc S, Croney D, Woodworth M, Greig L, Fujiwara Y, et al. Strict in vivo specificity of the Bcl11a erythroid enhancer. Blood. 2016;128:2338-2342 pubmed publisher
    ..These preclinical findings provide strong in vivo support for genetic modification of the enhancer for therapy of hemoglobin disorders. ..
  5. Adra C, Zhu S, Ko J, Guillemot J, Cuervo A, Kobayashi H, et al. LAPTM5: a novel lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells. Genomics. 1996;35:328-37 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern of the gene together with preliminary evidence that the protein interacts with ubiquitin indicates that the protein may have a special functional role during embryogenesis and in adult hematopoietic cells. ..
  6. Chhabra A, Lechner A, Ueno M, Acharya A, Van Handel B, Wang Y, et al. Trophoblasts regulate the placental hematopoietic niche through PDGF-B signaling. Dev Cell. 2012;22:651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide genetic evidence of a signaling pathway that is required to restrict erythroid differentiation to specific anatomical niches during development. ..
  7. Giroux S, Alves Leiva C, Lecluse Y, Martin P, Albagli O, Godin I. Gene transfer to pre-hematopoietic and committed hematopoietic precursors in the early mouse yolk sac: a comparative study between in situ electroporation and retroviral transduction. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:79 pubmed
    ..We thus designed and compared transduction protocols to target either native extra-embryonic precursors, or hematopoietic precursors...
  8. Nuez B, Michalovich D, Bygrave A, Ploemacher R, Grosveld F. Defective haematopoiesis in fetal liver resulting from inactivation of the EKLF gene. Nature. 1995;375:316-8 pubmed
    ..Enucleated erythrocytes are formed but these do not contain the proper amount of haemoglobin. We conclude that the transcription factor EKLF is essential for the final steps of definitive erythropoiesis in fetal liver. ..
  9. Yu Q, Stamenkovic I. Localization of matrix metalloproteinase 9 to the cell surface provides a mechanism for CD44-mediated tumor invasion. Genes Dev. 1999;13:35-48 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate that CD44 serves to anchor MMP-9 on the cell surface and define a mechanism for CD44-mediated tumor invasion. ..
  10. Hutchison C, Hardies S, Padgett R, Weaver S, Edgell M. The mouse globin pseudogene beta h3 is descended from a premammalian delta-globin gene. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:12881-9 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the genomes of higher eukaryotes have been growing, by the accumulation of duplications, with doubling times of 200 +/- 100 million years. ..
  11. Shibata M, GARCIA GARCIA M. The mouse KRAB zinc-finger protein CHATO is required in embryonic-derived tissues to control yolk sac and placenta morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;349:331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support previously undescribed roles of the extraembryonic mesoderm in yolk sac morphogenesis and in the closure of the ectoplacental cavity and identify a novel role of ZFP568 in the development of extraembryonic tissues...
  12. Funnell A, Mak K, Twine N, Pelka G, Norton L, Radziewic T, et al. Generation of mice deficient in both KLF3/BKLF and KLF8 reveals a genetic interaction and a role for these factors in embryonic globin gene silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that KLF3 and KLF8 have overlapping roles in vivo and participate in the silencing of embryonic globin expression during development. ..
  13. Gandillet A, Serrano A, Pearson S, Lie A Ling M, Lacaud G, Kouskoff V. Sox7-sustained expression alters the balance between proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors at the onset of blood specification. Blood. 2009;114:4813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the mere sustained expression of Sox7 is sufficient to completely alter the balance between proliferation and differentiation at the onset of hematopoiesis. ..
  14. Parganas E, Wang D, Stravopodis D, Topham D, Marine J, Teglund S, et al. Jak2 is essential for signaling through a variety of cytokine receptors. Cell. 1998;93:385-95 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Jak2 plays a critical, nonredundant role in the function of a specific group of cytokines receptors. ..
  15. Hu X, Bulger M, Roach J, Eszterhas S, Olivier E, Bouhassira E, et al. Promoters of the murine embryonic beta-like globin genes Ey and betah1 do not compete for interaction with the beta-globin locus control region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1111-5 pubmed
    ..The murine beta-globin locus contains two genes expressed during the embryo stage, Ey and betah1, and two genes expressed at both the fetal and postnatal stages, beta-major and beta-minor...
  16. Yi Z, Cohen Barak O, Hagiwara N, Kingsley P, Fuchs D, Erickson D, et al. Sox6 directly silences epsilon globin expression in definitive erythropoiesis. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e14 pubmed
    ..Thus, Sox6 regulation of epsilony globin might provide a novel therapeutical target in the treatment of hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. ..
  17. Robb L, Lyons I, Li R, Hartley L, Kontgen F, Harvey R, et al. Absence of yolk sac hematopoiesis from mice with a targeted disruption of the scl gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7075-9 pubmed
    ..Transcripts of GATA-1 and PU.1 transcription factors were absent from RNA from scl-/- yolk sacs and embryos. These results implicate scl as a crucial regulator of early hematopoiesis. ..
  18. Marin M, Karis A, Visser P, Grosveld F, Philipsen S. Transcription factor Sp1 is essential for early embryonic development but dispensable for cell growth and differentiation. Cell. 1997;89:619-28 pubmed
    ..MeCP2 is thought to be required for the maintenance of differentiated cells. We suggest that Sp1 is an important regulator of this process. ..
  19. Hu X, Eszterhas S, Pallazzi N, Bouhassira E, Fields J, Tanabe O, et al. Transcriptional interference among the murine beta-like globin genes. Blood. 2007;109:2210-6 pubmed
    ..on transcription of the other beta-like genes, we generated mice with deletions of the promoter regions of Ey and betah1 and measured transcription of the remaining genes...
  20. Miccio A, Blobel G. Role of the GATA-1/FOG-1/NuRD pathway in the expression of human beta-like globin genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3460-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that, unexpectedly, NuRD is required for FOG-1-dependent activation of adult-type globin gene expression but is dispensable for human gamma-globin silencing in vivo. ..
  21. Bultman S, Gebuhr T, Magnuson T. A Brg1 mutation that uncouples ATPase activity from chromatin remodeling reveals an essential role for SWI/SNF-related complexes in beta-globin expression and erythroid development. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2849-61 pubmed
    ..Not only does this mutation establish a role for Brg1 during organogenesis, it also demonstrates that ATPase activity can be uncoupled from chromatin remodeling. ..
  22. McGrath K, Palis J. Expression of homeobox genes, including an insulin promoting factor, in the murine yolk sac at the time of hematopoietic initiation. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;48:145-53 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize the early expression of insulin in the YS is required for the expansion of insulin responsive cells including primitive erythroblasts. ..
  23. Römer I, Jungblut P, Reik W, Otto A, Klose J. A novel strategy to identify maternal and paternal inheritance in the mouse. Electrophoresis. 1995;16:823-30 pubmed
    ..For the beta-group hemoglobins our results suggested parental effects on the transcriptional level. ..
  24. Kieran M, Perkins A, Orkin S, Zon L. Thrombopoietin rescues in vitro erythroid colony formation from mouse embryos lacking the erythropoietin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9126-31 pubmed
  25. Umans L, Vermeire L, Francis A, Chang H, Huylebroeck D, Zwijsen A. Generation of a floxed allele of Smad5 for cre-mediated conditional knockout in the mouse. Genesis. 2003;37:5-11 pubmed
    ..Smad5(flE2/flE2) mice are now available and will be a valuable tool to analyze the role of Smad5 beyond its crucial early embryonic function throughout development and postnatal life. ..
  26. Shivdasani R, Mayer E, Orkin S. Absence of blood formation in mice lacking the T-cell leukaemia oncoprotein tal-1/SCL. Nature. 1995;373:432-4 pubmed
    ..Profound reduction in myeloid cells cultured in vivo from tal-1 null yolk sacs suggests a broader defect manifest at the myelo-erythroid or multipotential progenitor cell level. ..
  27. Kingsley P, Malik J, Emerson R, Bushnell T, McGrath K, Bloedorn L, et al. "Maturational" globin switching in primary primitive erythroid cells. Blood. 2006;107:1665-72 pubmed
    ..Our studies in primary murine primitive erythroid cells indicate that betaH1 is the predominant beta-globin transcript in the early yolk sac...
  28. Jahn C, Hutchison C, Phillips S, Weaver S, Haigwood N, Voliva C, et al. DNA sequence organization of the beta-globin complex in the BALB/c mouse. Cell. 1980;21:159-68 pubmed
    ..The rest of this sequence is intact, resembling an adult beta-globin gene except for an inserted base at cocon 90, resulting in a frameshift. Consequently, the beta h3 sequence cannot be translated to produce a normal beta-globin. ..
  29. Griffin C, Brennan J, Magnuson T. The chromatin-remodeling enzyme BRG1 plays an essential role in primitive erythropoiesis and vascular development. Development. 2008;135:493-500 pubmed
  30. Ramamurthy L, Barbour V, Tuckfield A, Clouston D, Topham D, Cunningham J, et al. Targeted disruption of the CP2 gene, a member of the NTF family of transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7836-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that LBP-1a/NF2d9 may compensate for loss of CP2 expression in vivo and that further analysis of the role of the NTF family of proteins requires the targeting of the NF2d9 gene. ..
  31. Shehee W, Loeb D, Adey N, Burton F, Casavant N, Cole P, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the BALB/c mouse beta-globin complex. J Mol Biol. 1989;205:41-62 pubmed
    ..The significance of these homologies is unclear, but these regions are candidates for further study in functional assays in erythroid cell lines or transgenic animals. ..
  32. Bulger M, van Doorninck J, Saitoh N, Telling A, Farrell C, Bender M, et al. Conservation of sequence and structure flanking the mouse and human beta-globin loci: the beta-globin genes are embedded within an array of odorant receptor genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5129-34 pubmed
  33. Papadopoulos P, Gutiérrez L, Demmers J, Scheer E, Pourfarzad F, Papageorgiou D, et al. TAF10 Interacts with the GATA1 Transcription Factor and Controls Mouse Erythropoiesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:2103-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate a cross talk between canonical TFIID and SAGA complexes and cell-specific transcription activators during development and differentiation. ..
  34. Fromm G, de Vries C, Byron R, Fields J, Fiering S, Groudine M, et al. Histone hyperacetylation within the beta-globin locus is context-dependent and precedes high-level gene expression. Blood. 2009;114:3479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These data narrow the range of possible mechanisms by which hyperacetylated domains form. ..
  35. Basu P, Lung T, Lemsaddek W, Sargent T, Williams D, Basu M, et al. EKLF and KLF2 have compensatory roles in embryonic beta-globin gene expression and primitive erythropoiesis. Blood. 2007;110:3417-25 pubmed
    ..KLF2 is required for normal embryonic Ey- and betah1-, but not adult betaglobin, gene expression in mice...
  36. Yoon M, Koo B, Song R, Jeong H, Shin J, Kim Y, et al. Mind bomb-1 is essential for intraembryonic hematopoiesis in the aortic endothelium and the subaortic patches. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4794-804 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Mib1 is important for intraembryonic hematopoiesis not only in the aortic endothelium but also in the SAPs...
  37. Strouboulis J, Dillon N, Grosveld F. Developmental regulation of a complete 70-kb human beta-globin locus in transgenic mice. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1857-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that multiple changes in DNA sequences and transcription factor balance must have occurred for the human gamma-globin gene to have evolved into a fetal gene. ..
  38. Borges L, Iacovino M, Mayerhofer T, Koyano Nakagawa N, Baik J, Garry D, et al. A critical role for endoglin in the emergence of blood during embryonic development. Blood. 2012;119:5417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..5 represents mesodermal cells competent to respond to TGF?1, BMP4, or BMP2, shaping their hematopoietic development, and that Eng acts as a critical regulator in this process by modulating TGF/BMP signaling. ..
  39. Beck L, Leroy C, Beck Cormier S, Forand A, Salaun C, Paris N, et al. The phosphate transporter PiT1 (Slc20a1) revealed as a new essential gene for mouse liver development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9148 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is the first to illustrate a specific in vivo role for PiT1 by uncovering it as being a critical gene for normal developmental liver growth. ..
  40. Nilton A, Sayin V, Staffas A, Larsson E, Rolf J, Petit M, et al. Zinc finger protein 148 is dispensable for primitive and definitive hematopoiesis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70022 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Zfp148-deficient mice generate normal mature hematopoietic populations thus challenging earlier studies indicating that Zfp148 plays a critical role during hematopoietic development. ..
  41. Wilkinson D, Bailes J, Champion J, McMahon A. A molecular analysis of mouse development from 8 to 10 days post coitum detects changes only in embryonic globin expression. Development. 1987;99:493-500 pubmed
    ..c. Thus the only abundant transcripts and corresponding proteins that change over a period of profound morphogenetic change correspond to globins of the newly established blood system. ..
  42. Fujiwara Y, Browne C, Cunniff K, Goff S, Orkin S. Arrested development of embryonic red cell precursors in mouse embryos lacking transcription factor GATA-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12355-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the recovery of GATA-1+/- mice from anemia seen at birth provides evidence indicating a role for GATA-1 at the hematopoietic progenitor cell level. ..
  43. Song H, Luo J, Luo W, Weng J, Wang Z, Li B, et al. Inactivation of G-protein-coupled receptor 48 (Gpr48/Lgr4) impairs definitive erythropoiesis at midgestation through down-regulation of the ATF4 signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Gpr48-/- mice both adult hemoglobin alpha and beta chains were decreased while embryonic hemoglobin chains (zeta, betaH1, and epsilony) were increased, providing another evidence for the impairment of definitive erythropoiesis...
  44. Mohn D, Chen S, Dias D, Weinstein D, Dyer M, Sahr K, et al. Mouse Mix gene is activated early during differentiation of ES and F9 stem cells and induces endoderm in frog embryos. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:446-59 pubmed
  45. Kingsley P, McGrath K, Maltby K, Koniski A, Ramchandran R, Palis J. Subtractive hybridization reveals tissue-specific expression of ahnak during embryonic development. Dev Growth Differ. 2001;43:133-43 pubmed
    ..The potential functions of ahnak are discussed in light of these results. ..
  46. Venkatesh D, Park K, Harrington A, Miceli Libby L, Yoon J, Liaw L. Cardiovascular and hematopoietic defects associated with Notch1 activation in embryonic Tie2-expressing populations. Circ Res. 2008;103:423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiovascular lineages are sensitive to an imbalance in Notch signaling, with aberrant activation reflecting a vascular phenotype comparable to a loss-of-function Notch1 mutation...
  47. Eliades A, Wareing S, Marinopoulou E, Fadlullah M, Patel R, Grabarek J, et al. The Hemogenic Competence of Endothelial Progenitors Is Restricted by Runx1 Silencing during Embryonic Development. Cell Rep. 2016;15:2185-2199 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data demonstrate that hemogenic competency in recently specified endothelial progenitors is restrained through the active silencing of Runx1 expression. ..
  48. Hill A, Hardies S, Phillips S, Davis M, Hutchison C, Edgell M. Two mouse early embryonic beta-globin gene sequences. Evolution of the nonadult beta-globins. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:3739-47 pubmed
    ..The evolutionary history of the human beta-globin genes, therefore, includes the recruitment of an embryonic gene to fetal developmental control. ..
  49. Martin R, Lahlil R, Damert A, Miquerol L, Nagy A, Keller G, et al. SCL interacts with VEGF to suppress apoptosis at the onset of hematopoiesis. Development. 2004;131:693-702 pubmed
    ..Vegf(lo) allele, and re-establishes the survival of erythroid cells and the expression of erythroid genes (Gata1 and betaH1). This indicates that SCL functions downstream of VEGF to ensure an expansion of the hematopoietic compartment.
  50. Kim I, Saunders T, Morrison S. Sox17 dependence distinguishes the transcriptional regulation of fetal from adult hematopoietic stem cells. Cell. 2007;130:470-83 pubmed
    ..Sox17 is thus required for the maintenance of fetal and neonatal HSCs and distinguishes their transcriptional regulation from adult HSCs. ..
  51. Arcasoy M, Romana M, Fabry M, Skarpidi E, Nagel R, Forget B. High levels of human gamma-globin gene expression in adult mice carrying a transgene of deletion-type hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2076-89 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that breakpoint DNA sequences in deletion-type HPFH-2 can modify the developmentally regulated expression of the gamma-globin genes. ..
  52. Sakurai Y, Ohgimoto K, Kataoka Y, Yoshida N, Shibuya M. Essential role of Flk-1 (VEGF receptor 2) tyrosine residue 1173 in vasculogenesis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1076-81 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Flk-1(1212F) homozygous mice were viable and fertile. These results suggest that the signaling via Y1173 of Flk-1 is essential for endothelial and hematopoietic development during embryogenesis. ..
  53. Rampon C, Huber P. Multilineage hematopoietic progenitor activity generated autonomously in the mouse yolk sac: analysis using angiogenesis-defective embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2003;47:273-80 pubmed
    ..The small number of definitive mature blood cells indicates however that the yolk sac is not an effective environment for the terminal differentiation of committed progenitors from the second wave of hematopoiesis. ..
  54. Wada J, Kumar A, Ota K, Wallner E, Batlle D, Kanwar Y. Representational difference analysis of cDNA of genes expressed in embryonic kidney. Kidney Int. 1997;51:1629-38 pubmed
  55. Fiering S, Epner E, Robinson K, Zhuang Y, Telling A, Hu M, et al. Targeted deletion of 5'HS2 of the murine beta-globin LCR reveals that it is not essential for proper regulation of the beta-globin locus. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2203-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, this result emphasizes that when using homologous recombination to analyze complex regulatory elements in vivo, the inserted selectable marker must be removed to avoid influencing the phenotype of the mutation. ..
  56. Casavant N, Hardies S, Funk F, Comer M, Edgell M, Hutchison C. Extensive movement of LINES ONE sequences in beta-globin loci of Mus caroli and Mus domesticus. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:4669-74 pubmed
    ..L1 insertions may be the predominant cause of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in closely related haplotypes. ..
  57. Yang X, Gong Y, Friesel R. Spry1 is expressed in hemangioblasts and negatively regulates primitive hematopoiesis and endothelial cell function. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18374 pubmed publisher
  58. Holdener Kenny B, Weaver S. A naturally occurring deletion in the mouse Hbbs beta-globin gene cluster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:4374-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that the Hbb-bh0 gene is a recently disabled pseudogene. ..
  59. Alhashem Y, Vinjamur D, Basu M, Klingmuller U, Gaensler K, Lloyd J. Transcription factors KLF1 and KLF2 positively regulate embryonic and fetal beta-globin genes through direct promoter binding. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:24819-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, KLF1 and KLF2 positively regulate the embryonic and fetal ?-globin genes through direct promoter binding. KLF1 is required for normal histone modifications in the ?-globin locus in mouse embryos. ..
  60. England S, McGrath K, Frame J, Palis J. Immature erythroblasts with extensive ex vivo self-renewal capacity emerge from the early mammalian fetus. Blood. 2011;117:2708-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Extensively self-renewing erythroblasts, despite their near complete maturity within the hematopoietic hierarchy, may ultimately serve as a renewable source of red cells for transfusion therapy...
  61. Fromm G, Cadiz Rivera B, de Vries C, Getman M, McGrath K, Kingsley P, et al. An embryonic stage-specific enhancer within the murine ?-globin locus mediates domain-wide histone hyperacetylation. Blood. 2011;117:5207-14 pubmed publisher
  62. Seo K, Kon Y, Watanabe T. Embryonic hematopoiesis defect in the tattered-Hokkaido (Tdho) mouse. Comp Med. 2000;50:27-31 pubmed
    ..5 Tdho male embryos. Furthermore, diminished numbers of anucleated erythrocytes were observed in E12.5 mutant embryos. A defect of embryonic hematopoiesis in Tdho mice was suggested as one of the possible causes of embryo lethality. ..
  63. Niki M, Okada H, Takano H, Kuno J, Tani K, Hibino H, et al. Hematopoiesis in the fetal liver is impaired by targeted mutagenesis of a gene encoding a non-DNA binding subunit of the transcription factor, polyomavirus enhancer binding protein 2/core binding factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5697-702 pubmed
    ..Thus, the results indicate that the two subunits function together as a heterodimeric PEBP2/CBF in vivo and that PEBP2/CBF plays an essential role in the development of definitive hematopoiesis. ..
  64. McGrath K, Frame J, Fromm G, Koniski A, Kingsley P, Little J, et al. A transient definitive erythroid lineage with unique regulation of the ?-globin locus in the mammalian embryo. Blood. 2011;117:4600-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that yolk sac-derived EMPs, the first of 2 origins of definitive erythropoiesis, express a unique pattern of globin genes as they generate the first definitive erythrocytes in the liver of the mammalian embryo...
  65. Adra C, Ko J, Leonard D, Wirth L, Cerione R, Lim B. Identification of a novel protein with GDP dissociation inhibitor activity for the ras-like proteins CDC42Hs and rac I. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1993;8:253-61 pubmed
    ..When these precursors undergo proliferation and differentiation in vitro, a dramatic increase in D4 expression is seen. D4 probably has a significant function during the growth and development of hematopoietic precursors. ..
  66. Tondeleir D, Drogat B, Slowicka K, Bakkali K, Bartunkova S, Goossens S, et al. Beta-Actin Is Involved in Modulating Erythropoiesis during Development by Fine-Tuning Gata2 Expression Levels. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67855 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new molecular insights for a novel function of beta-actin in erythropoiesis by modulating the expression levels of Gata2 in vivo. ..
  67. Visvader J, Fujiwara Y, Orkin S. Unsuspected role for the T-cell leukemia protein SCL/tal-1 in vascular development. Genes Dev. 1998;12:473-9 pubmed
    ..These findings establish a role for SCL in embryonic angiogenesis and argue for critical functions in both embryonic blood and vascular cells, the descendents of the presumptive hemangioblast. ..
  68. Hug B, Wesselschmidt R, Fiering S, Bender M, Epner E, Groudine M, et al. Analysis of mice containing a targeted deletion of beta-globin locus control region 5' hypersensitive site 3. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2906-12 pubmed
  69. Liang S, Moghimi B, Crusselle Davis V, Lin I, Rosenberg M, Li X, et al. Defective erythropoiesis in transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative upstream stimulatory factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5900-10 pubmed publisher
  70. Postel E, Wohlman I, Zou X, Juan T, Sun N, D Agostin D, et al. Targeted deletion of Nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase A and B reveals their requirement for definitive erythropoiesis in the mouse embryo. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:775-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Nm23/NDPKs play critical roles in definitive erythroid development. Our novel mouse model also links erythropoiesis and nucleotide metabolism. ..
  71. Freyer L, Hsu C, Nowotschin S, Pauli A, Ishida J, Kuba K, et al. Loss of Apela Peptide in Mice Causes Low Penetrance Embryonic Lethality and Defects in Early Mesodermal Derivatives. Cell Rep. 2017;20:2116-2130 pubmed publisher
    ..Double-mutant analyses showed that loss of Apela signaling impacts early Aplnr-expressing mesodermal populations independently of the alternative ligand Apelin, leading to lethal cardiac defects in some Apela null embryos. ..