Gene Symbol: Has3
Description: hyaluronan synthase 3
Alias: hyaluronan synthase 3, HA synthase 3, hyaluronate synthase 3, hyaluronic acid synthase 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Has3

Top Publications

  1. Weigel P, Hascall V, Tammi M. Hyaluronan synthases. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13997-4000 pubmed
  2. Tien J, Spicer A. Three vertebrate hyaluronan synthases are expressed during mouse development in distinct spatial and temporal patterns. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:130-41 pubmed
    ..to study the expression of the vertebrate hyaluronan synthase (Has) gene family members, designated Has1, Has2, and Has3, during mouse development. At embryonic day (E) 7.5, Has1 and Has2 are expressed throughout the gastrulating embryo...
  3. Bai K, Spicer A, Mascarenhas M, Yu L, Ochoa C, Garg H, et al. The role of hyaluronan synthase 3 in ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:92-8 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that low-molecular-weight hyaluronan induced by high VT was dependent on hyaluronan synthase 3, and was associated with ventilator-induced lung injury...
  4. Spicer A, Seldin M, Olsen A, Brown N, Wells D, Doggett N, et al. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes. Genomics. 1997;41:493-7 pubmed
    ..Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse...
  5. Sugiyama Y, Shimada A, Sayo T, Sakai S, Inoue S. Putative hyaluronan synthase mRNA are expressed in mouse skin and TGF-beta upregulates their expression in cultured human skin cells. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110:116-21 pubmed
  6. Tammi R, Pasonen Seppänen S, Kolehmainen E, Tammi M. Hyaluronan synthase induction and hyaluronan accumulation in mouse epidermis following skin injury. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:898-905 pubmed
    ..remained high until birth, and then rapidly declined, with corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of has2 and has3. The hyaluronan in adult mouse epidermis mainly resided around the orifices of the hair follicles, and the overall ..
  7. Mack J, Feldman R, Itano N, Kimata K, Lauer M, Hascall V, et al. Enhanced inflammation and accelerated wound closure following tetraphorbol ester application or full-thickness wounding in mice lacking hyaluronan synthases Has1 and Has3. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:198-207 pubmed publisher
    ..injury responses, double-knockout mice (abbreviated as Has1/3 null) that lack two HA synthase enzymes (Has1 and Has3), but still express functional Has2, were used in two types of experiments: (i) application of 12-O-..
  8. Hoock T, Peters L, Lux S. Isoforms of ankyrin-3 that lack the NH2-terminal repeats associate with mouse macrophage lysosomes. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:1059-70 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence for the association of an ankyrin with lysosomes and is an example of two ankyrins present in the same cell that segregate to different locations. ..
  9. Goncharova V, Serobyan N, Iizuka S, Schraufstatter I, de Ridder A, Povaliy T, et al. Hyaluronan expressed by the hematopoietic microenvironment is required for bone marrow hematopoiesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25419-33 pubmed publisher
    ..hematopoietic microenvironment was studied using knock-out mice of three hyaluronan synthase genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3)...

More Information


  1. Arranz A, Perkins K, Irie F, Lewis D, Hrabe J, Xiao F, et al. Hyaluronan deficiency due to Has3 knock-out causes altered neuronal activity and seizures via reduction in brain extracellular space. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6164-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that these Has mutant mice are prone to epileptic seizures, and that in Has3(-/-) mice, this phenotype is likely derived from a reduction in the size of the brain extracellular space (ECS)...
  2. Törrönen K, Nikunen K, Kärnä R, Tammi M, Tammi R, Rilla K. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of hyaluronan synthase isoenzymes. Histochem Cell Biol. 2014;141:17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The three HAS isoenzymes (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) expressed in mammalian cells differ in their enzymatic properties and regulation by external stimuli, but clearly ..
  3. Liu N, Gao F, Han Z, Xu X, Underhill C, Zhang L. Hyaluronan synthase 3 overexpression promotes the growth of TSU prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2001;61:5207-14 pubmed
    b>Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) is responsible for the production of both secreted and cell-associated forms of hyaluronan and is the most active of the three isoforms of this enzyme in adults...
  4. Spicer A, McDonald J. Characterization and molecular evolution of a vertebrate hyaluronan synthase gene family. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1923-32 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the Has2 and Has3 genes are identical in structure, suggesting that they arose by a gene duplication event early in vertebrate ..
  5. Rilla K, Tiihonen R, Kultti A, Tammi M, Tammi R. Pericellular hyaluronan coat visualized in live cells with a fluorescent probe is scaffolded by plasma membrane protrusions. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials. ..
  6. Kultti A, Rilla K, Tiihonen R, Spicer A, Tammi R, Tammi M. Hyaluronan synthesis induces microvillus-like cell surface protrusions. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15821-8 pubmed
    ..In cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Has3, the dorsal surface was decorated by up to 150 slender, 3-20-microm-long microvillus-type plasma membrane ..
  7. Morita T, Fujikawa K, Baba O, Shibata S. An in situ hybridization study of Hyaluronan synthase (Has) mRNA in developing mouse molar and incisor tooth germs. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;21:28-40 pubmed publisher
    ..0 to 18.0 in both molar and incisor tooth germs, but disappeared after birth. Meanwhile, Has3 mRNA was exclusively expressed within the enamel organ, especially in the inner enamel epithelium (IEE), stellate ..
  8. Spicer A, Nguyen T. Mammalian hyaluronan synthases: investigation of functional relationships in vivo. Biochem Soc Trans. 1999;27:109-15 pubmed
  9. Spicer A, Olson J, McDonald J. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the third putative mammalian hyaluronan synthase. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8957-61 pubmed
    We report the isolation of a cDNA encoding the third putative hyaluronan synthase, HAS3. Partial cDNAs and genomic fragments of mouse Has3 were obtained using a degenerate polymerase chain reaction approach...
  10. Usui T, Amano S, Oshika T, Suzuki K, Miyata K, Araie M, et al. Expression regulation of hyaluronan synthase in corneal endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:3261-7 pubmed
    ..The transcriptional sizes of each HAS in BCECs were 4.9 kb for HAS1, 2.8 kb for HAS2, and 1.6 kb for HAS3. The expression of HAS2 at the mRNA level was stimulated by TGF-beta1 and/or PDGF-BB treatment...
  11. Akgul Y, Word R, Ensign L, Yamaguchi Y, Lydon J, Hanes J, et al. Hyaluronan in cervical epithelia protects against infection-mediated preterm birth. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:5481-9 pubmed publisher
  12. Itano N, Sawai T, Atsumi F, Miyaishi O, Taniguchi S, Kannagi R, et al. Selective expression and functional characteristics of three mammalian hyaluronan synthases in oncogenic malignant transformation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18679-87 pubmed
    ..Of three HAS isoforms (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3), only HAS2 gene expression was increased in the v-Ha-ras transformed 3Y1 cells, which show less malignancy...
  13. Galloway J, Jones S, Mossey P, Ellis I. The control and importance of hyaluronan synthase expression in palatogenesis. Front Physiol. 2013;4:10 pubmed publisher
    ..was established that there was a decrease in expression of Has2 in the mesenchyme and an increase in expression of Has3 in comparison to the wild-type mouse...
  14. Itano N, Sawai T, Yoshida M, Lenas P, Yamada Y, Imagawa M, et al. Three isoforms of mammalian hyaluronan synthases have distinct enzymatic properties. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25085-92 pubmed
    Three mammalian hyaluronan synthase genes, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, have recently been cloned. In this study, we characterized and compared the enzymatic properties of these three HAS proteins...
  15. Kiene L, Homann S, Suvorava T, Rabausch B, Müller J, Kojda G, et al. Deletion of Hyaluronan Synthase 3 Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia in Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:e9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..HA is synthesized by 3 different HA synthases (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3). Aim of this study was to unravel the role of the HAS3 isoenzyme during experimental neointimal hyperplasia...
  16. Kibble J, Neal A, Colledge W, Green R, Taylor C. Evidence for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent sodium reabsorption in kidney, using Cftr(tm2cam) mice. J Physiol. 2000;526 Pt 1:27-34 pubmed
    ..Enhanced amiloride-sensitive FE(Na) is consistent with increased Na(+) absorption via the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel ENaC, in cystic fibrosis kidney, but this was only observed during salt restriction...
  17. Yoshida M, Itano N, Yamada Y, Kimata K. In vitro synthesis of hyaluronan by a single protein derived from mouse HAS1 gene and characterization of amino acid residues essential for the activity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:497-506 pubmed