Gene Symbol: Has2
Description: hyaluronan synthase 2
Alias: hyaluronan synthase 2, HA synthase 2, hyaluronan synthase homolog, hyaluronate synthase 2, hyaluronic acid synthase 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Has2

Top Publications

  1. Spicer A, Nguyen T. Mammalian hyaluronan synthases: investigation of functional relationships in vivo. Biochem Soc Trans. 1999;27:109-15 pubmed
  2. Chao H, Spicer A. Natural antisense mRNAs to hyaluronan synthase 2 inhibit hyaluronan biosynthesis and cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27513-22 pubmed
    We report the identification of a natural antisense mRNA of hyaluronan synthase 2 that we have chosen to designate as HASNT (for HA synthase 2 antisense) in human and mouse...
  3. Spicer A, Seldin M, Olsen A, Brown N, Wells D, Doggett N, et al. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes. Genomics. 1997;41:493-7 pubmed
    ..Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse...
  4. Weigel P, Hascall V, Tammi M. Hyaluronan synthases. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13997-4000 pubmed
  5. Sugiyama Y, Shimada A, Sayo T, Sakai S, Inoue S. Putative hyaluronan synthase mRNA are expressed in mouse skin and TGF-beta upregulates their expression in cultured human skin cells. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110:116-21 pubmed
    We examined in situ expression of putative hyaluronan synthase genes, Has1 and Has2, and effects of transforming growth factor-beta on their expression...
  6. Ma L, Lu M, Schwartz R, Martin J. Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning. Development. 2005;132:5601-11 pubmed
    ..Bmp2 is required for myocardial expression of Has2, a crucial component of the cardiac jelly matrix...
  7. Moffatt P, Lee E, St Jacques B, Matsumoto K, Yamaguchi Y, Roughley P. Hyaluronan production by means of Has2 gene expression in chondrocytes is essential for long bone development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:404-12 pubmed publisher
    Mice possessing no Has2 expression in chondrocytes died near birth and displayed abnormalities throughout their skeleton. By embryonic day 18...
  8. Camenisch T, Spicer A, Brehm Gibson T, Biesterfeldt J, Augustine M, Calabro A, et al. Disruption of hyaluronan synthase-2 abrogates normal cardiac morphogenesis and hyaluronan-mediated transformation of epithelium to mesenchyme. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:349-60 pubmed
    We identified hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) as a likely source of hyaluronan (HA) during embryonic development, and we used gene targeting to study its function in vivo...
  9. Tien J, Spicer A. Three vertebrate hyaluronan synthases are expressed during mouse development in distinct spatial and temporal patterns. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:130-41 pubmed
    ..to study the expression of the vertebrate hyaluronan synthase (Has) gene family members, designated Has1, Has2, and Has3, during mouse development. At embryonic day (E) 7...

More Information


  1. Spicer A, Augustine M, McDonald J. Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative mouse hyaluronan synthase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:23400-6 pubmed
    ..Transfection experiments demonstrated that mouse Has2 could direct hyaluronan coat biosynthesis in transfected COS cells, as evidenced by a classical particle exclusion ..
  2. Wang Y, Lauer M, Anand S, Mack J, Maytin E. Hyaluronan synthase 2 protects skin fibroblasts against apoptosis induced by environmental stress. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:32253-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we report that HA levels and Has2 mRNA expression are higher in cultured Has1/3 null primary skin fibroblasts than in wild type (WT) cells...
  3. Klewer S, Yatskievych T, Pogreba K, Stevens M, Antin P, Camenisch T. Has2 expression in heart forming regions is independent of BMP signaling. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:462-70 pubmed
    ..Targeted deletion of the hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) gene in mice results in an absence of cardiac jelly and endocardial cushions, a loss of vascular integrity, and ..
  4. Matsumoto K, Li Y, Jakuba C, Sugiyama Y, Sayo T, Okuno M, et al. Conditional inactivation of Has2 reveals a crucial role for hyaluronan in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and joint formation in the developing limb. Development. 2009;136:2825-35 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore functions of HA in limb skeletal development, we conditionally inactivated the gene for HA synthase 2, Has2, in limb bud mesoderm using mice that harbor a floxed allele of Has2 and mice carrying a limb mesoderm-..
  5. Karousou E, Kamiryo M, Skandalis S, Ruusala A, Asteriou T, Passi A, et al. The activity of hyaluronan synthase 2 is regulated by dimerization and ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23647-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of one of the hyaluronan-synthesizing enzymes, HAS2. Ectopic expression of Flag- and 6myc-HAS2 in COS-1 cells followed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting ..
  6. Itano N, Sawai T, Yoshida M, Lenas P, Yamada Y, Imagawa M, et al. Three isoforms of mammalian hyaluronan synthases have distinct enzymatic properties. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25085-92 pubmed
    Three mammalian hyaluronan synthase genes, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, have recently been cloned. In this study, we characterized and compared the enzymatic properties of these three HAS proteins...
  7. Lagendijk A, Goumans M, Burkhard S, Bakkers J. MicroRNA-23 restricts cardiac valve formation by inhibiting Has2 and extracellular hyaluronic acid production. Circ Res. 2011;109:649-57 pubmed publisher
    ..of expression data with predicted miR-23 target sites combined with in vivo testing, we identified hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (Has2), Icat, and Tmem2 as novel direct targets of miR-23...
  8. Garoby Salom S, Rouahi M, Mucher E, Auge N, Salvayre R, Negre Salvayre A. Hyaluronan synthase-2 upregulation protects smpd3-deficient fibroblasts against cell death induced by nutrient deprivation, but not against apoptosis evoked by oxidized LDL. Redox Biol. 2015;4:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..resistance of fro/fro cells to starvation-induced apoptosis is associated with an increased expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNAs and protein, which is inhibited by ceramide...
  9. Hellman U, Malm L, Ma L, Larsson G, Morner S, Fu M, et al. Growth factor PDGF-BB stimulates cultured cardiomyocytes to synthesize the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14393 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that dynamic changes of the myocardium, such as in cardiac hypertrophy, do not depend on the cardiomyocyte alone, but are achieved when both cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts are present. ..
  10. Xie Q, Yang Y, Huang J, Ninkovic J, Walcher T, Wolf L, et al. Pax6 interactions with chromatin and identification of its novel direct target genes in lens and forebrain. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54507 pubmed publisher
    ..5 wild type and Pax6?/? lens placodes that suggested Efnb2, Fat4, Has2, Nav1, and Trpm3 as novel Pax6-direct targets...
  11. Chan D, Xiao W, Li J, de La Motte C, Sandy J, Plaas A. Deficiency of hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1) results in chronic joint inflammation and widespread intra-articular fibrosis in a murine model of knee joint cartilage damage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015;23:1879-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, Has1 ablation does not alter gross HA content in the ECM, suggesting that HAS1 has a unique function in the metabolism of inflammatory HA matrices. ..
  12. Arranz A, Perkins K, Irie F, Lewis D, Hrabe J, Xiao F, et al. Hyaluronan deficiency due to Has3 knock-out causes altered neuronal activity and seizures via reduction in brain extracellular space. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6164-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the three Has knock-out models, namely Has3(-/-), Has1(-/-), and Has2(CKO), the seizures were most prevalent in Has3(-/-) mice, which also showed the greatest HA reduction in the ..
  13. Qin J, Berdyshev E, Poirer C, Schwartz N, Dawson G. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 deficiency increases hyaluronan synthesis by up-regulation of Hyaluronan synthase 2 through decreased ceramide production and activation of Akt. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13620-32 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that increased HA secretion resulted from increased hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) activity localized to sphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts...
  14. Tong G, Heng B, Ng S. Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2007;8:533-9 pubmed
    ..This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly ..
  15. Cai X, Zhang W, Hu J, Zhang L, Sultana N, Wu B, et al. Tbx20 acts upstream of Wnt signaling to regulate endocardial cushion formation and valve remodeling during mouse cardiogenesis. Development. 2013;140:3176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests a model in which Tbx20 regulates the Wnt pathway to direct endocardial cushion maturation and valve elongation, and provides new insights into the etiology of valve defects in humans. ..
  16. Tammi R, Pasonen Seppänen S, Kolehmainen E, Tammi M. Hyaluronan synthase induction and hyaluronan accumulation in mouse epidermis following skin injury. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:898-905 pubmed
    ..on day E15, remained high until birth, and then rapidly declined, with corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of has2 and has3...
  17. Yoshida M, Itano N, Yamada Y, Kimata K. In vitro synthesis of hyaluronan by a single protein derived from mouse HAS1 gene and characterization of amino acid residues essential for the activity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:497-506 pubmed
  18. Chang M, Tanino Y, Vidová V, Kinsella M, Chan C, Johnson P, et al. A rapid increase in macrophage-derived versican and hyaluronan in infectious lung disease. Matrix Biol. 2014;34:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that versican and hyaluronan synthesis may play an important role in the innate immune response to gram-negative lung infection. ..
  19. Galloway J, Jones S, Mossey P, Ellis I. The control and importance of hyaluronan synthase expression in palatogenesis. Front Physiol. 2013;4:10 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and E14.5, it was established that there was a decrease in expression of Has2 in the mesenchyme and an increase in expression of Has3 in comparison to the wild-type mouse...
  20. Kobayashi N, Miyoshi S, Mikami T, Koyama H, Kitazawa M, Takeoka M, et al. Hyaluronan deficiency in tumor stroma impairs macrophage trafficking and tumor neovascularization. Cancer Res. 2010;70:7073-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To address the role of stroma-derived HA in macrophage recruitment, we disrupted the HA synthase 2 (Has2) gene in stromal fibroblasts using conditional gene targeting...
  21. Fischer A, Steidl C, Wagner T, Lang E, Jakob P, Friedl P, et al. Combined loss of Hey1 and HeyL causes congenital heart defects because of impaired epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Circ Res. 2007;100:856-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Hey gene family shows overlap in controlling Notch induced endocardial epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a process critical for valve and septum formation. ..
  22. Soulié P, Chassot A, Ernandez T, Montesano R, Féraille E. Spatially restricted hyaluronan production by Has2 drives epithelial tubulogenesis in vitro. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014;307:C745-59 pubmed publisher
    ..or renal MDCK and mCCD-N21 cells with hepatocyte growth factor induced strong and specific expression of Has2. Immunostaining revealed that HA was preferentially produced at the tips of growing tubules...
  23. Takeo S, Fujise M, Akiyama T, Habuchi H, Itano N, Matsuo T, et al. In vivo hyaluronan synthesis upon expression of the mammalian hyaluronan synthase gene in Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18920-5 pubmed
    ..Expression of the mouse HAS2 gene in Drosophila tissues by the Gal4/UAS (upstream activating sequence) system resulted in massive HA ..
  24. Akgul Y, Holt R, Mummert M, Word A, Mahendroo M. Dynamic changes in cervical glycosaminoglycan composition during normal pregnancy and preterm birth. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..from differential expression of the HA synthase (Has) genes, with increased Has1 in preterm in contrast to Has2 induction at term. The Has2 gene but not Has1 is regulated in part by estrogen...
  25. Fulop C, Salustri A, Hascall V. Coding sequence of a hyaluronan synthase homologue expressed during expansion of the mouse cumulus-oocyte complex. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;337:261-6 pubmed
    ..Evolutionary comparison of the vertebrate hyaluronan synthase homologues indicates that there are at least two genes that code for these proteins. ..
  26. Shirai M, Imanaka Yoshida K, Schneider M, Schwartz R, Morisaki T. T-box 2, a mediator of Bmp-Smad signaling, induced hyaluronan synthase 2 and Tgfbeta2 expression and endocardial cushion formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18604-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ventricular Tbx2 misexpression exhibited an abnormally narrow chamber lumen owing to the expansion of Hyaluronan synthase 2 expression in the ECM or cardiac jelly and the appearance of the endocardial cushions (ECs)...
  27. Chen Y, Ishii M, Sucov H, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 are required for endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the atrioventricular cushions and patterning of the atrioventricular myocardium. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:75 pubmed publisher
    ..In Msx1/2 null mutant AV cushions, we found decreased Bmp2/4 and Notch1 signaling as well as reduced expression of Has2, NFATc1 and Notch1, demonstrating impaired endocardial activation and EMT...
  28. Calve S, Isaac J, Gumucio J, Mendias C. Hyaluronic acid, HAS1, and HAS2 are significantly upregulated during muscle hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C577-88 pubmed publisher
    ..At the level of gene expression, only HAS1 and HAS2 significantly increased with respect to both time and tenectomy...
  29. Sugiura K, Su Y, Eppig J. Targeted suppression of Has2 mRNA in mouse cumulus cell-oocyte complexes by adenovirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA expression. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:537-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Has2, encoding hyaluronan synthase 2, was selected as the target transcript, because the process of cumulus expansion depends upon expression ..
  30. Matsuda M, Hirata M. Phospholipase C-related but catalytically inactive proteins regulate ovarian follicle development. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8369-8380 pubmed publisher
    ..Female DKO mice had higher serum levels of insulin, testosterone, and uncarboxylated osteocalcin, which, together with reduced fertility, are reminiscent of polycystic ovary syndrome in humans. ..
  31. Dy P, Smits P, Silvester A, Penzo Méndez A, Dumitriu B, Han Y, et al. Synovial joint morphogenesis requires the chondrogenic action of Sox5 and Sox6 in growth plate and articular cartilage. Dev Biol. 2010;341:346-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that synovial joint morphogenesis relies on essential roles for Sox5/6 in promoting both growth plate and articular chondrocyte differentiation...
  32. Tsuchihashi T, Maeda J, SHIN C, Ivey K, Black B, Olson E, et al. Hand2 function in second heart field progenitors is essential for cardiogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;351:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that Hand2 is essential for survival of second heart field progenitors and that the graded loss of Hand2 function in this cardiac progenitor pool can cause a spectrum of congenital heart malformation. ..
  33. Lindwall C, Olsson M, Osman A, Kuhn H, Curtis M. Selective expression of hyaluronan and receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (Rhamm) in the adult mouse subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream and in ischemic cortex. Brain Res. 2013;1503:62-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Has1 and Has2, as well as Hyal1 and Hyal2 were expressed in GFAP positive cells in the adult rodent SVZ and RMS, indicating that ..
  34. Spicer A, McDonald J. Characterization and molecular evolution of a vertebrate hyaluronan synthase gene family. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1923-32 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the Has2 and Has3 genes are identical in structure, suggesting that they arose by a gene duplication event early in ..
  35. Törrönen K, Nikunen K, Kärnä R, Tammi M, Tammi R, Rilla K. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of hyaluronan synthase isoenzymes. Histochem Cell Biol. 2014;141:17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The three HAS isoenzymes (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) expressed in mammalian cells differ in their enzymatic properties and regulation by external stimuli, ..
  36. Liu N, Gao F, Han Z, Xu X, Underhill C, Zhang L. Hyaluronan synthase 3 overexpression promotes the growth of TSU prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2001;61:5207-14 pubmed
    ..70. The sequence of human HAS3 displayed a 53% identity to HAS1 and a 67% identity to HAS2. It also contained a signal peptide and six potential transmembrane domains, suggesting that it was associated with ..
  37. Akiyama H, Chaboissier M, Behringer R, Rowitch D, Schedl A, Epstein J, et al. Essential role of Sox9 in the pathway that controls formation of cardiac valves and septa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6502-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that loss of Sox9 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transformation after delamination and initial migration, but before definitive mesenchymal transformation. ..
  38. Li Y, Jiang D, Liang J, Meltzer E, Gray A, Miura R, et al. Severe lung fibrosis requires an invasive fibroblast phenotype regulated by hyaluronan and CD44. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that targeted overexpression of HAS2 (HA synthase 2) by myofibroblasts produced an aggressive phenotype leading to severe lung fibrosis and death after bleomycin-..
  39. Katayama K, Furuno A, Akiyama K, Tsuji T, Kunieda T. Characterization of chromosomal inversion of the mouse hairy ears (Eh) mutation associated with cleft palate. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:246-54 pubmed
  40. Liu J, Li Q, Kuehn M, Litingtung Y, Vokes S, Chiang C. Sonic hedgehog signaling directly targets Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2, an essential regulator of phalangeal joint patterning. Dev Biol. 2013;375:160-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Through analysis of the early limb bud transcriptome, we identified a posteriorly-enriched gene, Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (Has2), which encodes a key enzyme for the synthesis of hyaluronan (HA), as a direct target of Gli ..
  41. Semino C, Specht C, Raimondi A, Robbins P. Homologs of the Xenopus developmental gene DG42 are present in zebrafish and mouse and are involved in the synthesis of Nod-like chitin oligosaccharides during early embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4548-53 pubmed
    ..Since in at least one vertebrate system hyaluronic acid formation can be inhibited by a pure chitinase, it seems possible that chitin oligosaccharides serve as primers for hyaluronic acid synthesis. ..
  42. Saxon J, Baer D, Barton J, Hawkins T, Wu B, Trusk T, et al. BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is required for AV endocardial cushion maturation and remodeling. Dev Biol. 2017;430:113-128 pubmed publisher
    ..However, mRNA expression of the extracellular matrix components, versican, Has2, collagen 9a1, and periostin was significantly reduced in Bmp2 cKOEndo AV cushions...
  43. Morita T, Fujikawa K, Baba O, Shibata S. An in situ hybridization study of Hyaluronan synthase (Has) mRNA in developing mouse molar and incisor tooth germs. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;21:28-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Has1 mRNA expression was not detected in all tooth germs examined. Has2 mRNA was expressed in the surrounding mesenchyme from E12.0 to 18...
  44. Akgul Y, Word R, Ensign L, Yamaguchi Y, Lydon J, Hanes J, et al. Hyaluronan in cervical epithelia protects against infection-mediated preterm birth. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:5481-9 pubmed publisher
  45. Kakoi H, Maeda S, Shinohara N, Matsuyama K, Imamura K, Kawamura I, et al. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling up-regulates neutral sphingomyelinase 2 to suppress chondrocyte maturation via the Akt protein signaling pathway as a negative feedback mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:8135-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found that expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) was elevated by a loss of Smpd3, which was restored by MK2206...
  46. Li Y, Liang J, Yang T, Monterrosa Mena J, Huan C, Xie T, et al. Hyaluronan synthase 2 regulates fibroblast senescence in pulmonary fibrosis. Matrix Biol. 2016;55:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..that a critical step in resolving fibrosis is the induction of senescence in fibrotic fibroblasts and hyaluronan synthase 2 may regulate this process...
  47. Marzoll A, Nagy N, Wördehoff L, Dai G, Fries S, Lindner V, et al. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors repress vascular hyaluronan-synthesis in murine atherosclerosis and neointimal thickening. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:3713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and prostaglandin E(2), induce HA synthesis in vitro by transcriptional up-regulation of HA-synthase 2 (HAS2) and HAS1...
  48. Su Y, Wu X, O Brien M, Pendola F, Denegre J, Matzuk M, et al. Synergistic roles of BMP15 and GDF9 in the development and function of the oocyte-cumulus cell complex in mice: genetic evidence for an oocyte-granulosa cell regulatory loop. Dev Biol. 2004;276:64-73 pubmed
    ..We found that cumulus expansion, as well as the expression of hyaluronon synthase 2 (Has2) mRNA was impaired in DM oocyte-cumulus cell complexes...
  49. Liang J, Zhang Y, Xie T, Liu N, Chen H, Geng Y, et al. Hyaluronan and TLR4 promote surfactant-protein-C-positive alveolar progenitor cell renewal and prevent severe pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Nat Med. 2016;22:1285-1293 pubmed publisher
    ..Either deletion of TLR4 or HA synthase 2 in surfactant-protein-C-positive AEC2s leads to impaired renewal capacity, severe fibrosis and mortality...
  50. Röck K, Tigges J, Sass S, Schütze A, Florea A, Fender A, et al. miR-23a-3p causes cellular senescence by targeting hyaluronan synthase 2: possible implication for skin aging. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:369-377 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, miR-23a-3p was shown to target hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2)...
  51. Goncharova V, Serobyan N, Iizuka S, Schraufstatter I, de Ridder A, Povaliy T, et al. Hyaluronan expressed by the hematopoietic microenvironment is required for bone marrow hematopoiesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25419-33 pubmed publisher
    ..of the hematopoietic microenvironment was studied using knock-out mice of three hyaluronan synthase genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3)...
  52. Walker J, Theriot B, Ghio M, Trempus C, Wong J, McQuade V, et al. Targeted HAS2 Expression Lessens Airway Responsiveness in Chronic Murine Allergic Airway Disease. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;57:702-710 pubmed publisher
    ..Airway fibroblasts in allergic asthma secrete elevated levels of HA in association with increased HA synthase 2 (HAS2) expression...
  53. Roughley P, Lamplugh L, Lee E, Matsumoto K, Yamaguchi Y. The role of hyaluronan produced by Has2 gene expression in development of the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:E914-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the role hyaluronan produced by hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) in spine development...
  54. Usui T, Amano S, Oshika T, Suzuki K, Miyata K, Araie M, et al. Expression regulation of hyaluronan synthase in corneal endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:3261-7 pubmed
    ..The transcriptional sizes of each HAS in BCECs were 4.9 kb for HAS1, 2.8 kb for HAS2, and 1.6 kb for HAS3. The expression of HAS2 at the mRNA level was stimulated by TGF-beta1 and/or PDGF-BB treatment...
  55. Stock A, Bouchard N, Brown K, Spicer A, Underhill C, Dor M, et al. Induction of hyaluronan synthase 2 by human chorionic gonadotropin in mural granulosa cells of equine preovulatory follicles. Endocrinology. 2002;143:4375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this study were to clone and characterize equine hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and investigate the regulation of its transcript and of HA synthesis in equine follicles during ..