Gene Symbol: Has1
Description: hyaluronan synthase 1
Alias: HAS, hyaluronan synthase 1, HA synthase 1, hyaluronan synthase1, hyaluronate synthase 1, hyaluronic acid synthase 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Has1

Top Publications

  1. Kobayashi N, Miyoshi S, Mikami T, Koyama H, Kitazawa M, Takeoka M, et al. Hyaluronan deficiency in tumor stroma impairs macrophage trafficking and tumor neovascularization. Cancer Res. 2010;70:7073-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that stromal HA serves as a microenvironmental signal for the recruitment of TAMs, which are key regulatory cells involved in tumor neovascularization...
  2. Spicer A, Seldin M, Olsen A, Brown N, Wells D, Doggett N, et al. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes. Genomics. 1997;41:493-7 pubmed
    ..Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse...
  3. Sugiyama Y, Shimada A, Sayo T, Sakai S, Inoue S. Putative hyaluronan synthase mRNA are expressed in mouse skin and TGF-beta upregulates their expression in cultured human skin cells. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;110:116-21 pubmed
    We examined in situ expression of putative hyaluronan synthase genes, Has1 and Has2, and effects of transforming growth factor-beta on their expression...
  4. Weigel P, Hascall V, Tammi M. Hyaluronan synthases. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13997-4000 pubmed
  5. Tammi R, Pasonen Seppänen S, Kolehmainen E, Tammi M. Hyaluronan synthase induction and hyaluronan accumulation in mouse epidermis following skin injury. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:898-905 pubmed
    ..We assayed hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthases (has1-3) in mouse epidermis during fetal development, postnatal life, and trauma reaction in vivo...
  6. Tien J, Spicer A. Three vertebrate hyaluronan synthases are expressed during mouse development in distinct spatial and temporal patterns. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:130-41 pubmed
    ..hybridization to study the expression of the vertebrate hyaluronan synthase (Has) gene family members, designated Has1, Has2, and Has3, during mouse development. At embryonic day (E) 7...
  7. Morita T, Fujikawa K, Baba O, Shibata S. An in situ hybridization study of Hyaluronan synthase (Has) mRNA in developing mouse molar and incisor tooth germs. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;21:28-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined expression patterns of Has1, -2, -3 mRNA in developing mouse molar and incisor tooth germs from embryonic day (E) 11...
  8. Fulop C, Salustri A, Hascall V. Coding sequence of a hyaluronan synthase homologue expressed during expansion of the mouse cumulus-oocyte complex. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;337:261-6 pubmed
    ..Evolutionary comparison of the vertebrate hyaluronan synthase homologues indicates that there are at least two genes that code for these proteins. ..
  9. Spicer A, Nguyen T. Mammalian hyaluronan synthases: investigation of functional relationships in vivo. Biochem Soc Trans. 1999;27:109-15 pubmed

More Information


  1. Akgul Y, Word R, Ensign L, Yamaguchi Y, Lydon J, Hanes J, et al. Hyaluronan in cervical epithelia protects against infection-mediated preterm birth. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:5481-9 pubmed publisher
    Increased synthesis of cervical hyaluronan (HA) from early to late pregnancy has long been proposed to play an essential role in disorganization of the collagen-rich extracellular matrix to allow for maximal compliance and dilation of ..
  2. Calve S, Isaac J, Gumucio J, Mendias C. Hyaluronic acid, HAS1, and HAS2 are significantly upregulated during muscle hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C577-88 pubmed publisher
    ..that inducing hypertrophy via synergist ablation would increase the expression of HA and the HA synthases (HAS1-HAS3)...
  3. Usui T, Amano S, Oshika T, Suzuki K, Miyata K, Araie M, et al. Expression regulation of hyaluronan synthase in corneal endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:3261-7 pubmed
    ..The transcriptional sizes of each HAS in BCECs were 4.9 kb for HAS1, 2.8 kb for HAS2, and 1.6 kb for HAS3...
  4. Holmes R. Genetics of peroxisomal enzymes in the mouse: nonlinkage of D-amino acid oxidase locus (Dao) to catalase (Cs) and L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase (Hao-1) loci on chromosome 2. Biochem Genet. 1976;14:981-7 pubmed
    ..Thus Dao is not linked to previously mapped peroxisomal enzyme loci, Hao-1 and Cs, closely localized on chromosome 2. ..
  5. Itano N, Sawai T, Atsumi F, Miyaishi O, Taniguchi S, Kannagi R, et al. Selective expression and functional characteristics of three mammalian hyaluronan synthases in oncogenic malignant transformation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18679-87 pubmed
    ..Of three HAS isoforms (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3), only HAS2 gene expression was increased in the v-Ha-ras transformed 3Y1 cells, which show less ..
  6. Shyjan A, Heldin P, Butcher E, Yoshino T, Briskin M. Functional cloning of the cDNA for a human hyaluronan synthase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:23395-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, hyaluronan has been implicated as an important substrate for migration of adhesion of leukocytes during inflammation...
  7. Itano N, Sawai T, Yoshida M, Lenas P, Yamada Y, Imagawa M, et al. Three isoforms of mammalian hyaluronan synthases have distinct enzymatic properties. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25085-92 pubmed
    Three mammalian hyaluronan synthase genes, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, have recently been cloned. In this study, we characterized and compared the enzymatic properties of these three HAS proteins...
  8. Galloway J, Jones S, Mossey P, Ellis I. The control and importance of hyaluronan synthase expression in palatogenesis. Front Physiol. 2013;4:10 pubmed publisher
    ..We present experimental data indicating that the three HA synthase (Has) enzymes are differentially expressed during palatogenesis...
  9. Itano N, Kimata K. Expression cloning and molecular characterization of HAS protein, a eukaryotic hyaluronan synthase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:9875-8 pubmed
    We developed a mammalian transient expression system to isolate cDNA clones that determine hyaluronan expression. HAS-, a mouse mammary carcinoma mutant cell line, which is defective in hyaluronan synthase activity, was first established ..
  10. Liu N, Gao F, Han Z, Xu X, Underhill C, Zhang L. Hyaluronan synthase 3 overexpression promotes the growth of TSU prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2001;61:5207-14 pubmed
    ..70. The sequence of human HAS3 displayed a 53% identity to HAS1 and a 67% identity to HAS2...
  11. Yoshida M, Itano N, Yamada Y, Kimata K. In vitro synthesis of hyaluronan by a single protein derived from mouse HAS1 gene and characterization of amino acid residues essential for the activity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:497-506 pubmed
    b>HAS1 was expressed as a FLAG-tagged HAS1 fusion protein in COS-1 cells...
  12. Mack J, Feldman R, Itano N, Kimata K, Lauer M, Hascall V, et al. Enhanced inflammation and accelerated wound closure following tetraphorbol ester application or full-thickness wounding in mice lacking hyaluronan synthases Has1 and Has3. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:198-207 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the roles of HA in cutaneous injury responses, double-knockout mice (abbreviated as Has1/3 null) that lack two HA synthase enzymes (Has1 and Has3), but still express functional Has2, were used in two ..
  13. Goncharova V, Serobyan N, Iizuka S, Schraufstatter I, de Ridder A, Povaliy T, et al. Hyaluronan expressed by the hematopoietic microenvironment is required for bone marrow hematopoiesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25419-33 pubmed publisher
    ..network of the hematopoietic microenvironment was studied using knock-out mice of three hyaluronan synthase genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3)...
  14. Akgul Y, Holt R, Mummert M, Word A, Mahendroo M. Dynamic changes in cervical glycosaminoglycan composition during normal pregnancy and preterm birth. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..by an increase in HA resulting from differential expression of the HA synthase (Has) genes, with increased Has1 in preterm in contrast to Has2 induction at term. The Has2 gene but not Has1 is regulated in part by estrogen...
  15. Arranz A, Perkins K, Irie F, Lewis D, Hrabe J, Xiao F, et al. Hyaluronan deficiency due to Has3 knock-out causes altered neuronal activity and seizures via reduction in brain extracellular space. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6164-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the three Has knock-out models, namely Has3(-/-), Has1(-/-), and Has2(CKO), the seizures were most prevalent in Has3(-/-) mice, which also showed the greatest HA ..
  16. Wilkinson T, Bressler S, Evanko S, Braun K, Wight T. Overexpression of hyaluronan synthases alters vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype and promotes monocyte adhesion. J Cell Physiol. 2006;206:378-85 pubmed
    ..phenotype, arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) were transduced with retroviral constructs (LXSN) encoding murine has-1, has-2, and has-3. HA synthesis was significantly elevated in has transduced ASMCs...
  17. Marzoll A, Nagy N, Wördehoff L, Dai G, Fries S, Lindner V, et al. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors repress vascular hyaluronan-synthesis in murine atherosclerosis and neointimal thickening. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:3713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and prostaglandin E(2), induce HA synthesis in vitro by transcriptional up-regulation of HA-synthase 2 (HAS2) and HAS1. The relative roles in atherosclerotic and restenotic artery disease of tissue specifically expressed COX-1 and COX-..
  18. Yamada Y, Itano N, Zako M, Yoshida M, Lenas P, Niimi A, et al. The gene structure and promoter sequence of mouse hyaluronan synthase 1. Biochem J. 1998;330 ( Pt 3):1223-7 pubmed
    The structure and organization of mouse hyaluronan synthase 1 gene, HAS1 were determined by direct sequencing of lambda phage clones carrying the entire gene and by application of the long and accurate (LA)-PCR method to amplify regions ..
  19. Törrönen K, Nikunen K, Kärnä R, Tammi M, Tammi R, Rilla K. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of hyaluronan synthase isoenzymes. Histochem Cell Biol. 2014;141:17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The three HAS isoenzymes (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) expressed in mammalian cells differ in their enzymatic properties and regulation by external ..
  20. Spicer A, McDonald J. Characterization and molecular evolution of a vertebrate hyaluronan synthase gene family. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1923-32 pubmed
    ..Significantly, similarities in the genomic structures of the mouse Has1 and Xenopus DG42 genes strongly suggest that they are orthologues...