Hand2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Hand2
Description: heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2
Alias: AI225906, AI661148, Ehand2, Hed, Th2, Thing2, bHLHa26, dHAND, heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 2, deciduum, heart, autonomic nervous system and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 2, heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 2, helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in embryo and deciduum, thing-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Hand2

Top Publications

  1. Zeisberg E, Ma Q, Juraszek A, Moses K, Schwartz R, Izumo S, et al. Morphogenesis of the right ventricle requires myocardial expression of Gata4. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1522-31 pubmed
    ..RV hypoplasia was associated with downregulation of Hand2, a transcription factor previously shown to regulate formation of the RV...
  2. Morikawa Y, D Autréaux F, Gershon M, Cserjesi P. Hand2 determines the noradrenergic phenotype in the mouse sympathetic nervous system. Dev Biol. 2007;307:114-26 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Hand2 has been shown to play a role in the development of the mammalian sympathetic nervous system (SNS); however, its precise role could not be uncovered because Hand2 is required ..
  3. Hendershot T, Liu H, Clouthier D, Shepherd I, Coppola E, Studer M, et al. Conditional deletion of Hand2 reveals critical functions in neurogenesis and cell type-specific gene expression for development of neural crest-derived noradrenergic sympathetic ganglion neurons. Dev Biol. 2008;319:179-91 pubmed publisher
    ..crest-derived structures that depend critically upon expression of the basic helix-loop-helix DNA binding protein Hand2 for normal development include craniofacial cartilage and bone, the outflow tract of the heart, cardiac cushion, ..
  4. Srivastava D, Thomas T, Lin Q, Kirby M, Brown D, Olson E. Regulation of cardiac mesodermal and neural crest development by the bHLH transcription factor, dHAND. Nat Genet. 1997;16:154-60 pubmed
    b>dHAND and eHAND are related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are expressed in mesodermal and neural crest-derived structures of the developing heart...
  5. Riley P, Anson Cartwright L, Cross J. The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 1998;18:271-5 pubmed
    ..Their heart tubes showed abnormal looping and ventricular myocardial differentiation. Therefore, Hand1 is essential for differentiation of both trophoblast and cardiomyocytes, which are embryologically distinct cell lineages. ..
  6. Tsarovina K, Pattyn A, Stubbusch J, Muller F, van der Wees J, Schneider C, et al. Essential role of Gata transcription factors in sympathetic neuron development. Development. 2004;131:4775-86 pubmed
    ..from neural crest precursors by a network of crossregulatory transcription factors, which includes Mash1, Phox2b, Hand2 and Phox2a...
  7. Firulli A, McFadden D, Lin Q, Srivastava D, Olson E. Heart and extra-embryonic mesodermal defects in mouse embryos lacking the bHLH transcription factor Hand1. Nat Genet. 1998;18:266-70 pubmed
    ..bHLH) transcription factors, Hand1 and Hand2 (refs 1,2), also called eHand/Hxt/Thing1 and dHand/Hed/Thing2 (refs 3,4), respectively, are expressed in the heart and certain neural-crest derivatives during embryogenesis...
  8. Li D, Sakuma R, Vakili N, Mo R, Puviindran V, Deimling S, et al. Formation of proximal and anterior limb skeleton requires early function of Irx3 and Irx5 and is negatively regulated by Shh signaling. Dev Cell. 2014;29:233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide genetic evidence supporting the concept of early specification and progressive determination of anterior limb pattern. ..
  9. Zhao Y, Samal E, Srivastava D. Serum response factor regulates a muscle-specific microRNA that targets Hand2 during cardiogenesis. Nature. 2005;436:214-20 pubmed
    ..microRNA target identification that incorporates features of RNA structure and target accessibility, we show that Hand2, a transcription factor that promotes ventricular cardiomyocyte expansion, is a target of miR-1...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Barnes R, Firulli B, Vandusen N, Morikawa Y, Conway S, Cserjesi P, et al. Hand2 loss-of-function in Hand1-expressing cells reveals distinct roles in epicardial and coronary vessel development. Circ Res. 2011;108:940-9 pubmed publisher
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 are essential for embryonic development. Given their requirement for cardiogenesis, it is imperative to determine their impact on cardiovascular function...
  2. Firulli A. A HANDful of questions: the molecular biology of the heart and neural crest derivatives (HAND)-subclass of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Gene. 2003;312:27-40 pubmed
    The HAND subclass of basic Helix-loop-helix factors is comprised of two members HAND1 and HAND2. HAND genes are present within the genomes of organisms ranging from flies to man...
  3. Vokes S, Ji H, Wong W, McMahon A. A genome-scale analysis of the cis-regulatory circuitry underlying sonic hedgehog-mediated patterning of the mammalian limb. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2651-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, a long-range silencer cassette downstream from Hand2 likely mediates Gli3 repression in the anterior limb...
  4. Vincentz J, Barnes R, Rodgers R, Firulli B, Conway S, Firulli A. An absence of Twist1 results in aberrant cardiac neural crest morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;320:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The nodular mesenchyme expresses the related bHLH factors Hand1 and Hand2, but reduced levels of the normal cushion marker Periostin...
  5. Loebel D, Hor A, Bildsoe H, Jones V, Chen Y, Behringer R, et al. Regionalized Twist1 activity in the forelimb bud drives the morphogenesis of the proximal and preaxial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2012;362:132-40 pubmed publisher
  6. Firulli B, Redick B, Conway S, Firulli A. Mutations within helix I of Twist1 result in distinct limb defects and variation of DNA binding affinities. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27536-46 pubmed
    ..of Twist1 results in polydactyly via the inability of Twist1 to antagonistically regulate the related factor Hand2. The mechanism modulating Twist1-Hand2 antagonism is via phosphoregulation of conserved threonine and serine ..
  7. Murakami M, Kataoka K, Fukuhara S, Nakagawa O, Kurihara H. Akt-dependent phosphorylation negatively regulates the transcriptional activity of dHAND by inhibiting the DNA binding activity. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:3330-9 pubmed
    b>HAND2/dHAND is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in the heart and neural crest derivatives during embryogenesis...
  8. Kmita M, Tarchini B, Zakany J, Logan M, Tabin C, Duboule D. Early developmental arrest of mammalian limbs lacking HoxA/HoxD gene function. Nature. 2005;435:1113-6 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, these mutant limbs may be reminiscent of an ancestral trunk extension, related to that proposed for arthropods. ..
  9. Zhulyn O, Li D, Deimling S, Vakili N, Mo R, Puviindran V, et al. A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers. Dev Cell. 2014;29:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..into anterior and posterior regions through the antagonistic actions of transcription factors Gli3 and Hand2. We demonstrate that precocious activation of Shh signaling during this early phase interferes with the Gli3-..
  10. Thomas T, Yamagishi H, Overbeek P, Olson E, Srivastava D. The bHLH factors, dHAND and eHAND, specify pulmonary and systemic cardiac ventricles independent of left-right sidedness. Dev Biol. 1998;196:228-36 pubmed
    b>dHAND and eHAND are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that play critical roles in cardiac development...
  11. Ruest L, Xiang X, Lim K, Levi G, Clouthier D. Endothelin-A receptor-dependent and -independent signaling pathways in establishing mandibular identity. Development. 2004;131:4413-23 pubmed
    ..proximal first arch gene expression into the distal arch, in addition to the previously described loss of a Dlx6/Hand2 expression network. However, a small distal Hand2 expression domain remains...
  12. Laforest B, Nemer M. GATA5 interacts with GATA4 and GATA6 in outflow tract development. Dev Biol. 2011;358:368-78 pubmed publisher
    ..factors important for endocardial and myocardial cell differentiation, such as Tbx20, Mef2c, Hey1 and Hand2, was reduced in compound heterozygote embryos...
  13. Capellini T, Di Giacomo G, Salsi V, Brendolan A, Ferretti E, Srivastava D, et al. Pbx1/Pbx2 requirement for distal limb patterning is mediated by the hierarchical control of Hox gene spatial distribution and Shh expression. Development. 2006;133:2263-73 pubmed
  14. Thattaliyath B, Livi C, Steinhelper M, Toney G, Firulli A. HAND1 and HAND2 are expressed in the adult-rodent heart and are modulated during cardiac hypertrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:870-5 pubmed
    ..Mouse expression of HAND1 and HAND2 was reported absent in the adult heart...
  15. Galli A, Robay D, Osterwalder M, Bao X, Bénazet J, Tariq M, et al. Distinct roles of Hand2 in initiating polarity and posterior Shh expression during the onset of mouse limb bud development. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000901 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of the Hand2 transcriptional regulator from the onset of mouse forelimb bud development disrupts establishment of posterior ..
  16. Dai Y, Cserjesi P. The basic helix-loop-helix factor, HAND2, functions as a transcriptional activator by binding to E-boxes as a heterodimer. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12604-12 pubmed
    HAND2 (dHAND) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor expressed in numerous tissues during development including the heart, limbs, and a subset of neural crest derivatives...
  17. Davenport T, Jerome Majewska L, Papaioannou V. Mammary gland, limb and yolk sac defects in mice lacking Tbx3, the gene mutated in human ulnar mammary syndrome. Development. 2003;130:2263-73 pubmed
  18. Vincentz J, Vandusen N, Fleming A, Rubart M, Firulli B, Howard M, et al. A Phox2- and Hand2-dependent Hand1 cis-regulatory element reveals a unique gene dosage requirement for Hand2 during sympathetic neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..as an important model for neurogenesis and depends upon the function of both bHLH transcription factors, notably Hand2, and homeodomain transcription factors, including Phox2b...
  19. Abu Issa R, Smyth G, Smoak I, Yamamura K, Meyers E. Fgf8 is required for pharyngeal arch and cardiovascular development in the mouse. Development. 2002;129:4613-25 pubmed
    ..This study defines the cardiovascular defects present in Fgf8 mutants and supports a role for Fgf8 in development of all the pharyngeal arches and in NCC survival. ..
  20. Sagai T, Hosoya M, Mizushina Y, Tamura M, Shiroishi T. Elimination of a long-range cis-regulatory module causes complete loss of limb-specific Shh expression and truncation of the mouse limb. Development. 2005;132:797-803 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the conserved intronic sequence evolved in a common ancestor of fishes and tetrapods to control fin and limb development. ..
  21. Tsarovina K, Reiff T, Stubbusch J, Kurek D, Grosveld F, Parlato R, et al. The Gata3 transcription factor is required for the survival of embryonic and adult sympathetic neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Gata3 is continuously required for maintaining survival but not differentiation in the sympathetic neuron lineage up to mature neurons of adult animals. ..
  22. Tanaka M, Chen Z, Bartunkova S, Yamasaki N, Izumo S. The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. Development. 1999;126:1269-80 pubmed
    ..5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos. ..
  23. Potzner M, Tsarovina K, BINDER E, Penzo Méndez A, Lefebvre V, Rohrer H, et al. Sequential requirement of Sox4 and Sox11 during development of the sympathetic nervous system. Development. 2010;137:775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, sympathetic ganglia were rudimentary in the adult and sympathetic innervation of target tissues was impaired leading to severe dysautonomia. ..
  24. McFadden D, Barbosa A, Richardson J, Schneider M, Srivastava D, Olson E. The Hand1 and Hand2 transcription factors regulate expansion of the embryonic cardiac ventricles in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Development. 2005;132:189-201 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 display dynamic and spatially restricted expression patterns in the developing heart. Mice that lack Hand2 die at embryonic day 10...
  25. Charite J, McFadden D, Olson E. The bHLH transcription factor dHAND controls Sonic hedgehog expression and establishment of the zone of polarizing activity during limb development. Development. 2000;127:2461-70 pubmed
    ..We show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor dHAND is expressed posteriorly in the developing limb prior to Shh and subsequently occupies a broad domain that ..
  26. Chen H, Shi S, Acosta L, Li W, Lu J, Bao S, et al. BMP10 is essential for maintaining cardiac growth during murine cardiogenesis. Development. 2004;131:2219-31 pubmed
    ..This may provide an underlying mechanism for understanding the pathogenesis of both structural and functional congenital heart defects. ..
  27. Chen Y, Ishii M, Sucov H, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 are required for endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the atrioventricular cushions and patterning of the atrioventricular myocardium. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:75 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, perturbed expression of chamber-specific genes Anf, Tbx2, Hand1 and Hand2 reveals mispatterning of the Msx1/2 double mutant myocardium and suggests functions of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating ..
  28. Hill P, Götz K, Ruther U. A SHH-independent regulation of Gli3 is a significant determinant of anteroposterior patterning of the limb bud. Dev Biol. 2009;328:506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we present evidence that the anteroposterior grading of GLI3 activity by the action of SHH is supported by a prototype patterning, which regulates Gli3 independently from SHH. ..
  29. Hollenberg S, Sternglanz R, Cheng P, Weintraub H. Identification of a new family of tissue-specific basic helix-loop-helix proteins with a two-hybrid system. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:3813-22 pubmed
    ..Transient transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with GAL4-Th1 fusions reveals a repression activity mediated by the Th1 bHLH domain. In combination, these properties define Th1 as a new bHLH protein with a unique set of properties. ..
  30. Yamagishi H, Olson E, Srivastava D. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, dHAND, is required for vascular development. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:261-70 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, dHAND/Hand2, is expressed in the developing vascular mesenchyme and its derivative, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
  31. Sagai T, Masuya H, Tamura M, Shimizu K, Yada Y, Wakana S, et al. Phylogenetic conservation of a limb-specific, cis-acting regulator of Sonic hedgehog ( Shh). Mamm Genome. 2004;15:23-34 pubmed
    ..Absence of the conserved sequence in limbless reptiles and amphibians and a cis- trans test using the Hx and Shh KO alleles suggest that the sequence is a cis-acting regulator that controls the polarized expression of Shh...
  32. Litingtung Y, Dahn R, Li Y, Fallon J, Chiang C. Shh and Gli3 are dispensable for limb skeleton formation but regulate digit number and identity. Nature. 2002;418:979-83 pubmed
  33. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is required for forelimb growth and anteroposterior patterning in the mouse. Development. 2002;129:3563-74 pubmed
    ..We suggest that RA signaling cooperates with a posteriorly restricted factor such as dHand, to generate a functional zone of polarizing activity (ZPA).
  34. Zhao Y, Ransom J, Li A, Vedantham V, von Drehle M, Muth A, et al. Dysregulation of cardiogenesis, cardiac conduction, and cell cycle in mice lacking miRNA-1-2. Cell. 2007;129:303-17 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that subtle alteration of miRNA dosage can have profound consequences in mammals and demonstrate the utility of mammalian loss-of-function models in revealing physiologic miRNA targets. ..
  35. Li Q, Kannan A, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Cooke P, Yamagishi H, et al. The antiproliferative action of progesterone in uterine epithelium is mediated by Hand2. Science. 2011;331:912-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that progesterone-induced expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2 in the uterine stroma suppresses the production of several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that act as paracrine ..
  36. Thattaliyath B, Firulli B, Firulli A. The basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND2 directly regulates transcription of the atrial naturetic peptide gene. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002;34:1335-44 pubmed
    ..In efforts to identify downstream transcriptional targets, we have determined that HAND2 regulates the transcription of the Atrial Naturetic Peptide (ANP) gene...
  37. Ashe A, Butterfield N, Town L, Courtney A, Cooper A, Ferguson C, et al. Mutations in mouse Ift144 model the craniofacial, limb and rib defects in skeletal ciliopathies. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1808-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This allelic series of mouse mutants provides a unique opportunity to uncover the underlying mechanistic basis of this intriguing subset of ciliopathies. ..
  38. Bruneau B, Nemer G, Schmitt J, Charron F, Robitaille L, Caron S, et al. A murine model of Holt-Oram syndrome defines roles of the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 in cardiogenesis and disease. Cell. 2001;106:709-21 pubmed
  39. Firulli B, Krawchuk D, Centonze V, Vargesson N, Virshup D, Conway S, et al. Altered Twist1 and Hand2 dimerization is associated with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and limb abnormalities. Nat Genet. 2005;37:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that ectopic expression of the related basic helix-loop-helix factor Hand2 phenocopies Twist1 loss of function in the limb and that the two factors have a gene dosage-dependent antagonistic ..
  40. Compagnucci C, Debiais Thibaud M, Coolen M, Fish J, Griffin J, Bertocchini F, et al. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula. Dev Biol. 2013;377:428-48 pubmed publisher
  41. Liu A, Wang B, Niswander L. Mouse intraflagellar transport proteins regulate both the activator and repressor functions of Gli transcription factors. Development. 2005;132:3103-11 pubmed
    ..Expression of Gli3 and Hand2 in the mutant limb indicates that the limb prepattern is abnormal...
  42. Schmidt M, Lin S, Pape M, Ernsberger U, Stanke M, Kobayashi K, et al. The bHLH transcription factor Hand2 is essential for the maintenance of noradrenergic properties in differentiated sympathetic neurons. Dev Biol. 2009;329:191-200 pubmed publisher
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2 is essential for the proliferation and noradrenergic differentiation of sympathetic neuron precursors during development...
  43. Chen Y, Ishii M, Sun J, Sucov H, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract. Dev Biol. 2007;308:421-37 pubmed
    ..ectopic apoptosis in the Msx1-/-; Msx2-/- mutant SHF is associated with reduced expression of Hand1 and Hand2, which from work on Hand1 and Hand2 mutants may be functionally important in the inhibition of apoptosis in Msx1/2 ..
  44. Crispino J, Lodish M, Thurberg B, Litovsky S, Collins T, Molkentin J, et al. Proper coronary vascular development and heart morphogenesis depend on interaction of GATA-4 with FOG cofactors. Genes Dev. 2001;15:839-44 pubmed
    ..We also infer that GATA-4 function is dependent on interaction with FOG-2 and, very likely, an additional FOG protein for distinct aspects of heart formation. ..
  45. Jin Y, Turcotte T, Crocker A, Han X, Yoon J. The canonical Wnt signaling activator, R-spondin2, regulates craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis within the branchial arch through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction. Dev Biol. 2011;352:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Rspo2 regulates expression of the Dlx5, Dlx6, and Hand2 genes in mesenchymal cells via inducing expression of their upstream activator, Endothelin1 (Edn1), within ..
  46. Jeong J, Mao J, Tenzen T, Kottmann A, McMahon A. Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia. Genes Dev. 2004;18:937-51 pubmed
    ..Further, our analysis of Shh-Fox gene regulatory interactions leads us to propose that Fox genes mediate the action of Shh in facial development. ..
  47. Sheth R, Bastida M, Ros M. Hoxd and Gli3 interactions modulate digit number in the amniote limb. Dev Biol. 2007;310:430-41 pubmed
    ..Our results also support the notion that an adequate balance between positive and negative effects of different Hoxd genes is required for pentadactyly. ..
  48. Togi K, Kawamoto T, Yamauchi R, Yoshida Y, Kita T, Tanaka M. Role of Hand1/eHAND in the dorso-ventral patterning and interventricular septum formation in the embryonic heart. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4627-35 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, expression of Hand1/eHAND in the whole ventricles altered the expression patterns of Chisel, ANF, and Hand2/dHAND but did not affect Tbx5 expression...
  49. Garg V, Yamagishi C, Hu T, Kathiriya I, Yamagishi H, Srivastava D. Tbx1, a DiGeorge syndrome candidate gene, is regulated by sonic hedgehog during pharyngeal arch development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:62-73 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Shh was sufficient to induce Tbx1 expression when misexpressed in selected regions of chick embryos. These studies reveal a Shh-mediated pathway that regulates Tbx1 during pharyngeal arch development. ..
  50. Firulli B, Howard M, McDaid J, McIlreavey L, Dionne K, Centonze V, et al. PKA, PKC, and the protein phosphatase 2A influence HAND factor function: a mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1225-37 pubmed
    The bHLH factors HAND1 and HAND2 are required for heart, vascular, neuronal, limb, and extraembryonic development. Unlike most bHLH proteins, HAND factors exhibit promiscuous dimerization properties...
  51. te Welscher P, Fernandez Teran M, Ros M, Zeller R. Mutual genetic antagonism involving GLI3 and dHAND prepatterns the vertebrate limb bud mesenchyme prior to SHH signaling. Genes Dev. 2002;16:421-6 pubmed
    The bHLH transcription factor dHAND is required for establishment of SHH signaling by the limb bud organizer in posterior mesenchyme, a step crucial to development of vertebrate paired appendages...
  52. Molkentin J, Lin Q, Duncan S, Olson E. Requirement of the transcription factor GATA4 for heart tube formation and ventral morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1061-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that GATA4 is required for the migration or folding morphogenesis of the precardiogenic splanchnic mesodermal cells at the level of the AIP. ..
  53. Sato T, Kurihara Y, Asai R, Kawamura Y, Tonami K, Uchijima Y, et al. An endothelin-1 switch specifies maxillomandibular identity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The endothelin-1 (Edn1)/endothelin receptor type-A (Ednra)-->Dlx5/6-->Hand2 signaling pathway is necessary for lower jaw formation...
  54. Barnes R, Firulli B, Conway S, Vincentz J, Firulli A. Analysis of the Hand1 cell lineage reveals novel contributions to cardiovascular, neural crest, extra-embryonic, and lateral mesoderm derivatives. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3086-97 pubmed publisher
    The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 play critical roles in the development of multiple organ systems during embryogenesis...
  55. Liu N, Barbosa A, Chapman S, Bezprozvannaya S, Qi X, Richardson J, et al. DNA binding-dependent and -independent functions of the Hand2 transcription factor during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 2009;136:933-42 pubmed publisher
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Hand2 is required for growth and development of the heart, branchial arches and limb buds...
  56. te Welscher P, Zuniga A, Kuijper S, Drenth T, Goedemans H, Meijlink F, et al. Progression of vertebrate limb development through SHH-mediated counteraction of GLI3. Science. 2002;298:827-30 pubmed
    ..Our genetic analysis indicates that SHH signaling counteracts GLI3-mediated repression of key regulator genes, cell survival, and distal progression of limb bud development. ..
  57. Beverdam A, Merlo G, Paleari L, Mantero S, Genova F, Barbieri O, et al. Jaw transformation with gain of symmetry after Dlx5/Dlx6 inactivation: mirror of the past?. Genesis. 2002;34:221-7 pubmed
    ..Our finding supports the notion that Dlx genes are homeotic genes associated with morphological novelty in the vertebrate lineage. ..
  58. Tavares A, Garcia E, Kuhn K, Woods C, Williams T, Clouthier D. Ectodermal-derived Endothelin1 is required for patterning the distal and intermediate domains of the mouse mandibular arch. Dev Biol. 2012;371:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results illustrate an integral role for ectoderm-derived Edn1 in early arch morphogenesis, particularly in the intermediate domain...
  59. Krawchuk D, Weiner S, Chen Y, Lu B, Costantini F, Behringer R, et al. Twist1 activity thresholds define multiple functions in limb development. Dev Biol. 2010;347:133-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely this and other phenotypes are suppressed by reducing the dosage of the Twist1 antagonist Hand2. Our data support a model whereby multiple Twist1 activity thresholds contribute to early limb bud patterning, and ..
  60. Fernandez Teran M, Piedra M, Kathiriya I, Srivastava D, Rodriguez Rey J, Ros M. Role of dHAND in the anterior-posterior polarization of the limb bud: implications for the Sonic hedgehog pathway. Development. 2000;127:2133-42 pubmed
    b>dHAND is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor essential for cardiovascular development. Here we analyze its pattern of expression and functional role during chick limb development...