Gene Symbol: Hand1
Description: heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 1
Alias: Ehand1, Hxt, Th1, Thing1, bHLHa27, eHAND, heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1, extraembryonic tissues, heart, autonomic nervous system and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1, heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 1, helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in extraembryonic mesoderm and trophoblast, thing-1
Species: mouse
Products:     Hand1

Top Publications

  1. Vincentz J, Barnes R, Rodgers R, Firulli B, Conway S, Firulli A. An absence of Twist1 results in aberrant cardiac neural crest morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;320:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The nodular mesenchyme expresses the related bHLH factors Hand1 and Hand2, but reduced levels of the normal cushion marker Periostin...
  2. Martindill D, Risebro C, Smart N, Franco Viseras M, Rosario C, Swallow C, et al. Nucleolar release of Hand1 acts as a molecular switch to determine cell fate. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1131-41 pubmed
    The bHLH transcription factor Hand1 is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis in the developing embryo...
  3. Takeuchi J, Ohgi M, Koshiba Takeuchi K, Shiratori H, Sakaki I, Ogura K, et al. Tbx5 specifies the left/right ventricles and ventricular septum position during cardiogenesis. Development. 2003;130:5953-64 pubmed
    ..In such hearts, expression patterns of dHAND and eHAND were changed with definitive cardiac abnormalities...
  4. Cross J, Flannery M, Blanar M, Steingrimsson E, Jenkins N, Copeland N, et al. Hxt encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates trophoblast cell development. Development. 1995;121:2513-23 pubmed
    ..We report the cloning of a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene, Hxt, that is expressed in early trophoblast and in differentiated giant cells...
  5. Simmons D, Natale D, Begay V, Hughes M, Leutz A, Cross J. Early patterning of the chorion leads to the trilaminar trophoblast cell structure in the placental labyrinth. Development. 2008;135:2083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5-14.5) including Ctsq in S-TGCs (also Hand1-positive), Syna in syncytiotrophoblast layer I (SynT-I), and Gcm1, Cebpa and Synb in syncytiotrophoblast layer II (..
  6. Hughes M, Dobric N, Scott I, Su L, Starovic M, St Pierre B, et al. The Hand1, Stra13 and Gcm1 transcription factors override FGF signaling to promote terminal differentiation of trophoblast stem cells. Dev Biol. 2004;271:26-37 pubmed
    ..and/or maintenance of the differentiated derivatives are dependent on key transcription factors: Mash2 for SpT, Hand1 for TG cells and Gcm1 for SynT cells...
  7. Thomas T, Yamagishi H, Overbeek P, Olson E, Srivastava D. The bHLH factors, dHAND and eHAND, specify pulmonary and systemic cardiac ventricles independent of left-right sidedness. Dev Biol. 1998;196:228-36 pubmed
    dHAND and eHAND are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that play critical roles in cardiac development...
  8. Kraut N, Snider L, Chen C, Tapscott S, Groudine M. Requirement of the mouse I-mfa gene for placental development and skeletal patterning. EMBO J. 1998;17:6276-88 pubmed
    ..In contrast, I-mfa did not interfere with the activity of the bHLH protein Hand1, a positive regulator of giant cell differentiation...
  9. Tanaka H, Nagaike K, Takeda N, Itoh H, Kohama K, Fukushima T, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) is required for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5687-98 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that mouse HAI-1 is essential for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta and lack of HAI-1 function may result in placental failure. ..

More Information


  1. Firulli B, Howard M, McDaid J, McIlreavey L, Dionne K, Centonze V, et al. PKA, PKC, and the protein phosphatase 2A influence HAND factor function: a mechanism for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1225-37 pubmed
    The bHLH factors HAND1 and HAND2 are required for heart, vascular, neuronal, limb, and extraembryonic development. Unlike most bHLH proteins, HAND factors exhibit promiscuous dimerization properties...
  2. Barnes R, Firulli B, Conway S, Vincentz J, Firulli A. Analysis of the Hand1 cell lineage reveals novel contributions to cardiovascular, neural crest, extra-embryonic, and lateral mesoderm derivatives. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3086-97 pubmed publisher
    The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 play critical roles in the development of multiple organ systems during embryogenesis...
  3. Thattaliyath B, Livi C, Steinhelper M, Toney G, Firulli A. HAND1 and HAND2 are expressed in the adult-rodent heart and are modulated during cardiac hypertrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:870-5 pubmed
    ..Mouse expression of HAND1 and HAND2 was reported absent in the adult heart...
  4. Molkentin J, Lin Q, Duncan S, Olson E. Requirement of the transcription factor GATA4 for heart tube formation and ventral morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1061-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that GATA4 is required for the migration or folding morphogenesis of the precardiogenic splanchnic mesodermal cells at the level of the AIP. ..
  5. Togi K, Kawamoto T, Yamauchi R, Yoshida Y, Kita T, Tanaka M. Role of Hand1/eHAND in the dorso-ventral patterning and interventricular septum formation in the embryonic heart. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4627-35 pubmed
    ..To investigate a role of Hand1/eHAND in cardiac chamber formation, we generated Hand1/eHAND knock-in mice where Hand1/eHAND cDNA was placed under ..
  6. Tanaka M, Chen Z, Bartunkova S, Yamasaki N, Izumo S. The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. Development. 1999;126:1269-80 pubmed
    ..studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2...
  7. McFadden D, Barbosa A, Richardson J, Schneider M, Srivastava D, Olson E. The Hand1 and Hand2 transcription factors regulate expansion of the embryonic cardiac ventricles in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Development. 2005;132:189-201 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 display dynamic and spatially restricted expression patterns in the developing heart. Mice that lack Hand2 die at embryonic day 10...
  8. Gaussin V, Van de Putte T, Mishina Y, Hanks M, Zwijsen A, Huylebroeck D, et al. Endocardial cushion and myocardial defects after cardiac myocyte-specific conditional deletion of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ALK3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2878-83 pubmed
    ..Hence, ALK3 is essential, beyond just the egg cylinder stage, for myocyte-dependent functions and signals in cardiac organogenesis. ..
  9. Liu N, Barbosa A, Chapman S, Bezprozvannaya S, Qi X, Richardson J, et al. DNA binding-dependent and -independent functions of the Hand2 transcription factor during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 2009;136:933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Hand2 regulates tissue growth and development in vivo through DNA binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  10. Chen H, Shi S, Acosta L, Li W, Lu J, Bao S, et al. BMP10 is essential for maintaining cardiac growth during murine cardiogenesis. Development. 2004;131:2219-31 pubmed
    ..This may provide an underlying mechanism for understanding the pathogenesis of both structural and functional congenital heart defects. ..
  11. McFadden D, McAnally J, Richardson J, Charité J, Olson E. Misexpression of dHAND induces ectopic digits in the developing limb bud in the absence of direct DNA binding. Development. 2002;129:3077-88 pubmed
    ..b>eHAND and dHAND (also known as HAND1 and HAND2) are closely related bHLH proteins that control cardiac, craniofacial and ..
  12. Hill A, Riley P. Differential regulation of Hand1 homodimer and Hand1-E12 heterodimer activity by the cofactor FHL2. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9835-47 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor Hand1 plays an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis, and yet its precise function remains unknown...
  13. Biben C, Weber R, Kesteven S, Stanley E, McDonald L, Elliott D, et al. Cardiac septal and valvular dysmorphogenesis in mice heterozygous for mutations in the homeobox gene Nkx2-5. Circ Res. 2000;87:888-95 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that the complex effects of Nkx2-5 haploinsufficiency in mice are weaker but convergent with those in humans. As in the mouse, the phenotype of human NKX2-5 mutations may be modulated by interacting alleles. ..
  14. Simmons D, Fortier A, Cross J. Diverse subtypes and developmental origins of trophoblast giant cells in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2007;304:567-78 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, cell lineage tracing studies indicated unique origins for different TGC subtypes, in contrast with previous suggestions that secondary TGCs all arise from Tpbpa+ ectoplacental cone precursors...
  15. Morikawa Y, D Autréaux F, Gershon M, Cserjesi P. Hand2 determines the noradrenergic phenotype in the mouse sympathetic nervous system. Dev Biol. 2007;307:114-26 pubmed
    ..circuit regulating SNS development, including Phox2a/b, Mash1 and Gata2/3; however, Hand2 was required for Hand1 expression...
  16. Morin S, Pozzulo G, Robitaille L, Cross J, Nemer M. MEF2-dependent recruitment of the HAND1 transcription factor results in synergistic activation of target promoters. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32272-8 pubmed
    ..Within the embryo, HAND1 is first detected in the developing heart where it becomes restricted to the atrial and left ventricular ..
  17. Riley P, Anson Cartwright L, Cross J. The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 1998;18:271-5 pubmed
    ..The Hand1 gene, previously called Hxt, eHAND and Thing1, encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that starts to be expressed during pre-implantation ..
  18. Firulli A, McFadden D, Lin Q, Srivastava D, Olson E. Heart and extra-embryonic mesodermal defects in mouse embryos lacking the bHLH transcription factor Hand1. Nat Genet. 1998;18:266-70 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, Hand1 and Hand2 (refs 1,2), also called eHand/Hxt/Thing1 and dHand/Hed/Thing2 (refs 3,4), respectively, are expressed in the heart and certain neural-crest derivatives during ..
  19. Risebro C, Smart N, Dupays L, Breckenridge R, Mohun T, Riley P. Hand1 regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation versus differentiation in the developing heart. Development. 2006;133:4595-606 pubmed
    ..Here, we report how upregulation of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Hand1, restricted exclusively to Hand1-expressing cells, brings about a significant extension of the heart tube and ..
  20. Srivastava D, Thomas T, Lin Q, Kirby M, Brown D, Olson E. Regulation of cardiac mesodermal and neural crest development by the bHLH transcription factor, dHAND. Nat Genet. 1997;16:154-60 pubmed
    dHAND and eHAND are related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are expressed in mesodermal and neural crest-derived structures of the developing heart...
  21. Hollenberg S, Sternglanz R, Cheng P, Weintraub H. Identification of a new family of tissue-specific basic helix-loop-helix proteins with a two-hybrid system. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:3813-22 pubmed
    ..b>Thing1 (Th1) was identified in a screen of a mouse embryo cDNA library as a partner for the Drosophila E protein ..
  22. Cserjesi P, Brown D, Lyons G, Olson E. Expression of the novel basic helix-loop-helix gene eHAND in neural crest derivatives and extraembryonic membranes during mouse development. Dev Biol. 1995;170:664-78 pubmed
    ..From this screen, we cloned a novel bHLH protein, which we named eHAND. Its low sequence identity with other bHLH family members and unique expression pattern during development suggest ..
  23. Smart N, Hill A, Cross J, Riley P. A differential screen for putative targets of the bHLH transcription factor Hand1 in cardiac morphogenesis. Mech Dev. 2002;119 Suppl 1:S65-71 pubmed
    The bHLH transcription factor, Hand1 has been implicated in cardiac looping in the mouse, however its function in the developing heart remains unknown...
  24. Cai C, Liang X, Shi Y, Chu P, Pfaff S, Chen J, et al. Isl1 identifies a cardiac progenitor population that proliferates prior to differentiation and contributes a majority of cells to the heart. Dev Cell. 2003;5:877-89 pubmed
    ..Our results have implications for the development of specific cardiac lineages, left-right asymmetry, cardiac evolution, and isolation of cardiac progenitor cells. ..
  25. Srivastava D, Cserjesi P, Olson E. A subclass of bHLH proteins required for cardiac morphogenesis. Science. 1995;270:1995-9 pubmed
    ..Two bHLH genes, dHAND and eHAND, have now been isolated that are expressed in the bilateral heart primordia and subsequently throughout the ..
  26. Bruneau B, Nemer G, Schmitt J, Charron F, Robitaille L, Caron S, et al. A murine model of Holt-Oram syndrome defines roles of the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 in cardiogenesis and disease. Cell. 2001;106:709-21 pubmed
  27. Tunster S, Tycko B, John R. The imprinted Phlda2 gene regulates extraembryonic energy stores. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:295-306 pubmed publisher
  28. Breckenridge R, Zuberi Z, Gomes J, Orford R, Dupays L, Felkin L, et al. Overexpression of the transcription factor Hand1 causes predisposition towards arrhythmia in mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:133-41 pubmed publisher
    Elevated levels of the cardiac transcription factor Hand1 have been reported in several adult cardiac diseases but it is unclear whether this change is itself maladaptive with respect to heart function...
  29. Riley P, Gertsenstein M, Dawson K, Cross J. Early exclusion of hand1-deficient cells from distinct regions of the left ventricular myocardium in chimeric mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 2000;227:156-68 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene Hand1 has been implicated in development of the heart. However, the early lethality of Hand1-null mutant mouse embryos has precluded a precise understanding of its function...
  30. Zeisberg E, Ma Q, Juraszek A, Moses K, Schwartz R, Izumo S, et al. Morphogenesis of the right ventricle requires myocardial expression of Gata4. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1522-31 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a general role of myocardial Gata4 in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation and a specific, stage-dependent role in regulating the morphogenesis of the RV and the atrioventricular canal. ..
  31. Thattaliyath B, Firulli B, Firulli A. The basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND2 directly regulates transcription of the atrial naturetic peptide gene. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002;34:1335-44 pubmed
    ..5, showing a functional relationship between HAND2 and Nkx2.5 supporting the genetic observation, that mice null for both HAND2 and Nkx2.5 lack ventricle specification. ..
  32. Liu W, Selever J, Wang D, Lu M, Moses K, Schwartz R, et al. Bmp4 signaling is required for outflow-tract septation and branchial-arch artery remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4489-94 pubmed
    ..Our findings uncover a previously uncharacterized function for Bmp4 in vascular remodeling of the BAAs, and they show definitively that Bmp4, in cooperation with Bmp7, has a central role in OFT septation. ..
  33. Christoffels V, Habets P, Franco D, Campione M, de Jong F, Lamers W, et al. Chamber formation and morphogenesis in the developing mammalian heart. Dev Biol. 2000;223:266-78 pubmed
    ..programs which govern compartmentalization in the forming heart is seen in the patterns of expression of Hand1 for the dorsoventral axis, Irx4 and Tbx5 for the anteroposterior axis, and Irx5 for the distinction between ..
  34. Biben C, Harvey R. Homeodomain factor Nkx2-5 controls left/right asymmetric expression of bHLH gene eHand during murine heart development. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1357-69 pubmed
    ..Beginning at the same stage, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor gene eHand was expressed in a strikingly left-dominant pattern in myocardium, reflecting an intrinsic molecular asymmetry...
  35. Barnes R, Firulli B, Vandusen N, Morikawa Y, Conway S, Cserjesi P, et al. Hand2 loss-of-function in Hand1-expressing cells reveals distinct roles in epicardial and coronary vessel development. Circ Res. 2011;108:940-9 pubmed publisher
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 are essential for embryonic development. Given their requirement for cardiogenesis, it is imperative to determine their impact on cardiovascular function...
  36. Firulli B, Krawchuk D, Centonze V, Vargesson N, Virshup D, Conway S, et al. Altered Twist1 and Hand2 dimerization is associated with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and limb abnormalities. Nat Genet. 2005;37:373-81 pubmed publisher
  37. Crispino J, Lodish M, Thurberg B, Litovsky S, Collins T, Molkentin J, et al. Proper coronary vascular development and heart morphogenesis depend on interaction of GATA-4 with FOG cofactors. Genes Dev. 2001;15:839-44 pubmed
    ..We also infer that GATA-4 function is dependent on interaction with FOG-2 and, very likely, an additional FOG protein for distinct aspects of heart formation. ..
  38. Chen Y, Ishii M, Sun J, Sucov H, Maxson R. Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract. Dev Biol. 2007;308:421-37 pubmed
    ..the OFT myocardium, ectopic apoptosis in the Msx1-/-; Msx2-/- mutant SHF is associated with reduced expression of Hand1 and Hand2, which from work on Hand1 and Hand2 mutants may be functionally important in the inhibition of apoptosis ..
  39. Harrelson Z, Kelly R, Goldin S, Gibson Brown J, Bollag R, Silver L, et al. Tbx2 is essential for patterning the atrioventricular canal and for morphogenesis of the outflow tract during heart development. Development. 2004;131:5041-52 pubmed
  40. Firulli A. A HANDful of questions: the molecular biology of the heart and neural crest derivatives (HAND)-subclass of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Gene. 2003;312:27-40 pubmed
    The HAND subclass of basic Helix-loop-helix factors is comprised of two members HAND1 and HAND2. HAND genes are present within the genomes of organisms ranging from flies to man...
  41. Mudgett J, Ding J, Guh Siesel L, Chartrain N, Yang L, Gopal S, et al. Essential role for p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase in placental angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10454-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results indicate a requirement for p38alpha MAPK in diploid trophoblast development and placental vascularization and suggest a more general role for p38 MAPK signaling in embryonic angiogenesis. ..
  42. Mainigi M, Olalere D, Burd I, Sapienza C, Bartolomei M, Coutifaris C. Peri-implantation hormonal milieu: elucidating mechanisms of abnormal placentation and fetal growth. Biol Reprod. 2014;90:26 pubmed publisher
  43. Clouthier D, Williams S, Yanagisawa H, Wieduwilt M, Richardson J, Yanagisawa M. Signaling pathways crucial for craniofacial development revealed by endothelin-A receptor-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2000;217:10-24 pubmed
    ..These ET(A)-dependent factors include the transcription factors goosecoid, Dlx-2, Dlx-3, dHAND, eHAND, and Barx1, but not MHox, Hoxa-2, CRABP1, or Ufd1. In addition, the size of the arches in E10.5 to E11...
  44. Dettlaff Swiercz D, Wettschureck N, Moers A, Huber K, Offermanns S. Characteristic defects in neural crest cell-specific Galphaq/Galpha11- and Galpha12/Galpha13-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2005;282:174-82 pubmed
    ..In contrast, ET-3/ET(B)-mediated development of neural crest-derived melanocytes and enteric neurons appears to involve G-proteins different from G(q)/G(11)/G(12)/G(13). ..
  45. Park C, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Dufort D. NODAL in the uterus is necessary for proper placental development and maintenance of pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:194 pubmed publisher
  46. Wansleeben C, Feitsma H, Tertoolen L, Kroon C, Guryev V, Cuppen E, et al. A novel mutant allele of Ncx1: a single amino acid substitution leads to cardiac dysfunction. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides an in vivo model for this mutation and demonstrates the potential of forward genetic screens in a mammalian system. ..
  47. Roebroek A, Umans L, Pauli I, Robertson E, Van Leuven F, Van de Ven W, et al. Failure of ventral closure and axial rotation in embryos lacking the proprotein convertase Furin. Development. 1998;125:4863-76 pubmed
    ..Notably, mutant embryos fail to undergo axial rotation, even though Nodal and eHand, two molecular markers of left-right asymmetry, are appropriately expressed...
  48. Niederreither K, Subbarayan V, Dolle P, Chambon P. Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is essential for early mouse post-implantation development. Nat Genet. 1999;21:444-8 pubmed
    ..Our data establish that RA synthesized by the post-implantation mammalian embryo is an essential developmental hormone whose lack leads to early embryo death. ..
  49. Murakami M, Kataoka K, Tominaga J, Nakagawa O, Kurihara H. Differential cooperation between dHAND and three different E-proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:168-74 pubmed
    ..By contrast, little signal was detected in the heart, suggesting that dHAND complexes with partners other than E-proteins in cardiac tissue. ..
  50. Bamforth S, Braganca J, Farthing C, Schneider J, Broadbent C, Michell A, et al. Cited2 controls left-right patterning and heart development through a Nodal-Pitx2c pathway. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1189-96 pubmed
    ..We propose that an abnormal Nodal-Pitx2c pathway represents a unifying mechanism for the cardiovascular malformations observed in Cited2(-/-) mice, and that such malformations may be the sole manifestation of a laterality defect. ..
  51. van Nes J, de Graaff W, Lebrin F, Gerhard M, Beck F, Deschamps J. The Cdx4 mutation affects axial development and reveals an essential role of Cdx genes in the ontogenesis of the placental labyrinth in mice. Development. 2006;133:419-28 pubmed
    ..Cdx genes thus operate in a redundant way during placentogenesis, as they do during embryonic axial elongation and patterning, and independently from the previously reported early Cdx2-specific role in the trophectoderm at implantation...
  52. Thomas T, Kurihara H, Yamagishi H, Kurihara Y, Yazaki Y, Olson E, et al. A signaling cascade involving endothelin-1, dHAND and msx1 regulates development of neural-crest-derived branchial arch mesenchyme. Development. 1998;125:3005-14 pubmed
    ..Further, dHAND and the related gene, eHAND, are downregulated in the branchial and aortic arches of Edn1-null embryos...
  53. Zhang Y, Blackwell E, McKnight M, Knutsen G, Vu W, Ruest L. Specific inactivation of Twist1 in the mandibular arch neural crest cells affects the development of the ramus and reveals interactions with hand2. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:924-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of Twist1 during mandibular development, we used the Hand2-Cre transgene to conditionally inactivate the gene in the neural crest cells populating the mandibular pharyngeal arch...
  54. Awonuga A, Zhong W, Abdallah M, Slater J, Zhou S, Xie Y, et al. Eomesodermin, HAND1, and CSH1 proteins are induced by cellular stress in a stress-activated protein kinase-dependent manner. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..During normal TSC differentiation, the transcription factor heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 1 (HAND1) is dependent on Eomes, and chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 1 (CSH1) expression is dependent on HAND1...
  55. Scotti M, Kmita M. Recruitment of 5' Hoxa genes in the allantois is essential for proper extra-embryonic function in placental mammals. Development. 2012;139:731-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, using a series of targeted recombination and transgenic assays, we provide evidence that the regulatory mechanism underlying Hoxa expression in the allantois is extremely complex and relies on several cis-regulatory sequences...
  56. Mayers C, Wadell J, McLean K, Venere M, Malik M, Shibata T, et al. The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor AKAP13 (BRX) is essential for cardiac development in mice. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12344-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that AKAP13 coordinates Galpha(12) and Rho signaling to an essential transcription program in developing cardiomyocytes. ..
  57. Yuan X, Qi H, Li X, Wu F, Fang J, Bober E, et al. Disruption of spatiotemporal hypoxic signaling causes congenital heart disease in mice. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2235-2248 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that physiological hypoxia coordinates homeostasis of CPCs, providing mechanistic explanations for some nongenetic causes of CHD. ..
  58. Espinosa Medina I, Saha O, Boismoreau F, Chettouh Z, Rossi F, Richardson W, et al. The sacral autonomic outflow is sympathetic. Science. 2016;354:893-897 pubmed
    ..This simplified, bipartite architecture offers a new framework to understand pelvic neurophysiology as well as development and evolution of the autonomic nervous system. ..
  59. Chen D, Li S, Singh R, Spinette S, Sedlmeier R, Epstein H. Dual function of the UNC-45b chaperone with myosin and GATA4 in cardiac development. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3893-903 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNAs of known downstream targets of GATA4 during secondary cardiac field development, the cardiogenic factors Hand1, Hand2 and Nkx-2.5, are also decreased, consistent with the reduced GATA4 protein accumulation...
  60. Du X, Dong Y, Shi H, Li J, Kong S, Shi D, et al. Mst1 and mst2 are essential regulators of trophoblast differentiation and placenta morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90701 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our studies have defined novel roles of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development. ..
  61. Li S, Zhou D, Lu M, Morrisey E. Advanced cardiac morphogenesis does not require heart tube fusion. Science. 2004;305:1619-22 pubmed
  62. Firulli B, Fuchs R, Vincentz J, Clouthier D, Firulli A. Hand1 phosphoregulation within the distal arch neural crest is essential for craniofacial morphogenesis. Development. 2014;141:3050-61 pubmed publisher
    In this study we examine the consequences of altering Hand1 phosphoregulation in the developing neural crest cells (NCCs) of mice...
  63. Medioni C, Bertrand N, Mesbah K, Hudry B, Dupays L, Wolstein O, et al. Expression of Slit and Robo genes in the developing mouse heart. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that patterned Slit-Robo signaling may contribute to the control of oriented cell growth during chamber morphogenesis of the mammalian heart. ..
  64. Oude Elferink R, Ottenhoff R, van Wijland M, Smit J, Schinkel A, Groen A. Regulation of biliary lipid secretion by mdr2 P-glycoprotein in the mouse. J Clin Invest. 1995;95:31-8 pubmed
    ..Increased bile flow in (-/-) mice could be attributed completely to an increase in the bile salt-independent fraction and may therefore be caused by the bile duct proliferation in these mice. ..
  65. Vincentz J, Toolan K, Zhang W, Firulli A. Hand factor ablation causes defective left ventricular chamber development and compromised adult cardiac function. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006922 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the bHLH transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 play critical regulatory roles for left ventricle (LV) cardiomyocyte proliferation and morphogenesis...