Gene Symbol: H2afx
Description: H2A histone family, member X
Alias: AW228881, H2A.X, H2ax, Hist5-2ax, gammaH2ax, histone H2AX, H2a/x, histone 5 protein 2ax, histone H2A.x
Species: mouse
Products:     H2afx

Top Publications

  1. Moens P, Marcon E, Shore J, Kochakpour N, Spyropoulos B. Initiation and resolution of interhomolog connections: crossover and non-crossover sites along mouse synaptonemal complexes. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1017-27 pubmed
    ..early nodules (ENs) that are associated with developing chromosome core segments; each focus is surrounded by a gammaH2AX-modified chromosome domain...
  2. Rogakou E, Pilch D, Orr A, Ivanova V, Bonner W. DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5858-68 pubmed
    ..acid-urea-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide gels after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation, are shown to be histone H2AX species that have been phosphorylated specifically at serine 139...
  3. Savic V, Yin B, Maas N, Bredemeyer A, Carpenter A, Helmink B, et al. Formation of dynamic gamma-H2AX domains along broken DNA strands is distinctly regulated by ATM and MDC1 and dependent upon H2AX densities in chromatin. Mol Cell. 2009;34:298-310 pubmed publisher
    A hallmark of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is histone H2AX phosphorylation in chromatin to generate gamma-H2AX...
  4. Tachibana M, Nozaki M, Takeda N, Shinkai Y. Functional dynamics of H3K9 methylation during meiotic prophase progression. EMBO J. 2007;26:3346-59 pubmed
    ..This genetic and biochemical evidence strongly suggests that a specific set of H3K9 methyltransferase(s) and demethylase(s) coordinately regulate gametogenesis. ..
  5. Soper S, van der Heijden G, Hardiman T, Goodheart M, Martin S, de Boer P, et al. Mouse maelstrom, a component of nuage, is essential for spermatogenesis and transposon repression in meiosis. Dev Cell. 2008;15:285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that MAEL, a nuage component, is indispensable for the silencing of TEs and identifies the initiation of meiosis as an important step in TE control in the male germline. ..
  6. Baarends W, Wassenaar E, van der Laan R, Hoogerbrugge J, Sleddens Linkels E, Hoeijmakers J, et al. Silencing of unpaired chromatin and histone H2A ubiquitination in mammalian meiosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1041-53 pubmed
    ..This silencing in mammalian meiotic prophase cells concerns unpaired chromatin regions and resembles a phenomenon described for the fungus Neurospora crassa and named meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA. ..
  7. Zha S, Sekiguchi J, Brush J, Bassing C, Alt F. Complementary functions of ATM and H2AX in development and suppression of genomic instability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9302-6 pubmed publisher
    Upon DNA damage, histone H2AX is phosphorylated by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and other phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related protein kinases...
  8. Guerquin M, Duquenne C, Lahaye J, Tourpin S, Habert R, Livera G. New testicular mechanisms involved in the prevention of fetal meiotic initiation in mice. Dev Biol. 2010;346:320-30 pubmed publisher
  9. Watanabe N, Mii S, Asai N, Asai M, Niimi K, Ushida K, et al. The REV7 subunit of DNA polymerase ? is essential for primordial germ cell maintenance in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..5. These findings indicate that Rev7 is essential for PGC maintenance by prevention of apoptotic cell death in the mouse. ..

More Information


  1. Orsburn B, Escudero B, Prakash M, Gesheva S, Liu G, Huso D, et al. Differential requirement for H2AX and 53BP1 in organismal development and genome maintenance in the absence of poly(ADP)ribosyl polymerase 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2341-52 pubmed publisher
    ..via analysis of mice deficient for PARP1 and either of two ATM-regulated DNA damage response (DDR) factors: histone H2AX and 53BP1. We found that, like ATM, H2AX is essential for viability in a PARP1-deficient background...
  2. Ziegler Birling C, Helmrich A, Tora L, Torres Padilla M. Distribution of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) and phosphorylated H2A.X during mouse preimplantation development in the absence of DNA damage. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:1003-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the possible consequences of these findings on the genome-wide chromatin remodelling that ocurs in the preimplantation mammalian embryo...
  3. Fernandez Capetillo O, Mahadevaiah S, Celeste A, Romanienko P, Camerini Otero R, Bonner W, et al. H2AX is required for chromatin remodeling and inactivation of sex chromosomes in male mouse meiosis. Dev Cell. 2003;4:497-508 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the X and Y chromosomes of histone H2AX-deficient spermatocytes fail to condense to form a sex body, do not initiate MSCI, and exhibit severe defects ..
  4. Petersen S, Casellas R, Reina San Martin B, Chen H, Difilippantonio M, Wilson P, et al. AID is required to initiate Nbs1/gamma-H2AX focus formation and mutations at sites of class switching. Nature. 2001;414:660-665 pubmed publisher
    ..breakage syndrome protein (Nbs1) and phosphorylated H2A histone family member X (gamma-H2AX, also known as gamma-H2afx), which facilitate DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, form nuclear foci at the Ch region in the G1 phase of the ..
  5. McManus K, Hendzel M. ATM-dependent DNA damage-independent mitotic phosphorylation of H2AX in normally growing mammalian cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5013-25 pubmed
    b>H2AX is a core histone H2A variant that contains an absolutely conserved serine/glutamine (SQ) motif within an extended carboxy-terminal tail...
  6. Shull E, Lee Y, Nakane H, Stracker T, Zhao J, Russell H, et al. Differential DNA damage signaling accounts for distinct neural apoptotic responses in ATLD and NBS. Genes Dev. 2009;23:171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, DNA damage signaling in the nervous system is different between ATLD and NBS and likely explains their respective neuropathology...
  7. Stiff T, O Driscoll M, Rief N, Iwabuchi K, Lobrich M, Jeggo P. ATM and DNA-PK function redundantly to phosphorylate H2AX after exposure to ionizing radiation. Cancer Res. 2004;64:2390-6 pubmed
    b>H2AX phosphorylation is an early step in the response to DNA damage. It is widely accepted that ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein) phosphorylates H2AX in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  8. Bothmer A, Rommel P, Gazumyan A, Polato F, Reczek C, Muellenbeck M, et al. Mechanism of DNA resection during intrachromosomal recombination and immunoglobulin class switching. J Exp Med. 2013;210:115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The chromatin-binding protein 53BP1 and the histone variant H2AX are required for efficient class switch (CSR) and V(D)J recombination in part because they protect DNA ends from ..
  9. Kouznetsova A, Benavente R, Pastink A, Hoog C. Meiosis in mice without a synaptonemal complex. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28255 pubmed publisher
  10. Nashun B, Yukawa M, Liu H, Akiyama T, Aoki F. Changes in the nuclear deposition of histone H2A variants during pre-implantation development in mice. Development. 2010;137:3785-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Z and macroH2A from the chromatin is required for normal development. These results suggest that global changes in the composition of histone H2A variants in chromatin play a role in genome remodeling after fertilization. ..
  11. Le Bouffant R, Souquet B, Duval N, Duquenne C, Hervé R, Frydman N, et al. Msx1 and Msx2 promote meiosis initiation. Development. 2011;138:5393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrate for the first time that some homeobox genes are required for meiosis initiation in the female germ line. ..
  12. Baltus A, Menke D, Hu Y, Goodheart M, Carpenter A, de Rooij D, et al. In germ cells of mouse embryonic ovaries, the decision to enter meiosis precedes premeiotic DNA replication. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1430-4 pubmed
    ..Combined with previous findings, these genetic data suggest that active differentiation of ovarian germ cells commences at a regulatory point upstream of premeiotic DNA replication. ..
  13. Burma S, Chen B, Murphy M, Kurimasa A, Chen D. ATM phosphorylates histone H2AX in response to DNA double-strand breaks. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:42462-7 pubmed
    A very early step in the response of mammalian cells to DNA double-strand breaks is the phosphorylation of histone H2AX at serine 139 at the sites of DNA damage...
  14. Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Kimura T, Ijiri T, Isobe T, Asada N, Fujita Y, et al. Mili, a mammalian member of piwi family gene, is essential for spermatogenesis. Development. 2004;131:839-49 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that MILI is essential for the differentiation of spermatocytes. ..
  15. Daniel K, Lange J, Hached K, Fu J, Anastassiadis K, Roig I, et al. Meiotic homologue alignment and its quality surveillance are controlled by mouse HORMAD1. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:599-610 pubmed publisher
  16. Furuta T, Takemura H, Liao Z, Aune G, Redon C, Sedelnikova O, et al. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX and activation of Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 in response to replication-dependent DNA double-strand breaks induced by mammalian DNA topoisomerase I cleavage complexes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20303-12 pubmed
    ..originating from diverse causes in eukaryotic cells are accompanied by the formation of phosphorylated H2AX (gammaH2AX) foci...
  17. Pan M, Peng G, Hung W, Lin S. Monoubiquitination of H2AX protein regulates DNA damage response signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammalian cells, a key component in this network is H2AX, which becomes rapidly phosphorylated at Ser(139) (?-H2AX) at DSBs...
  18. Revet I, Feeney L, Bruguera S, Wilson W, Dong T, Oh D, et al. Functional relevance of the histone gammaH2Ax in the response to DNA damaging agents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8663-7 pubmed publisher
    The phosphorylation of H2Ax on its S139 site, ?H2Ax, is important during DNA double-strand repair and is considered necessary for assembly of repair complexes, but its functional role after other kinds of DNA damage is less clear...
  19. Riballo E, Kühne M, Rief N, Doherty A, Smith G, Recio M, et al. A pathway of double-strand break rejoining dependent upon ATM, Artemis, and proteins locating to gamma-H2AX foci. Mol Cell. 2004;16:715-24 pubmed
    ..in patients with RS-SCID, function in a common double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that also requires H2AX, 53BP1, Nbs1, Mre11, and DNA-PK. We show that radiation-induced Artemis hyperphosphorylation is ATM dependent...
  20. Redon C, Pilch D, Rogakou E, Sedelnikova O, Newrock K, Bonner W. Histone H2A variants H2AX and H2AZ. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002;12:162-9 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have begun to elucidate the roles of two of the H2A variants, H2AX and H2AZ...
  21. Hamer G, Roepers Gajadien H, van Duyn Goedhart A, Gademan I, Kal H, van Buul P, et al. DNA double-strand breaks and gamma-H2AX signaling in the testis. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:628-34 pubmed
    Within minutes of the induction of DNA double-strand breaks in somatic cells, histone H2AX becomes phosphorylated at serine 139 and forms gamma-H2AX foci at the sites of damage...
  22. Baleriola J, Suarez T, de la Rosa E. DNA-PK promotes the survival of young neurons in the embryonic mouse retina. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:1697-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results implicate the generation of DSB and DNA-PK-mediated repair in neurogenesis in the developing retina. ..
  23. Bassing C, Chua K, Sekiguchi J, Suh H, Whitlow S, Fleming J, et al. Increased ionizing radiation sensitivity and genomic instability in the absence of histone H2AX. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8173-8 pubmed
    In mammalian cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) cause rapid phosphorylation of the H2AX core histone variant (to form gamma-H2AX) in megabase chromatin domains flanking sites of DNA damage...
  24. Bassing C, Ranganath S, Murphy M, Savic V, Gleason M, Alt F. Aberrant V(D)J recombination is not required for rapid development of H2ax/p53-deficient thymic lymphomas with clonal translocations. Blood. 2008;111:2163-9 pubmed
    b>Histone H2AX is required to maintain genomic stability in cells and to suppress malignant transformation of lymphocytes in mice...
  25. Pandey R, Tokuzawa Y, Yang Z, Hayashi E, Ichisaka T, Kajita S, et al. Tudor domain containing 12 (TDRD12) is essential for secondary PIWI interacting RNA biogenesis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell-culture studies with the insect ortholog of TDRD12 suggest a role for the multidomain protein in mediating complex formation with other participants during secondary piRNA biogenesis. ..
  26. Li X, Li X, Schimenti J. Mouse pachytene checkpoint 2 (trip13) is required for completing meiotic recombination but not synapsis. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e130 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first model to separate recombination defects from asynapsis in mammalian meiosis, and provides the first evidence that unrepaired DNA damage alone can trigger the pachytene checkpoint response in mice. ..
  27. Lin Y, Gill M, Koubova J, Page D. Germ cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors govern meiotic initiation in mouse embryos. Science. 2008;322:1685-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Within a brief developmental window, Dazl-expressing germ cells in both XX and XY embryos actively acquire the ability to interpret RA as a meiosis-inducing signal. ..
  28. Barrionuevo F, Georg I, Scherthan H, Lecureuil C, Guillou F, Wegner M, et al. Testis cord differentiation after the sex determination stage is independent of Sox9 but fails in the combined absence of Sox9 and Sox8. Dev Biol. 2009;327:301-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that testis cord differentiation is independent of Sox9, and that concerted Sox9 and Sox8 function in post E14.0 Sertoli cells is essential for the maintenance of testicular function. ..
  29. Turner J, Aprelikova O, Xu X, Wang R, Kim S, Chandramouli G, et al. BRCA1, histone H2AX phosphorylation, and male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2135-42 pubmed
    ..The nucleosomal core histone H2AX is phosphorylated within the XY chromatin domain just prior to MSCI, and it has been hypothesized that this ..
  30. Shoji M, Tanaka T, Hosokawa M, Reuter M, Stark A, Kato Y, et al. The TDRD9-MIWI2 complex is essential for piRNA-mediated retrotransposon silencing in the mouse male germline. Dev Cell. 2009;17:775-87 pubmed publisher
  31. Helmink B, Tubbs A, Dorsett Y, Bednarski J, Walker L, Feng Z, et al. H2AX prevents CtIP-mediated DNA end resection and aberrant repair in G1-phase lymphocytes. Nature. 2011;469:245-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, in vivo, we show that in murine cells the histone protein H2AX prevents nucleases other than Artemis from processing hairpin-sealed coding ends; in the absence of H2AX, CtIP can ..
  32. Gruber R, Zhou Z, Sukchev M, Joerss T, Frappart P, Wang Z. MCPH1 regulates the neuroprogenitor division mode by coupling the centrosomal cycle with mitotic entry through the Chk1-Cdc25 pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MCPH1, through its function in the Chk1-Cdc25-Cdk1 pathway to couple the centrosome cycle with mitosis, is required for precise mitotic spindle orientation and thereby regulates the progenitor division mode to maintain brain size...
  33. Reina San Martin B, Chen H, Nussenzweig A, Nussenzweig M. ATM is required for efficient recombination between immunoglobulin switch regions. J Exp Med. 2004;200:1103-10 pubmed
    ..Only long-range inter-switch recombination is defective, indicating an unexpected role for ATM in switch region synapsis during CSR. ..
  34. Ottolenghi C, Omari S, Garcia Ortiz J, Uda M, Crisponi L, Forabosco A, et al. Foxl2 is required for commitment to ovary differentiation. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2053-62 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possible continued involvement of sex-determining genes in maintaining ovarian function throughout female reproductive life. ..
  35. Cooke H, Saunders P. Mouse models of male infertility. Nat Rev Genet. 2002;3:790-801 pubmed
    ..Targeted mutagenesis in the mouse provides a powerful method to analyse these steps and has provided new insights into the origins of male infertility. ..
  36. Kim J, Kruhlak M, Dotiwala F, Nussenzweig A, Haber J. Heterochromatin is refractory to gamma-H2AX modification in yeast and mammals. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:209-18 pubmed
    ..ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)/ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related)-dependent phosphorylation of histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX)...
  37. Turner J, Mahadevaiah S, Fernandez Capetillo O, Nussenzweig A, Xu X, Deng C, et al. Silencing of unsynapsed meiotic chromosomes in the mouse. Nat Genet. 2005;37:41-7 pubmed
    ..These findings impact on the interpretation of the relationship between synaptic errors and sterility in mammals and extend our understanding of the biology of Brca1. ..
  38. Oda H, Okamoto I, Murphy N, Chu J, Price S, Shen M, et al. Monomethylation of histone H4-lysine 20 is involved in chromosome structure and stability and is essential for mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2278-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, the lack of H4K20me1 also resulted in defects in chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei. These results demonstrate the critical role of H4K20 monomethylation in mammals in a developmental context. ..
  39. Yang F, Gell K, van der Heijden G, Eckardt S, Leu N, Page D, et al. Meiotic failure in male mice lacking an X-linked factor. Genes Dev. 2008;22:682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TEX11 promotes initiation and/or maintenance of synapsis and formation of crossovers, and may provide a physical link between these two meiotic processes. ..
  40. Royo H, Prosser H, Ruzankina Y, Mahadevaiah S, Cloutier J, Baumann M, et al. ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1484-94 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation...
  41. Ginjala V, Nacerddine K, Kulkarni A, Oza J, Hill S, Yao M, et al. BMI1 is recruited to DNA breaks and contributes to DNA damage-induced H2A ubiquitination and repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The sustained localization of BMI1 to damage sites is dependent on intact ATM and ATR and requires H2AX phosphorylation and recruitment of RNF8...
  42. Maatouk D, DiNapoli L, Alvers A, Parker K, Taketo M, Capel B. Stabilization of beta-catenin in XY gonads causes male-to-female sex-reversal. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2949-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of beta-catenin as a key pro-ovarian and anti-testis signaling molecule will further our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sex determination and the molecular mechanisms that lead to sex-reversal. ..
  43. Celeste A, Fernandez Capetillo O, Kruhlak M, Pilch D, Staudt D, Lee A, et al. Histone H2AX phosphorylation is dispensable for the initial recognition of DNA breaks. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:675-9 pubmed
    b>Histone H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated in the chromatin micro-environment surrounding a DNA double-strand break (DSB)...
  44. Celeste A, Petersen S, Romanienko P, Fernandez Capetillo O, Chen H, Sedelnikova O, et al. Genomic instability in mice lacking histone H2AX. Science. 2002;296:922-7 pubmed
    ..Double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce histone H2AX phosphorylation, which is associated with the recruitment of repair factors to damaged DNA...
  45. Hayashi K, Yoshida K, Matsui Y. A histone H3 methyltransferase controls epigenetic events required for meiotic prophase. Nature. 2005;438:374-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that meiosis-specific epigenetic events in mammals are crucial for proper meiotic progression. ..
  46. Liu C, Bingham N, Parker K, Yao H. Sex-specific roles of beta-catenin in mouse gonadal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:405-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that beta-catenin is responsible for transducing sex-specific signals in the SF1-positive somatic cell population during mouse gonadal development. ..
  47. Lou Z, Minter Dykhouse K, Franco S, Gostissa M, Rivera M, Celeste A, et al. MDC1 maintains genomic stability by participating in the amplification of ATM-dependent DNA damage signals. Mol Cell. 2006;21:187-200 pubmed
    ..MDC1-/- mice recapitulated many phenotypes of H2AX-/- mice, including growth retardation, male infertility, immune defects, chromosome instability, DNA repair defects,..
  48. Franco S, Gostissa M, Zha S, Lombard D, Murphy M, Zarrin A, et al. H2AX prevents DNA breaks from progressing to chromosome breaks and translocations. Mol Cell. 2006;21:201-14 pubmed
    b>Histone H2AX promotes DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) in B-lymphocytes...
  49. Wang W, Li Q, Xu J, Cvekl A. Lens fiber cell differentiation and denucleation are disrupted through expression of the N-terminal nuclear receptor box of NCOA6 and result in p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2453-68 pubmed publisher
    ..5 was followed by double-strand breaks (DSBs) formation monitored via a biomarker, gamma-H2AX. Intense terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) signals were found at E16.5...
  50. Mahadevaiah S, Bourc his D, de Rooij D, Bestor T, Turner J, Burgoyne P. Extensive meiotic asynapsis in mice antagonises meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and consequently disrupts meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoptosis does not occur in mice with a single additional asynapsed chromosome with unrepaired meiotic DSBs and no disturbance of MSCI...
  51. Saba R, Wu Q, Saga Y. CYP26B1 promotes male germ cell differentiation by suppressing STRA8-dependent meiotic and STRA8-independent mitotic pathways. Dev Biol. 2014;389:173-81 pubmed publisher
  52. DiNapoli L, Batchvarov J, Capel B. FGF9 promotes survival of germ cells in the fetal testis. Development. 2006;133:1519-27 pubmed
    ..FGF9 is necessary for 11.5 dpc XY gonocyte survival and is the earliest reported factor with a sex-specific role in regulating germ cell survival. ..
  53. Bowles J, Feng C, Spiller C, Davidson T, Jackson A, Koopman P. FGF9 suppresses meiosis and promotes male germ cell fate in mice. Dev Cell. 2010;19:440-9 pubmed publisher
  54. Fernandez Capetillo O, Chen H, Celeste A, Ward I, Romanienko P, Morales J, et al. DNA damage-induced G2-M checkpoint activation by histone H2AX and 53BP1. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:993-7 pubmed
    ..b>Histone H2AX, p53 binding-protein 1 (53BP1) and Chk2 are targets of ATM-mediated phosphorylation, but little is known about ..
  55. Ramiro A, Jankovic M, Callen E, Difilippantonio S, Chen H, McBride K, et al. Role of genomic instability and p53 in AID-induced c-myc-Igh translocations. Nature. 2006;440:105-9 pubmed
    ..from intrachromosomal repair during immunoglobulin class switch recombination in that it does not require histone H2AX, p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) or the non-homologous end-joining protein Ku80...
  56. Yin B, Savic V, Juntilla M, Bredemeyer A, Yang Iott K, Helmink B, et al. Histone H2AX stabilizes broken DNA strands to suppress chromosome breaks and translocations during V(D)J recombination. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2625-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that histone H2AX suppresses translocations during V(D)J recombination by creating chromatin modifications that stabilize ..
  57. Martinez P, Flores J, Blasco M. 53BP1 deficiency combined with telomere dysfunction activates ATR-dependent DNA damage response. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:283-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of TRF1 leads to telomere fusions as well as accumulation of ?-H2AX foci and activation of both the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related ..
  58. Ward I, Minn K, Jorda K, Chen J. Accumulation of checkpoint protein 53BP1 at DNA breaks involves its binding to phosphorylated histone H2AX. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:19579-82 pubmed
    ..in the DNA damage response, 53BP1 becomes hyperphosphorylated after radiation and colocalizes with phosphorylated H2AX in megabase regions surrounding the sites of DNA strand breaks...
  59. Celeste A, Difilippantonio S, Difilippantonio M, Fernandez Capetillo O, Pilch D, Sedelnikova O, et al. H2AX haploinsufficiency modifies genomic stability and tumor susceptibility. Cell. 2003;114:371-383 pubmed
    b>Histone H2AX becomes phosphorylated in chromatin domains flanking sites of DNA double-strand breakage associated with gamma-irradiation, meiotic recombination, DNA replication, and antigen receptor rearrangements...
  60. Chassot A, Gregoire E, Lavery R, Taketo M, de Rooij D, Adams I, et al. RSPO1/?-catenin signaling pathway regulates oogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis in the mouse fetal ovary. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25641 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that RSPO1/?-catenin signaling is involved in meiosis in fetal germ cells and contributes to the cellular decision of germ cells to differentiate into oocyte or sperm...
  61. Kouznetsova A, Wang H, Bellani M, Camerini Otero R, Jessberger R, Hoog C. BRCA1-mediated chromatin silencing is limited to oocytes with a small number of asynapsed chromosomes. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2446-52 pubmed publisher
  62. Xiao A, Li H, Shechter D, Ahn S, Fabrizio L, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. WSTF regulates the H2A.X DNA damage response via a novel tyrosine kinase activity. Nature. 2009;457:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates a new mechanism that regulates the DNA damage response and expands our knowledge of domains that contain intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. ..
  63. Yao H, DiNapoli L, Capel B. Meiotic germ cells antagonize mesonephric cell migration and testis cord formation in mouse gonads. Development. 2003;130:5895-902 pubmed
    ..We suggest that at the stage when germ cells commit to meiosis, they reinforce ovarian fate by antagonizing the testis pathway. ..
  64. Polo S, Kaidi A, Baskcomb L, Galanty Y, Jackson S. Regulation of DNA-damage responses and cell-cycle progression by the chromatin remodelling factor CHD4. EMBO J. 2010;29:3130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insights into how the chromatin remodelling complex NuRD contributes to maintaining genome stability. ..
  65. Cao L, Xu X, Bunting S, Liu J, Wang R, Cao L, et al. A selective requirement for 53BP1 in the biological response to genomic instability induced by Brca1 deficiency. Mol Cell. 2009;35:534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations may have important implications for Brca1-mediated tumor formation as well as for the molecular pathway leading from genomic instability to organismal aging. ..
  66. Dimitrova N, de Lange T. Cell cycle-dependent role of MRN at dysfunctional telomeres: ATM signaling-dependent induction of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in G1 and resection-mediated inhibition of NHEJ in G2. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, NBS1 and ATM, but not H2AX, repressed NHEJ at dysfunctional telomeres in G(2), specifically at telomeres generated by leading-strand DNA ..
  67. Reina San Martin B, Difilippantonio S, Hanitsch L, Masilamani R, Nussenzweig A, Nussenzweig M. H2AX is required for recombination between immunoglobulin switch regions but not for intra-switch region recombination or somatic hypermutation. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1767-78 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of histone H2AX promotes DNA repair and helps maintain genomic stability...
  68. Bassing C, Suh H, Ferguson D, Chua K, Manis J, Eckersdorff M, et al. Histone H2AX: a dosage-dependent suppressor of oncogenic translocations and tumors. Cell. 2003;114:359-70 pubmed
    We employed gene targeting to study H2AX, a histone variant phosphorylated in chromatin surrounding DNA double-strand breaks...
  69. Xie A, Puget N, Shim I, Odate S, Jarzyna I, Bassing C, et al. Control of sister chromatid recombination by histone H2AX. Mol Cell. 2004;16:1017-25 pubmed
    b>Histone H2AX has a role in suppressing genomic instability and cancer. However, the mechanisms by which it performs these functions are poorly understood...
  70. Murga M, Bunting S, Montaña M, Soria R, Mulero F, Canamero M, et al. A mouse model of ATR-Seckel shows embryonic replicative stress and accelerated aging. Nat Genet. 2009;41:891-8 pubmed publisher