H19

Summary

Gene Symbol: H19
Description: H19 fetal liver mRNA
Alias: AI747191
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. Fedoriw A, Stein P, Svoboda P, Schultz R, Bartolomei M. Transgenic RNAi reveals essential function for CTCF in H19 gene imprinting. Science. 2004;303:238-40 pubmed
    The imprinted regulation of H19 and Insulin-like growth factor 2 expression involves binding of the vertebrate insulator protein, CCCTC binding factor (CTCF), to the maternally hypomethylated differentially methylated domain (DMD)...
  2. Lui J, Finkielstain G, Barnes K, Baron J. An imprinted gene network that controls mammalian somatic growth is down-regulated during postnatal growth deceleration in multiple organs. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..For these genes, Igf2, H19, Plagl1, Mest, Peg3, Dlk1, Gtl2, Grb10, Ndn, Cdkn1c, and SLC38a4, the declines show a temporal pattern similar to ..
  3. Katz D, Beer M, Levorse J, Tilghman S. Functional characterization of a novel Ku70/80 pause site at the H19/Igf2 imprinting control region. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3855-63 pubmed
    The imprinted expression of the H19 and Igf2 genes in the mouse is controlled by an imprinting control center (ICR) whose activity is regulated by parent-of-origin differences in methylation...
  4. Szabo P, Mann J. Allele-specific expression and total expression levels of imprinted genes during early mouse development: implications for imprinting mechanisms. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3097-108 pubmed
    ..The closely linked H19 and Igf2 genes were activated after the blastocyst stage and often exhibited biallelic and monoallelic expression ..
  5. Chiao E, Fisher P, Crisponi L, Deiana M, Dragatsis I, Schlessinger D, et al. Overgrowth of a mouse model of the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome is independent of IGF signaling. Dev Biol. 2002;243:185-206 pubmed
    ..In Gpc3/DeltaH19 double mutants (lacking GPC3 and also carrying a deletion around the H19 gene region that causes bialellic expression of the closely linked Igf2 gene by imprint relaxation), the Gpc3-null ..
  6. Jones B, Levorse J, Tilghman S. Igf2 imprinting does not require its own DNA methylation or H19 RNA. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2200-7 pubmed
    ..that silencing of Igf2 accompanying the loss of DNA methylation could be overcome by a mutation at the neighboring H19 gene that activates Igf2...
  7. Thorvaldsen J, Mann M, Nwoko O, Duran K, Bartolomei M. Analysis of sequence upstream of the endogenous H19 gene reveals elements both essential and dispensable for imprinting. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2450-62 pubmed
    Imprinting of the linked and oppositely expressed mouse H19 and Igf2 genes requires a 2-kb differentially methylated domain (DMD) that is located 2 kb upstream of H19...
  8. Tremblay K, Duran K, Bartolomei M. A 5' 2-kilobase-pair region of the imprinted mouse H19 gene exhibits exclusive paternal methylation throughout development. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4322-9 pubmed
    The imprinted mouse H19 gene is hypermethylated on the inactive paternal allele in somatic tissues and sperm...
  9. Esquiliano D, Guo W, Liang L, Dikkes P, Lopez M. Placental glycogen stores are increased in mice with H19 null mutations but not in those with insulin or IGF type 1 receptor mutations. Placenta. 2009;30:693-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two imprinted genes, insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) and H19 are highly expressed in the placenta...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Onyango P, Miller W, Lehoczky J, Leung C, Birren B, Wheelan S, et al. Sequence and comparative analysis of the mouse 1-megabase region orthologous to the human 11p15 imprinted domain. Genome Res. 2000;10:1697-710 pubmed
    ..noncoding sequence elements were generally clustered near imprinted genes and the majority were between Igf2 and H19 or within Kvlqt1...
  2. Murrell A, Heeson S, Reik W. Interaction between differentially methylated regions partitions the imprinted genes Igf2 and H19 into parent-specific chromatin loops. Nat Genet. 2004;36:889-93 pubmed
    ..growth-factor 2 (Igf2) is separated by approximately 100 kb from the maternally expressed noncoding gene H19 on mouse distal chromosome 7...
  3. Tremblay K, Saam J, Ingram R, Tilghman S, Bartolomei M. A paternal-specific methylation imprint marks the alleles of the mouse H19 gene. Nat Genet. 1995;9:407-13 pubmed
    ..A candidate for the differentiating mark is DNA methylation. The maternally expressed H19 gene is hypermethylated on the inactive paternal allele in somatic tissues and sperm, but to serve as the mark that ..
  4. Han L, SZABO P, Mann J. Postnatal survival of mice with maternal duplication of distal chromosome 7 induced by a Igf2/H19 imprinting control region lacking insulator function. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000803 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the role of misexpressions determined by two maternal copies of the Igf2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR)-a chromatin insulator, we introduced a mutant ICR (ICR(Delta)) into MatDup...
  5. Feil R, Walter J, Allen N, Reik W. Developmental control of allelic methylation in the imprinted mouse Igf2 and H19 genes. Development. 1994;120:2933-43 pubmed
    The Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) and H19 genes are reciprocally imprinted and closely linked...
  6. Bourc his D, Xu G, Lin C, Bollman B, Bestor T. Dnmt3L and the establishment of maternal genomic imprints. Science. 2001;294:2536-9 pubmed
    ..The key catalytic motifs characteristic of DNA cytosine methyltransferases have been lost from Dnmt3L, and the protein is more likely to act as a regulator of imprint establishment than as a DNA methyltransferase. ..
  7. Reese K, Lin S, Verona R, Schultz R, Bartolomei M. Maintenance of paternal methylation and repression of the imprinted H19 gene requires MBD3. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e137 pubmed
    Paternal repression of the imprinted H19 gene is mediated by a differentially methylated domain (DMD) that is essential to imprinting of both H19 and the linked and oppositely imprinted Igf2 gene...
  8. Ishihara K, Hatano N, Furuumi H, Kato R, Iwaki T, Miura K, et al. Comparative genomic sequencing identifies novel tissue-specific enhancers and sequence elements for methylation-sensitive factors implicated in Igf2/H19 imprinting. Genome Res. 2000;10:664-71 pubmed
    ..methylated region (DMR) and endoderm-specific enhancers, located upstream and downstream of the mouse H19 gene, respectively, are known to be essential for the reciprocal imprinting of Igf2 and H19...
  9. Lewis A, Mitsuya K, Constancia M, Reik W. Tandem repeat hypothesis in imprinting: deletion of a conserved direct repeat element upstream of H19 has no effect on imprinting in the Igf2-H19 region. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5650-6 pubmed
    Igf2 and H19 are reciprocally imprinted genes on mouse distal chromosome 7. They share several regulatory elements, including a differentially methylated region (DMR) upstream of H19 that is paternally methylated throughout development...
  10. Dey B, Pfeifer K, Dutta A. The H19 long noncoding RNA gives rise to microRNAs miR-675-3p and miR-675-5p to promote skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. Genes Dev. 2014;28:491-501 pubmed publisher
    Regulated expression of the H19 long noncoding RNA gene has been well characterized as a paradigm for genomic imprinting, but the H19 RNA's biological function remains largely unclear...
  11. Srivastava M, Hsieh S, Grinberg A, Williams Simons L, Huang S, Pfeifer K. H19 and Igf2 monoallelic expression is regulated in two distinct ways by a shared cis acting regulatory region upstream of H19. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1186-95 pubmed
    b>H19 and Igf2 are expressed in a monoallelic fashion from the maternal and paternal chromosomes, respectively. A region upstream of H19 has been shown to regulate such imprinted expression of both genes in cis...
  12. Kato R, Shirohzu H, Yokomine T, Mizuno S, Mukai T, Sasaki H. Sequence-ready 1-Mb YAC, BAC and cosmid contigs covering the distal imprinted region of mouse chromosome 7. DNA Res. 1999;6:401-5 pubmed
  13. Dean W, Bowden L, Aitchison A, Klose J, Moore T, Meneses J, et al. Altered imprinted gene methylation and expression in completely ES cell-derived mouse fetuses: association with aberrant phenotypes. Development. 1998;125:2273-82 pubmed
    ..is associated with epigenetic alterations in imprinted genes, we analysed two maternally expressed genes (Igf2r, H19) and two paternally expressed genes (Igf2, U2af1-rs1) in ES cells and in completely ES cell-derived fetuses...
  14. Hagege H, Nasser R, Weber M, Milligan L, Aptel N, Jacquet C, et al. The 3' portion of the mouse H19 Imprinting-Control Region is required for proper tissue-specific expression of the Igf2 gene. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113:230-7 pubmed
    Genomic imprinting at the H19/Igf2 locus is governed by a cis-acting Imprinting-Control Region (ICR), located 2 kb upstream of the H19 gene...
  15. Borensztein M, Monnier P, Court F, Louault Y, Ripoche M, Tiret L, et al. Myod and H19-Igf2 locus interactions are required for diaphragm formation in the mouse. Development. 2013;140:1231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A negative-feedback loop was detected between Myod and Igf2 in embryonic muscles. Igf2 belongs to the imprinted H19-Igf2 locus. Molecular analyses show binding of Myod on a mesodermal enhancer (CS9) of the H19 gene...
  16. Forne T, Oswald J, Dean W, Saam J, Bailleul B, Dandolo L, et al. Loss of the maternal H19 gene induces changes in Igf2 methylation in both cis and trans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10243-8 pubmed
    ..activity, which is required to preserve the paternal specific expression of Igf2, and the H19 gene (lying 90 kb downstream of Igf2 gene), which upon inactivation leads to relaxation of the Igf2 imprint...
  17. Keniry A, Oxley D, Monnier P, Kyba M, Dandolo L, Smits G, et al. The H19 lincRNA is a developmental reservoir of miR-675 that suppresses growth and Igf1r. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:659-65 pubmed publisher
    The H19 large intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) is one of the most highly abundant and conserved transcripts in mammalian development, being expressed in both embryonic and extra-embryonic cell lineages, yet its physiological function ..
  18. Charalambous M, Menheniott T, Bennett W, Kelly S, Dell G, Dandolo L, et al. An enhancer element at the Igf2/H19 locus drives gene expression in both imprinted and non-imprinted tissues. Dev Biol. 2004;271:488-97 pubmed
    ..tissues, imprinting of Igf2 is mediated by the interaction of a set of enhancers downstream of the linked H19 gene with a differentially methylated domain (DMD) that lies approximately 2-4 kb upstream of H19 that has a ..
  19. Eggenschwiler J, Ludwig T, Fisher P, Leighton P, Tilghman S, Efstratiadis A. Mouse mutant embryos overexpressing IGF-II exhibit phenotypic features of the Beckwith-Wiedemann and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndromes. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3128-42 pubmed
    ..paternal allele), which encodes a growth-promoting factor (IGF-II), is linked closely to the reciprocally imprinted H19 locus on chromosome 7...
  20. Lopes S, Lewis A, Hajkova P, Dean W, Oswald J, Forné T, et al. Epigenetic modifications in an imprinting cluster are controlled by a hierarchy of DMRs suggesting long-range chromatin interactions. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:295-305 pubmed
    ..Here we examine regional control of DNA methylation in the imprinted Igf2-H19 region in the mouse...
  21. Bartolomei M, Webber A, Brunkow M, Tilghman S. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying the imprinting of the mouse H19 gene. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1663-73 pubmed
    The expression of the H19 gene is governed by parental imprinting in mammals. H19, an unusual gene encoding an RNA with no known function, is exclusively expressed from the maternal chromosome...
  22. Drewell R, Brenton J, Ainscough J, Barton S, Hilton K, Arney K, et al. Deletion of a silencer element disrupts H19 imprinting independently of a DNA methylation epigenetic switch. Development. 2000;127:3419-28 pubmed
    The H19 imprinted gene is silenced when paternally inherited and active only when inherited maternally...
  23. Ripoche M, Kress C, Poirier F, Dandolo L. Deletion of the H19 transcription unit reveals the existence of a putative imprinting control element. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1596-604 pubmed
    The distal region of mouse chromosome 7 contains a cluster of imprinted genes that includes H19 and Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2)...
  24. Engel N, Raval A, Thorvaldsen J, Bartolomei S. Three-dimensional conformation at the H19/Igf2 locus supports a model of enhancer tracking. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3021-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of the H19/Igf2 imprinted region depends on the presence of several cis-acting sequences, including a methylation-sensitive ..
  25. Kaffer C, Grinberg A, Pfeifer K. Regulatory mechanisms at the mouse Igf2/H19 locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:8189-96 pubmed
    The closely linked H19 and Igf2 genes show highly similar patterns of gene expression but are reciprocally imprinted...
  26. Davies K, Bowden L, Smith P, Dean W, Hill D, Furuumi H, et al. Disruption of mesodermal enhancers for Igf2 in the minute mutant. Development. 2002;129:1657-68 pubmed
    ..We show that the mutation is an inversion, whose breakpoint distal to H19 disrupts and thus identifies an enhancer for Igf2 expression in skeletal muscle and tongue, and separates the gene ..
  27. Runge S, Nielsen F, Nielsen J, Lykke Andersen J, Wewer U, Christiansen J. H19 RNA binds four molecules of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:29562-9 pubmed
    b>H19 RNA is a major oncofetal 2.5-kilobase untranslated RNA of unknown function...
  28. Szabo P, Han L, Hyo Jung J, Mann J. Mutagenesis in mice of nuclear hormone receptor binding sites in the Igf2/H19 imprinting control region. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113:238-46 pubmed
    The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) is a DNA methylation-dependent chromatin insulator in somatic cells...
  29. SZABO P, Hübner K, Scholer H, Mann J. Allele-specific expression of imprinted genes in mouse migratory primordial germ cells. Mech Dev. 2002;115:157-60 pubmed
    ..PGCs by flow cytometry and determined the allele-specific expression of four imprinted genes - Snrpn, Igf2, H19 and Igf2r. The first three genes were expressed monoallelically, while the latter gene was expressed biallelically...
  30. Pant V, Mariano P, Kanduri C, Mattsson A, Lobanenkov V, Heuchel R, et al. The nucleotides responsible for the direct physical contact between the chromatin insulator protein CTCF and the H19 imprinting control region manifest parent of origin-specific long-distance insulation and methylation-free domains. Genes Dev. 2003;17:586-90 pubmed
    ..to depend on a methylation-sensitive chromatin insulator organized by the 11 zinc finger protein CTCF at the H19 imprinting control region (ICR)...
  31. Gebert C, Kunkel D, Grinberg A, Pfeifer K. H19 imprinting control region methylation requires an imprinted environment only in the male germ line. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1108-15 pubmed publisher
    The 2.4-kb H19 imprinting control region (H19ICR) is required to establish parent-of-origin-specific epigenetic marks and expression patterns at the Igf2/H19 locus. H19ICR activity is regulated by DNA methylation...
  32. Hori N, Nakano H, Takeuchi T, Kato H, Hamaguchi S, Oshimura M, et al. A dyad oct-binding sequence functions as a maintenance sequence for the unmethylated state within the H19/Igf2-imprinted control region. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27960-7 pubmed
    ..methylation of an imprinted control region (ICR) directs the allele-specific and reciprocal expression of the mouse H19 and the insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) genes, mediated by controlling enhancer access...
  33. Sakatani T, Kaneda A, Iacobuzio Donahue C, Carter M, de Boom Witzel S, Okano H, et al. Loss of imprinting of Igf2 alters intestinal maturation and tumorigenesis in mice. Science. 2005;307:1976-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate its role in intestinal tumorigenesis, we created a mouse model of Igf2 LOI by crossing female H19+/- mice with male Apc+/Min mice. Mice with LOI developed twice as many intestinal tumors as did control littermates...
  34. Davis T, Trasler J, Moss S, Yang G, Bartolomei M. Acquisition of the H19 methylation imprint occurs differentially on the parental alleles during spermatogenesis. Genomics. 1999;58:18-28 pubmed
    The imprinted mouse H19 gene is hypomethylated on the expressed maternal allele and hypermethylated on the silent paternal allele...
  35. Leighton P, Ingram R, Eggenschwiler J, Efstratiadis A, Tilghman S. Disruption of imprinting caused by deletion of the H19 gene region in mice. Nature. 1995;375:34-9 pubmed
    The imprinted H19 gene, which encodes an untranslated RNA, lies at the end of a cluster of imprinted genes in the mouse...
  36. Bartolomei M, Zemel S, Tilghman S. Parental imprinting of the mouse H19 gene. Nature. 1991;351:153-5 pubmed
    THE mouse H19 gene encodes one of the most abundant RNAs in the developing mouse embryo. It is expressed at the blastocyst stage of development, and accumulates to high levels in tissues of endodermal and mesodermal origin (H...
  37. Ideraabdullah F, Abramowitz L, Thorvaldsen J, Krapp C, Wen S, Engel N, et al. Novel cis-regulatory function in ICR-mediated imprinted repression of H19. Dev Biol. 2011;355:349-57 pubmed publisher
    Expression of coregulated imprinted genes, H19 and Igf2, is monoallelic and parent-of-origin-dependent. Like most imprinted genes, H19 and Igf2 are regulated by a differentially methylated imprinting control region (ICR)...
  38. Monnier P, Martinet C, Pontis J, Stancheva I, Ait Si Ali S, Dandolo L. H19 lncRNA controls gene expression of the Imprinted Gene Network by recruiting MBD1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20693-8 pubmed publisher
    The H19 gene controls the expression of several genes within the Imprinted Gene Network (IGN), involved in growth control of the embryo. However, the underlying mechanisms of this control remain elusive...
  39. Harper J, Burns J, Foulstone E, Pignatelli M, Zaina S, Hassan A. Soluble IGF2 receptor rescues Apc(Min/+) intestinal adenoma progression induced by Igf2 loss of imprinting. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1940-8 pubmed
    ..adenoma development in the Apc(Min/+) by breeding with mice with either disruption of Igf2 paternal allele or H19 maternal allele and used these models to evaluate an IGF-II-specific therapeutic intervention...
  40. Wutz A, Smrzka O, Schweifer N, Schellander K, Wagner E, Barlow D. Imprinted expression of the Igf2r gene depends on an intronic CpG island. Nature. 1997;389:745-9 pubmed
    ..The production of an antisense RNA by the repressed parental allele is reminiscent of the imprinting of the Igf2/H19 gene pair and may indicate that expression competition could play a general role in imprinting.
  41. Brannan C, Dees E, Ingram R, Tilghman S. The product of the H19 gene may function as an RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:28-36 pubmed
    The mouse H19 gene was identified as an abundant hepatic fetal-specific mRNA under the transcriptional control of a trans-acting locus termed raf...
  42. Pant V, Kurukuti S, Pugacheva E, Shamsuddin S, Mariano P, Renkawitz R, et al. Mutation of a single CTCF target site within the H19 imprinting control region leads to loss of Igf2 imprinting and complex patterns of de novo methylation upon maternal inheritance. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3497-504 pubmed
    The differentially methylated imprinting control region (ICR) region upstream of the H19 gene regulates allelic Igf2 expression by means of a methylation-sensitive chromatin insulator function...
  43. Park K, Sellars E, Grinberg A, Huang S, Pfeifer K. The H19 differentially methylated region marks the parental origin of a heterologous locus without gametic DNA methylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3588-95 pubmed
    Igf2 and H19 are coordinately regulated imprinted genes physically linked on the distal end of mouse chromosome 7...
  44. Court F, Baniol M, Hagège H, Petit J, Lelay Taha M, Carbonell F, et al. Long-range chromatin interactions at the mouse Igf2/H19 locus reveal a novel paternally expressed long non-coding RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:5893-906 pubmed publisher
    Parental genomic imprinting at the Igf2/H19 locus is controlled by a methylation-sensitive CTCF insulator that prevents the access of downstream enhancers to the Igf2 gene on the maternal chromosome...
  45. Kallen A, Zhou X, Xu J, Qiao C, Ma J, Yan L, et al. The imprinted H19 lncRNA antagonizes let-7 microRNAs. Mol Cell. 2013;52:101-12 pubmed publisher
    Abundantly expressed in fetal tissues and adult muscle, the developmentally regulated H19 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been implicated in human genetic disorders and cancer...
  46. Carr M, Getek K, Levorse J, Schmidt J. Expression of a modified H19 RNA does not cause embryonic lethality in mice. Mamm Genome. 2006;17:5-13 pubmed
    The imprinted H19 gene produces a noncoding RNA of unknown function. Targeted and transgenic mouse mutations have shown that this RNA can be deleted and overexpressed without adverse effect...
  47. Szabo P, Mann J. Expression and methylation of imprinted genes during in vitro differentiation of mouse parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryonic stem cell lines. Development. 1994;120:1651-60 pubmed
    Messenger RNA and methylation levels of four imprinted genes, H19, Igf2r, Igf-2 and Snrpn were examined by northern and Southern blotting in mouse parthenogenetic, androgenetic and normal or wild-type embryonic stem cell lines during ..
  48. Pfeifer K, Leighton P, Tilghman S. The structural H19 gene is required for transgene imprinting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:13876-83 pubmed
    The product of the H19 gene is an untranslated RNA that is expressed exclusively from the maternal chromosome during mammalian development...
  49. Weber M, Hagège H, Murrell A, Brunel C, Reik W, Cathala G, et al. Genomic imprinting controls matrix attachment regions in the Igf2 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8953-9 pubmed
    Genomic imprinting at the Igf2/H19 locus originates from allele-specific DNA methylation, which modifies the affinity of some proteins for their target sequences...
  50. Oh R, Ho R, Mar L, Gertsenstein M, Paderova J, Hsien J, et al. Epigenetic and phenotypic consequences of a truncation disrupting the imprinted domain on distal mouse chromosome 7. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1092-103 pubmed
    ..In this region two cis-acting imprinting centers, IC1 (H19 DMR) and IC2 (KvDMR1), define proximal and distal subdomains, respectively...
  51. SZABO P, Tang S, Silva F, Tsark W, Mann J. Role of CTCF binding sites in the Igf2/H19 imprinting control region. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4791-800 pubmed
    A approximately 2.4-kb imprinting control region (ICR) regulates somatic monoallelic expression of the Igf2 and H19 genes...
  52. Li E, Beard C, Jaenisch R. Role for DNA methylation in genomic imprinting. Nature. 1993;366:362-5 pubmed
    ..in genomic imprinting was strengthened by the recent finding that CpG islands (or sites) in three imprinted genes, H19, insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf-2), and Igf-2 receptor (Igf-2r), are differentially methylated depending on ..
  53. Ainscough J, Koide T, Tada M, Barton S, Surani M. Imprinting of Igf2 and H19 from a 130 kb YAC transgene. Development. 1997;124:3621-32 pubmed
    ..Igf2 and H19 are part of a larger imprinting region and as a first step, we examined these reciprocally imprinted genes in ..
  54. Sasaki H, Ferguson Smith A, Shum A, Barton S, Surani M. Temporal and spatial regulation of H19 imprinting in normal and uniparental mouse embryos. Development. 1995;121:4195-202 pubmed
    The mouse H19 gene is imprinted so that the paternal copy is both methylated and repressed during fetal development...
  55. Engemann S, Strödicke M, Paulsen M, Franck O, Reinhardt R, Lane N, et al. Sequence and functional comparison in the Beckwith-Wiedemann region: implications for a novel imprinting centre and extended imprinting. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:2691-706 pubmed
    ..One of the genes outside the cluster, Obph1, is imprinted in mouse placenta indicating that at least in extra-embryonic tissues the imprinting cluster extends into a larger domain. ..
  56. Chotalia M, Smallwood S, Ruf N, Dawson C, Lucifero D, Frontera M, et al. Transcription is required for establishment of germline methylation marks at imprinted genes. Genes Dev. 2009;23:105-17 pubmed publisher
  57. Kawahara M, Wu Q, Ferguson Smith A, Kono T. Appropriate expression of imprinted genes on mouse chromosome 12 extends development of bi-maternal embryos to term. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5178-84 pubmed
    Recently, we reported that the restored regulation of imprinted gene expression from two regions -H19 differentially methylated region (H19-DMR) and intergenic germline-derived DMR (IG-DMR) - is sufficient for accomplishing full-term ..
  58. Pachnis V, Brannan C, Tilghman S. The structure and expression of a novel gene activated in early mouse embryogenesis. EMBO J. 1988;7:673-81 pubmed
    We report the cloning and sequence determination of the mouse H19 gene. This gene is under the genetic control of two trans-acting loci in the mouse, termed raf and Rif...
  59. Kaffer C, Srivastava M, Park K, Ives E, Hsieh S, Batlle J, et al. A transcriptional insulator at the imprinted H19/Igf2 locus. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1908-19 pubmed
    Igf2 and H19 exhibit parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic expression. H19 is expressed from the maternal chromosome and Igf2 from the paternal...
  60. Chen Y, Dhupelia A, Schoenherr C. The Igf2/H19 imprinting control region exhibits sequence-specific and cell-type-dependent DNA methylation-mediated repression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:793-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the mouse Igf2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR), Igf2r differentially methylated region 2 (DMR2) and bacterial sequences, we ..
  61. Thorvaldsen J, Duran K, Bartolomei M. Deletion of the H19 differentially methylated domain results in loss of imprinted expression of H19 and Igf2. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3693-702 pubmed
    ..A 2-kb region located 5' to the imprinted mouse H19 gene is hypermethylated on the inactive paternal allele throughout development...
  62. Howell C, Bestor T, Ding F, Latham K, Mertineit C, Trasler J, et al. Genomic imprinting disrupted by a maternal effect mutation in the Dnmt1 gene. Cell. 2001;104:829-38 pubmed
    ..Transient nuclear localization of Dnmt1o in 8-cell embryos suggests that this variant of Dnmt1 provides maintenance methyltransferase activity specifically at imprinted loci during the fourth embryonic S phase. ..
  63. Gabory A, Ripoche M, Le Digarcher A, Watrin F, Ziyyat A, Forné T, et al. H19 acts as a trans regulator of the imprinted gene network controlling growth in mice. Development. 2009;136:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    The imprinted H19 gene produces a non-coding RNA of unknown function. Mice lacking H19 show an overgrowth phenotype, due to a cis effect of the H19 locus on the adjacent Igf2 gene...
  64. Yoshimizu T, Miroglio A, Ripoche M, Gabory A, Vernucci M, Riccio A, et al. The H19 locus acts in vivo as a tumor suppressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12417-22 pubmed publisher
    The H19 locus belongs to a cluster of imprinted genes that is linked to the human Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome...
  65. Mclaughlin K, Szabo P, Haegel H, Mann J. Mouse embryos with paternal duplication of an imprinted chromosome 7 region die at midgestation and lack placental spongiotrophoblast. Development. 1996;122:265-70 pubmed
    ..d7 phenotype is p-/p- expression of this gene. We also confirm that PatDup.d7 embryos lack H19 RNA and posses excess Igf2 RNA as might be expected from the parental-specific activities of these genes in normal ..
  66. Fitzpatrick G, Soloway P, Higgins M. Regional loss of imprinting and growth deficiency in mice with a targeted deletion of KvDMR1. Nat Genet. 2002;32:426-31 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that loss of methylation in BWS patients activates the repressive function of KvDMR1 on the maternal chromosome, resulting in abnormal silencing of CDKN1C and the development of BWS. ..
  67. Bowman A, Levorse J, Ingram R, Tilghman S. Functional characterization of a testis-specific DNA binding activity at the H19/Igf2 imprinting control region. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8345-51 pubmed
    The DNA methylation state of the H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) is differentially set during gametogenesis...
  68. Szabo P, Mann J. Biallelic expression of imprinted genes in the mouse germ line: implications for erasure, establishment, and mechanisms of genomic imprinting. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1857-68 pubmed
    ..We have assessed the allele-specific expression of four imprinted genes, two of which exhibit maternal-specific (H19 and Igf2r) and two of which exhibit paternal-specific (Igf2 and Snrpn) monoallelic somatic expression, in the germ ..