Gene Symbol: Gzma
Description: granzyme A
Alias: AW494114, Ctla-3, Ctla3, Hf1, SE1, TSP-1, TSP1, granzyme A, BLT esterase, H factor, Hanukah factor, autocrine thymic lymphoma granzyme-like serine protease, fragmentin-1, serine esterase 1, t cell-specific serine protease 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Gzma

Top Publications

  1. Metkar S, Menaa C, Pardo J, Wang B, Wallich R, Freudenberg M, et al. Human and mouse granzyme A induce a proinflammatory cytokine response. Immunity. 2008;29:720-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Granzyme A (GzmA) is considered a major proapoptotic protease...
  2. Fehniger T, Cai S, Cao X, Bredemeyer A, Presti R, French A, et al. Acquisition of murine NK cell cytotoxicity requires the translation of a pre-existing pool of granzyme B and perforin mRNAs. Immunity. 2007;26:798-811 pubmed
    ..Here, we showed that resting NK cells contained abundant granzyme A, but little granzyme B or perforin; in contrast, the mRNAs for all three genes were abundant...
  3. Jenne D, Rey C, Masson D, Stanley K, Herz J, Plaetinck G, et al. cDNA cloning of granzyme C, a granule-associated serine protease of cytolytic T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1988;140:318-23 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the sequence of granzyme C/CCP2 reveals high homology to other granzyme proteases, i.e. granzyme A (40%) and granzyme B (67%) and to rat mast cell protease II (46%)...
  4. Grossman W, Revell P, Lu Z, Johnson H, Bredemeyer A, Ley T. The orphan granzymes of humans and mice. Curr Opin Immunol. 2003;15:544-52 pubmed
    ..Although the functions of these orphan granzymes have yet to be fully established, initial data suggests their importance in both immune and nonimmune cells. ..
  5. Pardo J, Balkow S, Anel A, Simon M. The differential contribution of granzyme A and granzyme B in cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis is determined by the quality of target cells. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:1980-5 pubmed
    ..Complementary approaches with purified molecules or transfected cytolytic effector cells have suggested that both, granzyme A (gzmA) and granzyme B (gzmB), similarly contribute to CTL-mediatedand perforin (perf)-dependent apoptotic ..
  6. Pardo J, Balkow S, Anel A, Simon M. Granzymes are essential for natural killer cell-mediated and perf-facilitated tumor control. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2881-7 pubmed
    ..However, recent work using mice deficient in either gzmA, gzmB or both gzm suggested that only perf but neither of the two gzm are critical for tumor surveillance by CTL or ..
  7. Ebnet K, Hausmann M, Lehmann Grube F, Mullbacher A, Kopf M, Lamers M, et al. Granzyme A-deficient mice retain potent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. EMBO J. 1995;14:4230-9 pubmed
    b>Granzyme A, a granule-associated serine proteinase of activated cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, has been reported to play a critical role in DNA fragmentation of target cells...
  8. Susanto O, Stewart S, Voskoboinik I, Brasacchio D, Hagn M, Ellis S, et al. Mouse granzyme A induces a novel death with writhing morphology that is mechanistically distinct from granzyme B-induced apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:1183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This work defines an authentic role for mouse Gzm A in granule-induced cell death by cytotoxic lymphocytes. ..
  9. Kelso A, Costelloe E, Johnson B, Groves P, Buttigieg K, Fitzpatrick D. The genes for perforin, granzymes A-C and IFN-gamma are differentially expressed in single CD8(+) T cells during primary activation. Int Immunol. 2002;14:605-13 pubmed
    ..parallel with total levels of each mRNA, but that individual cells expressed diverse combinations of perforin, granzyme A-C and IFN-gamma mRNAs...

More Information


  1. Riera L, Gariglio M, Valente G, Mullbacher A, Museteanu C, Landolfo S, et al. Murine cytomegalovirus replication in salivary glands is controlled by both perforin and granzymes during acute infection. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:1350-5 pubmed
    ..infection was compared between wild-type and mutant C57BL / 6 (B6) mice deficient in either RAG-2, perforin, granzyme A, granzyme B or combinations thereof at two time points post infection (p. i.). At day 15 p. i...
  2. Mullbacher A, Waring P, Tha Hla R, Tran T, Chin S, Stehle T, et al. Granzymes are the essential downstream effector molecules for the control of primary virus infections by cytolytic leukocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13950-5 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we show that mice lacking both granzyme A (gzmA) and granzyme B (gzmB), which are, beside perforin, key constituents of cytolytic vesicles, are as ..
  3. Mullbacher A, Hla R, Museteanu C, Simon M. Perforin is essential for control of ectromelia virus but not related poxviruses in mice. J Virol. 1999;73:1665-7 pubmed
    ..An additional lack of granzyme A which together with perforin is a constituent of cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic T cells increases the ..
  4. Shresta S, Goda P, Wesselschmidt R, Ley T. Residual cytotoxicity and granzyme K expression in granzyme A-deficient cytotoxic lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:20236-44 pubmed
    ..In this report, we have created mice that are deficient for granzyme A and characterized their phenotype...
  5. Balkow S, Kersten A, Tran T, Stehle T, Grosse P, Museteanu C, et al. Concerted action of the FasL/Fas and perforin/granzyme A and B pathways is mandatory for the development of early viral hepatitis but not for recovery from viral infection. J Virol. 2001;75:8781-91 pubmed
    ..However, it is unclear to what extent the two main cytolytic pathways, perforin-granzyme A and B exocytosis and Fas ligand (FasL)-Fas interaction, contribute to these processes...
  6. Zhang M, Park S, Wang Y, Shah R, Liu N, Murmann A, et al. Serine protease inhibitor 6 protects cytotoxic T cells from self-inflicted injury by ensuring the integrity of cytotoxic granules. Immunity. 2006;24:451-61 pubmed
    ..Spi6 KO CTLs revealed a breakdown in the integrity of cytotoxic granules, increased cytoplasmic GrB, and ensuing apoptosis. We conclude that Spi6 protects CTLs from suicide caused by GrB-mediated breakdown of cytotoxic granules. ..
  7. Simon M, Hausmann M, Tran T, Ebnet K, Tschopp J, ThaHla R, et al. In vitro- and ex vivo-derived cytolytic leukocytes from granzyme A x B double knockout mice are defective in granule-mediated apoptosis but not lysis of target cells. J Exp Med. 1997;186:1781-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we compare the potential of Tc and natural killer (NK) cells of mice deficient in both gzmA and B (gzmAxB-/-) with those from single knockout mice deficient in gzmA (-/-), gzmB (-/-), or perforin (-/-) to ..
  8. Shresta S, Graubert T, Thomas D, Raptis S, Ley T. Granzyme A initiates an alternative pathway for granule-mediated apoptosis. Immunity. 1999;10:595-605 pubmed
    ..We show in this report that perforin-dependent, gzmB-independent cytotoxicity is caused by gzmA (or tightly linked genes)...
  9. Regner M, Pavlinovic L, Koskinen A, Young N, Trapani J, Mullbacher A. Cutting edge: rapid and efficient in vivo cytotoxicity by cytotoxic T cells is independent of granzymes A and B. J Immunol. 2009;183:37-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific target cell elimination occurred with similar kinetics in both spleen and lymph nodes. Thus, neither gzmA nor gzmB are required for rapid and efficient in vivo cytotoxicity by Tc cells.
  10. Sutton V, Waterhouse N, Browne K, Sedelies K, Ciccone A, Anthony D, et al. Residual active granzyme B in cathepsin C-null lymphocytes is sufficient for perforin-dependent target cell apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:425-33 pubmed
    ..The cathepsin C-null CTL expressed reduced but still appreciable granzyme B activity, but minimal granzyme A activity...
  11. Martin P, Wallich R, Pardo J, Mullbacher A, Munder M, Modolell M, et al. Quiescent and activated mouse granulocytes do not express granzyme A and B or perforin: similarities or differences with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes?. Blood. 2005;106:2871-8 pubmed
    ..The data obtained clearly demonstrate that neither in vitro- nor in vivo-derived mouse granulocytes synthesize gzmA and gzmB or perf, even following infection/immunization with pathogens or pathogen-derived material...
  12. Wang Y, Lobigs M, Lee E, Mullbacher A. Exocytosis and Fas mediated cytolytic mechanisms exert protection from West Nile virus induced encephalitis in mice. Immunol Cell Biol. 2004;82:170-3 pubmed
    ..Virus-host immune interactions have to be assessed individually and cannot be generalized. ..
  13. Smyth M, Street S, Trapani J. Cutting edge: granzymes A and B are not essential for perforin-mediated tumor rejection. J Immunol. 2003;171:515-8 pubmed
    ..We have now examined the relative importance of perforin and granzyme A and B clusters in five different tumor models that stringently distinguish their importance...
  14. van Dommelen S, Sumaria N, Schreiber R, Scalzo A, Smyth M, Degli Esposti M. Perforin and granzymes have distinct roles in defensive immunity and immunopathology. Immunity. 2006;25:835-48 pubmed
    ..Viral titres increased markedly in both Prf1(-/-) and Gzma(-/-)Gzmb(-/-) mice, but Gzma(-/-)Gzmb(-/-) mice recovered and survived infection, whereas Prf1(-/-) mice did not...
  15. Masson D, Tschopp J. A family of serine esterases in lytic granules of cytolytic T lymphocytes. Cell. 1987;49:679-85 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis suggests the identity of granzyme A with a protease predicted from a CTL-specific cDNA clone (H factor) and of granzyme B, G, or H with a protein ..
  16. Waterhouse N, Sutton V, Sedelies K, Ciccone A, Jenkins M, Turner S, et al. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced killing in the absence of granzymes A and B is unique and distinct from both apoptosis and perforin-dependent lysis. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:133-44 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CTLs from granzyme AB(-/-) mice induce target cell death by a unique mechanism that is distinct from both perforin lysis and apoptosis. ..
  17. Pardo J, Wallich R, Ebnet K, Iden S, Zentgraf H, Martin P, et al. Granzyme B is expressed in mouse mast cells in vivo and in vitro and causes delayed cell death independent of perforin. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1768-79 pubmed
    ..cells as well as in vitro-differentiated bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) express granzyme (gzm) B, but not gzmA or perforin (perf)...
  18. Hershberger R, Gershenfeld H, Weissman I, Su L. Genomic organization of the mouse granzyme A gene. Two mRNAs encode the same mature granzyme A with different leader peptides. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:25488-93 pubmed
    b>Granzyme A is a serine protease that, together with the other granular components of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cells, has been implicated in the cytolysis process...
  19. Kaiserman D, Bird C, Sun J, Matthews A, Ung K, Whisstock J, et al. The major human and mouse granzymes are structurally and functionally divergent. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:619-30 pubmed
    ..We also show that mouse granzyme A is considerably more cytotoxic than human granzyme A...
  20. Pardo J, Bosque A, Brehm R, Wallich R, Naval J, Mullbacher A, et al. Apoptotic pathways are selectively activated by granzyme A and/or granzyme B in CTL-mediated target cell lysis. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:457-68 pubmed
    ..Using ex vivo virus-immune CD8(+) T cells from mice deficient in perf, gzmA and/or gzmB, and the Fas-resistant EL4...
  21. Alsharifi M, Lobigs M, Simon M, Kersten A, Muller K, Koskinen A, et al. NK cell-mediated immunopathology during an acute viral infection of the CNS. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:887-96 pubmed
    ..This is the first study illustrating an NK cell-mediated immunopathological outcome to an acute viral infection. ..
  22. Gershenfeld H, Weissman I. Cloning of a cDNA for a T cell-specific serine protease from a cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Science. 1986;232:854-8 pubmed
    ..A Southern blot analysis indicated that this gene is conserved in humans, mouse, and chicken. This serine protease may have a role in lymphocyte lysis and a "lytic cascade." ..
  23. Gershenfeld H, Hershberger R, Shows T, Weissman I. Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:1184-8 pubmed
    ..lambda gt10 cDNA library from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the mouse Hanukah factor cDNA clone. In an RNA blot-hybridization analysis, this human Hanukah factor cDNA hybridized with a 1...
  24. Chaudhri G, Tahiliani V, Eldi P, Karupiah G. Vaccine-induced protection against orthopoxvirus infection is mediated through the combined functions of CD4 T cell-dependent antibody and CD8 T cell responses. J Virol. 2015;89:1889-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of CD4 T cells, perforin- and granzyme A- and B-dependent effector functions of CD8 T cells became critical...
  25. Garcia Laorden M, Stroo I, Blok D, Florquin S, Medema J, de Vos A, et al. Granzymes A and B Regulate the Local Inflammatory Response during Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumonia. J Innate Immun. 2016;8:258-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We here sought to investigate the role of gzmA and gzmB in the host response to K. pneumoniae-induced airway infection and sepsis...
  26. Plasman K, Demol H, Bird P, Gevaert K, Van Damme P. Substrate specificities of the granzyme tryptases A and K. J Proteome Res. 2014;13:6067-77 pubmed publisher
  27. Seril D, Liao J, Ho K, Warsi A, Yang C, Yang G. Dietary iron supplementation enhances DSS-induced colitis and associated colorectal carcinoma development in mice. Dig Dis Sci. 2002;47:1266-78 pubmed
    ..001). The present findings have implications for the management of human UC and suggest that dietary iron can enhance UC and its associated carcinogenesis by augmenting oxidative and nitrosative stress. ..
  28. Hoves S, Sutton V, Haynes N, Hawkins E, Fernández Ruiz D, Baschuk N, et al. A critical role for granzymes in antigen cross-presentation through regulating phagocytosis of killed tumor cells. J Immunol. 2011;187:1166-75 pubmed publisher
  29. D Angelo M, Bird P, Peters C, Reinheckel T, Trapani J, Sutton V. Cathepsin H is an additional convertase of pro-granzyme B. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates a great deal of functional redundancy in GrB maturation, which would prevent pathogen-mediated immune suppression by via convertase inhibition. ..
  30. Anthony D, Andrews D, Chow M, Watt S, House C, Akira S, et al. A role for granzyme M in TLR4-driven inflammation and endotoxicosis. J Immunol. 2010;185:1794-803 pubmed publisher
    ..These altered responses were also observed in granzyme A-deficient but not granzyme B-deficient mice...
  31. Manils J, Casas E, Vina Vilaseca A, López Cano M, Díez Villanueva A, Gómez D, et al. The Exonuclease Trex2 Shapes Psoriatic Phenotype. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:2345-2355 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our data indicate that Trex2 acts as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by promoting keratinocyte apoptosis and enucleation and thereby influencing skin immune responses. ..
  32. Oakey R, Caron M, Lefkowitz R, Seldin M. Genomic organization of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the mouse: linkage mapping of sequence-related genes provides a method for examining mammalian chromosome evolution. Genomics. 1991;10:338-44 pubmed
    ..We have identified a region that may have been translocated during evolution and suggest that the human genomic organization of adrenergic receptors more closely resembles that of a putative primordial ancestor. ..
  33. Kaiserman D, Stewart S, Plasman K, Gevaert K, Van Damme P, Bird P. Identification of Serpinb6b as a species-specific mouse granzyme A inhibitor suggests functional divergence between human and mouse granzyme A. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:9408-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the natural inhibitors of GzmA. We employed substrate phage display and positional proteomics to compare substrate specificities of mouse (m) and ..
  34. Bogenberger J, Haas M. cDNA clones from autocrine thymic lymphoma cells encode two mitogenic proteins, a serine protease and a truncated T-cell receptor beta-chain. Oncogene Res. 1988;3:301-12 pubmed
    ..The second clone encodes a serine protease which is identical to factor H or granzyme A from cytotoxic T cells...
  35. Kwon B, Weissman S. cDNA sequences of two inducible T-cell genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1963-7 pubmed
    ..Both peptides contain putative leader sequences. The protein encoded by 4-1BB also has a potential membrane anchor segment and other features also seen in known receptor proteins. ..
  36. Afshar Sterle S, Zotos D, Bernard N, Scherger A, Rödling L, Alsop A, et al. Fas ligand-mediated immune surveillance by T cells is essential for the control of spontaneous B cell lymphomas. Nat Med. 2014;20:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, malignant transformation of mature B cells requires mutations that impair intrinsic differentiation processes and permit escape from T cell-mediated tumor surveillance. ..
  37. Wilson J, Prow N, Schroder W, Ellis J, Cumming H, Gearing L, et al. RNA-Seq analysis of chikungunya virus infection and identification of granzyme A as a major promoter of arthritic inflammation. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006155 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Granzyme A-/- and to a lesser extent granzyme K-/-, but not granzyme B-/-, mice showed a pronounced reduction in foot ..
  38. Pao L, Sumaria N, Kelly J, van Dommelen S, Cretney E, Wallace M, et al. Functional analysis of granzyme M and its role in immunity to infection. J Immunol. 2005;175:3235-43 pubmed
    ..These data confirm a role for GrzM in the host response to MCMV infection, but suggest that GrzM is not critical for NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. ..
  39. Janas M, Groves P, Kienzle N, Kelso A. IL-2 regulates perforin and granzyme gene expression in CD8+ T cells independently of its effects on survival and proliferation. J Immunol. 2005;175:8003-10 pubmed
    ..We show in this study that IL-2 increased the expression of perforin and granzyme A, B, and C mRNA; intracellular granzyme B protein levels; and cytolytic function in a dose-dependent manner ..
  40. Simon H, Fruth U, Eckerskorn C, Lottspeich F, Kramer M, Nerz G, et al. Induction of T cell serine proteinase 1 (TSP-1)-specific mRNA in mouse T lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol. 1988;18:855-61 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that TSP-1 gene transcription is a useful marker to characterize T effector cells in vitro and in vivo. ..
  41. Goping I, Sawchuk T, Rieger A, Shostak I, Bleackley R. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes overcome Bcl-2 inhibition: target cells contribute to their own demise. Blood. 2008;111:2142-51 pubmed
    ..This ensures that CTLs can eliminate those target cells that have compromised apoptotic potential due to overexpression of Bcl-2. ..
  42. Larena M, Regner M, Lee E, Lobigs M. Pivotal role of antibody and subsidiary contribution of CD8+ T cells to recovery from infection in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis. J Virol. 2011;85:5446-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding highlights the conflicting role that CD8(+) T cells play in the pathogenesis of JEV and closely related encephalitic flaviviruses such as West Nile virus. ..
  43. Pasternack M, Bleier K, McInerney T. Granzyme A binding to target cell proteins. Granzyme A binds to and cleaves nucleolin in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:14703-8 pubmed
    ..We have developed an assay for possible ligands of the trypsin-like dimeric serine protease granzyme A based on Western immunoblotting techniques...
  44. Smyth M, Trapani J. Granzymes: exogenous proteinases that induce target cell apoptosis. Immunol Today. 1995;16:202-6 pubmed
  45. Des Portes V, Coulpier M, Melki J, Dreyfus P. Early detection of mouse wobbler mutation: a model of pathological motoneurone death. Neuroreport. 1994;5:1861-4 pubmed
    ..The new mutants exhibit motoneurone degeneration despite the new genetic background. ..
  46. Caetano A, Lyons L, Laughlin T, O Brien S, Murray J, Bowling A. Equine synteny mapping of comparative anchor tagged sequences (CATS) from human Chromosome 5. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:1082-4 pubmed
  47. Catalán E, Jaime Sánchez P, Aguiló N, Simon M, Froelich C, Pardo J. Mouse cytotoxic T cell-derived granzyme B activates the mitochondrial cell death pathway in a Bim-dependent fashion. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:6868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the various molecular events leading to transformation and/or immortalization of cells have an impact on their relative resistance to the multiple gzmB(+)Tc-induced death pathways. ..
  48. Mollah Z, Quah H, Graham K, Jhala G, Krishnamurthy B, Dharma J, et al. Granzyme A Deficiency Breaks Immune Tolerance and Promotes Autoimmune Diabetes Through a Type I Interferon-Dependent Pathway. Diabetes. 2017;66:3041-3050 pubmed publisher
    b>Granzyme A is a protease implicated in the degradation of intracellular DNA. Nucleotide complexes are known triggers of systemic autoimmunity, but a role in organ-specific autoimmune disease has not been demonstrated...
  49. Lützelschwab C, Pejler G, Aveskogh M, Hellman L. Secretory granule proteases in rat mast cells. Cloning of 10 different serine proteases and a carboxypeptidase A from various rat mast cell populations. J Exp Med. 1997;185:13-29 pubmed
    ..These results showed that peritoneal MCs are highly specialized effector cells with mRNA frequencies for the major proteases in the range of several percent of the total mRNA pool. ..
  50. Miura Y, Miyake K, Yamashita Y, Shimazu R, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Molecular cloning of a human RP105 homologue and chromosomal localization of the mouse and human RP105 genes (Ly64 and LY64). Genomics. 1996;38:299-304 pubmed
    ..The human LY64 locus was localized to 5q12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, confirming the syntenic relationship between these regions of the mouse and human chromosomes. ..
  51. Muller U, Sobek V, Balkow S, Holscher C, Mullbacher A, Museteanu C, et al. Concerted action of perforin and granzymes is critical for the elimination of Trypanosoma cruzi from mouse tissues, but prevention of early host death is in addition dependent on the FasL/Fas pathway. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:70-8 pubmed
    ..we have employed mouse strains with targeted gene defects in one or more components - including perforin, granzyme A and granzyme B, and Fas - of either of the two cytolytic pathways, and we used the highly pathogenic T...
  52. Hartmann W, Marsland B, Otto B, Urny J, Fleischer B, Korten S. A novel and divergent role of granzyme A and B in resistance to helminth infection. J Immunol. 2011;186:2472-81 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that in rodent filarial infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis, worm loads were significantly reduced in gzmA × B and gzmB knockout mice during the whole course of infection, but enhanced only early in gzmA knockout compared ..
  53. Chen M, Felix K, Wang J. Immune regulation through mitochondrion-dependent dendritic cell death induced by T regulatory cells. J Immunol. 2011;187:5684-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Bax- and Bak-dependent cell death mechanisms help to maintain DC homeostasis and contribute to the regulation of T cell activation and the suppression of autoimmunity. ..
  54. Prendergast J, Helgason C, Bleackley R. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of cytotoxic cell proteinase gene transcripts in T cells. Pattern of expression is dependent on the nature of the stimulus. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:5090-5 pubmed
    ..Only CCP1 transcripts correlated with cytotoxicity for all modes of stimulation. The patterns for the others are suggestive of distinct and ancillary, rather than direct effector, roles in the lytic mechanism. ..
  55. Martinvalet D, Dykxhoorn D, Ferrini R, Lieberman J. Granzyme A cleaves a mitochondrial complex I protein to initiate caspase-independent cell death. Cell. 2008;133:681-92 pubmed publisher
    The killer lymphocyte protease granzyme A (GzmA) triggers caspase-independent target cell death with morphological features of apoptosis...
  56. Sipione S, Ewen C, Shostak I, Michalak M, Bleackley R. Impaired cytolytic activity in calreticulin-deficient CTLs. J Immunol. 2005;174:3212-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that calreticulin is dispensable for the cytolytic activity of granzymes and perforin, but it is required for efficient CTL-target cell interaction and for the formation of the death synapse. ..
  57. Eisert V, Münster U, Simon M, Moll H. The course of Leishmania major infection in mice lacking granzyme-mediated mechanisms. Immunobiology. 2002;205:314-20 pubmed
    ..To determine the in vivo role of gzm in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we examined the course of L. major infection in gzmA-deficient mice...
  58. Cao X, Cai S, Fehniger T, Song J, Collins L, Piwnica Worms D, et al. Granzyme B and perforin are important for regulatory T cell-mediated suppression of tumor clearance. Immunity. 2007;27:635-46 pubmed
    ..Granzyme B and perforin are therefore relevant for Treg cell-mediated suppression of tumor clearance in vivo...
  59. Holcombe R, Stephenson D, Zweidler A, Stewart R, Chapman V, Seidman J. Linkage of loci associated with two pigment mutations on mouse chromosome 13. Genet Res. 1991;58:41-50 pubmed
    ..These results may help facilitate localization of the genes responsible for two human syndromes homologous with bg and pe, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. ..
  60. Masson D, Zamai M, Tschopp J. Identification of granzyme A isolated from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-granules as one of the proteases encoded by CTL-specific genes. FEBS Lett. 1986;208:84-8 pubmed
    A serine esterase called granzyme A, which is specifically expressed in cytolytic lymphocytes has been characterized. It is a disulfide-linked dimer and exhibits a trypsin-like specificity cleaving best after Arg...
  61. Andoniou C, Sutton V, Wikstrom M, Fleming P, Thia K, Matthews A, et al. A natural genetic variant of granzyme B confers lethality to a common viral infection. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004526 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that different natural variants of GzmB have a profound impact on the immune response to a common and authentic viral pathogen. ..
  62. Bem R, van Woensel J, Lutter R, Domachowske J, Medema J, Rosenberg H, et al. Granzyme A- and B-cluster deficiency delays acute lung injury in pneumovirus-infected mice. J Immunol. 2010;184:931-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Granzyme-expressing mice and granzyme A- and B-cluster single- and double-knockout mice were inoculated with the rodent pneumovirus pneumonia virus of ..
  63. Joeckel L, Wallich R, Metkar S, Froelich C, Simon M, Borner C. Interleukin-1R signaling is essential for induction of proapoptotic CD8 T cells, viral clearance, and pathology during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice. J Virol. 2012;86:8713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that IL-1R signaling is central to the induction of proapoptotic CD8 T cell immunity, including viral clearance and associated tissue injuries in LCMV infection. ..
  64. Murray H, Mitchell Flack M, Zheng H, Ma X. Granzyme-mediated regulation of host defense in the liver in experimental Leishmania donovani infection. Infect Immun. 2015;83:702-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Since gene expression of perforin and granzymes A and B (GzmA and GzmB), cytolytic proteins linked to CD8(+) cell effector function, was enhanced in infected liver tissue, B6 ..
  65. Wang W, Soto H, Oldham E, Buchanan M, Homey B, Catron D, et al. Identification of a novel chemokine (CCL28), which binds CCR10 (GPR2). J Biol Chem. 2000;275:22313-23 pubmed
    ..In vitro, recombinant human CCL28 displays chemotactic activity for resting CD4 or CD8 T cells. ..
  66. Uranga S, Marinova D, Martin C, Pardo J, Aguilo N. Granzyme A Is Expressed in Mouse Lungs during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection but Does Not Contribute to Protection In Vivo. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153028 pubmed publisher
    b>Granzyme A, a serine protease expressed in the granules of cytotoxic T and Natural Killer cells, is involved in the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages...
  67. Louahed J, Kermouni A, Van Snick J, Renauld J. IL-9 induces expression of granzymes and high-affinity IgE receptor in murine T helper clones. J Immunol. 1995;154:5061-70 pubmed
    ..Two of them correspond respectively to granzyme A and granzyme B, two proteases expressed by activated T cells...
  68. Herda S, Raczkowski F, Mittrücker H, Willimsky G, Gerlach K, Kuhl A, et al. The sorting receptor Sortilin exhibits a dual function in exocytic trafficking of interferon-? and granzyme A in T cells. Immunity. 2012;37:854-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In murine Sortilin-deficient cytotoxic T lymphocytes, regulated secretion of granzyme A and cytotoxic killing was enhanced and correlated with increased vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 ..
  69. Pardo J, Gálvez E, Koskinen A, Simon M, Lobigs M, Regner M, et al. Caspase-dependent inhibition of mousepox replication by gzmB. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7512 pubmed publisher
  70. Lee W, Sanz M, Wong C, Hardy P, Salman Dilgimen A, Moriarty T, et al. Invariant natural killer T cells act as an extravascular cytotoxic barrier for joint-invading Lyme Borrelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13936-41 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi in the joint of iNKT cell-deficient mice, and perhaps the greater susceptibility of humans to this pathogen because of fewer iNKT cells in human joints. ..
  71. Velaga S, Ukena S, Dringenberg U, Alter C, Pardo J, Kershaw O, et al. Granzyme A Is Required for Regulatory T-Cell Mediated Prevention of Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0124927 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, granzyme A (GZMA) also showed a significant lower expression at the protein level in Tregs of GvHD patients...
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