Gene Symbol: Gsx2
Description: GS homeobox 2
Alias: Gsh-2, Gsh2, GS homeobox 2, genetic-screened homeobox 2, genomic screened homeo box 2, homeobox protein GSH-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Gsx2

Top Publications

  1. Ekonomou A, Kazanis I, Malas S, Wood H, Alifragis P, Denaxa M, et al. Neuronal migration and ventral subtype identity in the telencephalon depend on SOX1. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e186 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggest that other SOXB1 members showing expression in specific neuronal populations are likely to play continuous roles from the establishment of precursors to their final differentiation. ..
  2. Costa M, Kessaris N, Richardson W, Gotz M, Hedin Pereira C. The marginal zone/layer I as a novel niche for neurogenesis and gliogenesis in developing cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2007;27:11376-88 pubmed
  3. Valerius M, Li H, Stock J, Weinstein M, Kaur S, Singh G, et al. Gsh-1: a novel murine homeobox gene expressed in the central nervous system. Dev Dyn. 1995;203:337-51 pubmed
    ..Moreover, through the use of fusion proteins containing the Gsh-1 homeodomain, we have determined the consensus DNA binding site of the Gsh-1 homeoprotein to be GCT/CA/CATTAG/A. ..
  4. Waclaw R, Wang B, Pei Z, Ehrman L, Campbell K. Distinct temporal requirements for the homeobox gene Gsx2 in specifying striatal and olfactory bulb neuronal fates. Neuron. 2009;63:451-65 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox gene Gsx2 (formerly Gsh2) is known to be required for striatal and olfactory bulb neurogenesis; however, its specific role in the specification of these two neuronal subtypes remains unclear...
  5. Wang B, Waclaw R, Allen Z, Guillemot F, Campbell K. Ascl1 is a required downstream effector of Gsx gene function in the embryonic mouse telencephalon. Neural Dev. 2009;4:5 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox gene Gsx2 (formerly Gsh2) is known to regulate patterning in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) of the embryonic telencephalon...
  6. Szucsik J, Witte D, Li H, Pixley S, Small K, Potter S. Altered forebrain and hindbrain development in mice mutant for the Gsh-2 homeobox gene. Dev Biol. 1997;191:230-42 pubmed
  7. Yun K, Potter S, Rubenstein J. Gsh2 and Pax6 play complementary roles in dorsoventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon. Development. 2001;128:193-205 pubmed
    ..The early expression of the Pax6 and Gsh2 homeobox transcription factors overlaps in the region of the dLGE...
  8. Toresson H, Campbell K. A role for Gsh1 in the developing striatum and olfactory bulb of Gsh2 mutant mice. Development. 2001;128:4769-80 pubmed
    We have examined the role of the two closely related homeobox genes Gsh1 and Gsh2, in the development of the striatum and the olfactory bulb...
  9. Kriks S, Lanuza G, Mizuguchi R, Nakafuku M, Goulding M. Gsh2 is required for the repression of Ngn1 and specification of dorsal interneuron fate in the spinal cord. Development. 2005;132:2991-3002 pubmed
    ..The homeodomain transcription factor Gsh2 is expressed in the progenitors of three dorsal interneuron subtypes, dI3, dI4 and dI5 neurons, whereas Gsh1 is ..

More Information


  1. Carney R, Cocas L, Hirata T, Mansfield K, Corbin J. Differential regulation of telencephalic pallial-subpallial boundary patterning by Pax6 and Gsh2. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:745-59 pubmed publisher
    ..embryonic telencephalon, the pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB) separates the dorsal Pax6+ pallium from the ventral Gsh2+ subpallium...
  2. Urbán N, Martín Ibáñez R, Herranz C, Esgleas M, Crespo E, Pardo M, et al. Nolz1 promotes striatal neurogenesis through the regulation of retinoic acid signaling. Neural Dev. 2010;5:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we find that Gsx2, which is necessary for normal RA signaling during LGE development, is also required for Nolz1 expression, which is ..
  3. Hsieh Li H, Witte D, Szucsik J, Weinstein M, Li H, Potter S. Gsh-2, a murine homeobox gene expressed in the developing brain. Mech Dev. 1995;50:177-86 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a random oligonucleotide selection and PCR amplification procedure was used to define a target DNA binding sequence, CNAATTAG, as a first step towards the identification of downstream target genes. ..
  4. Carney R, Alfonso T, Cohen D, Dai H, Nery S, Stoica B, et al. Cell migration along the lateral cortical stream to the developing basal telencephalic limbic system. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11562-74 pubmed
    ..timing, composition, migratory modes, origin, and requirement of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Gsh2 (genomic screened homeobox 2) in the development of this prominent migratory stream...
  5. Stenman J, Yu R, Evans R, Campbell K. Tlx and Pax6 co-operate genetically to establish the pallio-subpallial boundary in the embryonic mouse telencephalon. Development. 2003;130:1113-22 pubmed
    ..This correlates well with the malformation of the lateral and basolateral amygdala in Tlx mutants, both of which have been suggested to derive from ventral portions of the pallium. ..
  6. Waclaw R, Wang B, Campbell K. The homeobox gene Gsh2 is required for retinoid production in the embryonic mouse telencephalon. Development. 2004;131:4013-20 pubmed
    We have examined the role of the homeobox gene Gsh2 in retinoid production and signaling within the ventral telencephalon of mouse embryos...
  7. Haubst N, Berger J, Radjendirane V, Graw J, Favor J, Saunders G, et al. Molecular dissection of Pax6 function: the specific roles of the paired domain and homeodomain in brain development. Development. 2004;131:6131-40 pubmed
    ..These results therefore demonstrate a key role of the PD in brain development and implicate splicing as a pivotal factor regulating the potent neurogenic role of Pax6. ..
  8. Toresson H, Potter S, Campbell K. Genetic control of dorsal-ventral identity in the telencephalon: opposing roles for Pax6 and Gsh2. Development. 2000;127:4361-71 pubmed
    ..The respective roles of Pax6 and Gsh2 in cortical and striatal development were studied in single and double loss-of-function mouse mutants...
  9. Zhou L, Bar I, Achouri Y, Campbell K, De Backer O, Hebert J, et al. Early forebrain wiring: genetic dissection using conditional Celsr3 mutant mice. Science. 2008;320:946-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide in vivo evidence that Celsr3-mediated interactions between axons and guidepost cells govern axonal tract formation in mammals. ..
  10. Waclaw R, Allen Z, Bell S, Erdelyi F, Szabo G, Potter S, et al. The zinc finger transcription factor Sp8 regulates the generation and diversity of olfactory bulb interneurons. Neuron. 2006;49:503-16 pubmed
  11. Corbin J, Gaiano N, Machold R, Langston A, Fishell G. The Gsh2 homeodomain gene controls multiple aspects of telencephalic development. Development. 2000;127:5007-20 pubmed
    ..One of these genes is Gsh2, whose expression in the forebrain is restricted to the ventral domain...
  12. Stenman J, Toresson H, Campbell K. Identification of two distinct progenitor populations in the lateral ganglionic eminence: implications for striatal and olfactory bulb neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2003;23:167-74 pubmed
    ..In support of this, mice mutant for the homeobox genes Gsh2 and Gsh1/2, which show olfactory bulb defects, exhibit dramatically reduced numbers of Er81-positive cells in the ..
  13. Kuerbitz J, Arnett M, Ehrman S, Williams M, Vorhees C, Fisher S, et al. Loss of Intercalated Cells (ITCs) in the Mouse Amygdala of Tshz1 Mutants Correlates with Fear, Depression, and Social Interaction Phenotypes. J Neurosci. 2018;38:1160-1177 pubmed publisher
  14. Chen Y, Magnani D, Theil T, Pratt T, Price D. Evidence that descending cortical axons are essential for thalamocortical axons to cross the pallial-subpallial boundary in the embryonic forebrain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that thalamic axons grow from subpallium to cortex guided by cortical efferents, with stimulation from diffusible cortical growth-promoting factors. ..
  15. Gregg C, Weiss S. CNTF/LIF/gp130 receptor complex signaling maintains a VZ precursor differentiation gradient in the developing ventral forebrain. Development. 2005;132:565-78 pubmed
    ..Analysis of Lifr-/- mice suggests that CNTF/LIF/gp130 signaling maintains a subpopulation of GSH2+ VZ precursors, which are necessary for normal growth of the early ventral forebrain and for maintaining a gradient ..
  16. Cocas L, Georgala P, Mangin J, Clegg J, Kessaris N, Haydar T, et al. Pax6 is required at the telencephalic pallial-subpallial boundary for the generation of neuronal diversity in the postnatal limbic system. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The PSB is formed at the molecular interface between the pallial (high Pax6+) and subpallial (high Gsx2+) ventricular zone (VZ) compartments...
  17. Corbin J, Rutlin M, Gaiano N, Fishell G. Combinatorial function of the homeodomain proteins Nkx2.1 and Gsh2 in ventral telencephalic patterning. Development. 2003;130:4895-906 pubmed
    ..of the mammalian telencephalon requires the function of three homeodomain-containing transcription factors, Pax6, Gsh2 and Nkx2.1...
  18. Visel A, Taher L, Girgis H, May D, Golonzhka O, Hoch R, et al. A high-resolution enhancer atlas of the developing telencephalon. Cell. 2013;152:895-908 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a primary resource for investigating gene regulatory mechanisms of telencephalon development and enable studies of the role of distant-acting enhancers in neurodevelopmental disorders. ..
  19. Dauwerse J, de Die Smulders C, Bakker E, Breuning M, Peters D. Heterozygous truncating mutation in the human homeobox gene GSH2 has no discernable phenotypic effect. J Med Genet. 2002;39:686-8 pubmed
  20. Xu Q, Guo L, Moore H, Waclaw R, Campbell K, Anderson S. Sonic hedgehog signaling confers ventral telencephalic progenitors with distinct cortical interneuron fates. Neuron. 2010;65:328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..SHH signaling prevents the upregulation of GSX2 and conversion of some MGE progenitors to a caudal ganglionic eminence-like, bipolar calretinin-expressing cell ..
  21. Fogarty M, Grist M, Gelman D, Marin O, Pachnis V, Kessaris N. Spatial genetic patterning of the embryonic neuroepithelium generates GABAergic interneuron diversity in the adult cortex. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10935-46 pubmed
    ..are generated outside the MGE, from the germinal zones of the lateral/caudal ganglionic eminences that express Gsh2 (genomic screened homeobox 2)...
  22. Backman M, Machon O, Mygland L, van den Bout C, Zhong W, Taketo M, et al. Effects of canonical Wnt signaling on dorso-ventral specification of the mouse telencephalon. Dev Biol. 2005;279:155-68 pubmed downregulated expression of dorsal markers Emx1, Emx2 and Ngn2, and in ectopic up-regulation of ventral markers Gsh2, Mash1 and Dlx2 in the pallium. In contrast, ablation of ss-catenin after the onset of cortical neurogenesis (E11...
  23. Vergaño Vera E, Méndez Gómez H, Hurtado Chong A, Cigudosa J, Vicario Abejón C. Fibroblast growth factor-2 increases the expression of neurogenic genes and promotes the migration and differentiation of neurons derived from transplanted neural stem/progenitor cells. Neuroscience. 2009;162:39-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the migration and maturation of neurons derived from transplanted NSC can be promoted by upregulating neurogenic gene expression with FGF-2. ..
  24. Bröhl D, Strehle M, Wende H, Hori K, Bormuth I, Nave K, et al. A transcriptional network coordinately determines transmitter and peptidergic fate in the dorsal spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2008;322:381-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a transcriptional network operates in maturing dorsal horn neurons that coordinately determines transmitter and peptidergic fate. ..
  25. Chen L, Melendez J, Campbell K, Kuan C, Zheng Y. Rac1 deficiency in the forebrain results in neural progenitor reduction and microcephaly. Dev Biol. 2009;325:162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that Rac1 regulates self-renewal, survival, and differentiation of telencephalic neural progenitors, and that dysfunctions of Rac1 may lead to primary microcephaly. ..
  26. Zechner D, Muller T, Wende H, Walther I, Taketo M, Crenshaw E, et al. Bmp and Wnt/beta-catenin signals control expression of the transcription factor Olig3 and the specification of spinal cord neurons. Dev Biol. 2007;303:181-90 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Wnt/beta-catenin and BMP signals coordinately control the specification of dorsal neurons in the spinal cord. ..
  27. Merchan Sala P, Nardini D, Waclaw R, Campbell K. Selective neuronal expression of the SoxE factor, Sox8, in direct pathway striatal projection neurons of the developing mouse brain. J Comp Neurol. 2017;525:2805-2819 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Sox8 represents an early and specific marker of embryonic dSPNs and the Sox8-EGFP BAC transgenic mice are an excellent tool to study the development of basal ganglia circuitry. ..
  28. Sun J, Rockowitz S, Xie Q, Ashery Padan R, Zheng D, Cvekl A. Identification of in vivo DNA-binding mechanisms of Pax6 and reconstruction of Pax6-dependent gene regulatory networks during forebrain and lens development. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:6827-46 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Dmrta1 and Ngn2) and repression (e.g. Ascl1, Fezf2, and Gsx2) of transcription factors...
  29. Martinelli D, Fan C. Gas1 extends the range of Hedgehog action by facilitating its signaling. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1231-43 pubmed
    ..Our data support a model in which GAS1 helps transform the Hedgehog protein gradient into the observed activity gradient. We propose that Gas1 is an evolutionarily novel, vertebrate-specific Hedgehog pathway regulator. ..
  30. Qin S, Madhavan M, Waclaw R, Nakafuku M, Campbell K. Characterization of a new Gsx2-cre line in the developing mouse telencephalon. Genesis. 2016;54:542-549 pubmed publisher
    ..e., hs687 and hs678) upstream of the homeobox gene Gsx2 (formerly Gsh2), a critical gene for establishing lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) identity...
  31. van den Berghe V, Stappers E, Vandesande B, Dimidschstein J, Kroes R, Francis A, et al. Directed migration of cortical interneurons depends on the cell-autonomous action of Sip1. Neuron. 2013;77:70-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that Sip1, through tuning of Unc5b levels, is essential for cortical interneuron guidance. ..
  32. Waclaw R, Ehrman L, Pierani A, Campbell K. Developmental origin of the neuronal subtypes that comprise the amygdalar fear circuit in the mouse. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6944-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Germ-line Gsx2 mutants are known to exhibit an expansion of the VP into the LGE and a concomitant reduction in the dLGE and vLGE...
  33. Qin S, Ware S, Waclaw R, Campbell K. Septal contributions to olfactory bulb interneuron diversity in the embryonic mouse telencephalon: role of the homeobox gene Gsx2. Neural Dev. 2017;12:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, to address the regional (i.e. septal) requirements of the homeobox gene Gsx2 for OB interneuron diversity, we conditionally inactivated Gsx2 in the septum, leaving it largely intact in the ..
  34. Cocas L, Miyoshi G, Carney R, Sousa V, Hirata T, Jones K, et al. Emx1-lineage progenitors differentially contribute to neural diversity in the striatum and amygdala. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15933-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, both the timing of neurogenesis and differential combinatorial gene expression appear to be key determinants of striatal versus amygdala fate decisions of Emx1-lineage cells. ..
  35. Yu W, Wang Y, McDonnell K, Stephen D, Bai C. Patterning of ventral telencephalon requires positive function of Gli transcription factors. Dev Biol. 2009;334:264-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies unravel a role for Gli transcription factors in mediating Shh signaling to control specification, differentiation and positioning of ventral telencephalic neurons. ..
  36. Vergaño Vera E, Yusta Boyo M, De Castro F, Bernad A, de Pablo F, Vicario Abejón C. Generation of GABAergic and dopaminergic interneurons from endogenous embryonic olfactory bulb precursor cells. Development. 2006;133:4367-79 pubmed
    ..bulb (OB) interneurons arise in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) from precursor cells expressing Dlx2, Gsh2 and Er81 transcription factors...
  37. Danjo T, Eiraku M, Muguruma K, Watanabe K, Kawada M, Yanagawa Y, et al. Subregional specification of embryonic stem cell-derived ventral telencephalic tissues by timed and combinatory treatment with extrinsic signals. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1919-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss a model of the antagonistic Fgf8 and Fgf15/19 signaling in rostral-caudal subpallial patterning and compare it with the roles of these molecules in cortical patterning...
  38. Martín Ibáñez R, Pardo M, Giralt A, Miguez A, Guardia I, Marion Poll L, et al. Helios expression coordinates the development of a subset of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons. Development. 2017;144:1566-1577 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that He is involved in the correct development of a subset of striatopallidal MSNs and reveal new cellular mechanisms for neuronal development. ..
  39. Ehrman L, Mu X, Waclaw R, Yoshida Y, Vorhees C, Klein W, et al. The LIM homeobox gene Isl1 is required for the correct development of the striatonigral pathway in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4026-35 pubmed publisher
  40. Walcher T, Xie Q, Sun J, Irmler M, Beckers J, Oztürk T, et al. Functional dissection of the paired domain of Pax6 reveals molecular mechanisms of coordinating neurogenesis and proliferation. Development. 2013;140:1123-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Pax6 achieves its key roles in the developing forebrain by utilizing particular subdomains to coordinate patterning, neurogenesis and proliferation simultaneously. ..
  41. Huang X, Litingtung Y, Chiang C. Region-specific requirement for cholesterol modification of sonic hedgehog in patterning the telencephalon and spinal cord. Development. 2007;134:2095-105 pubmed
  42. Rallu M, Machold R, Gaiano N, Corbin J, McMahon A, Fishell G. Dorsoventral patterning is established in the telencephalon of mutants lacking both Gli3 and Hedgehog signaling. Development. 2002;129:4963-74 pubmed
    ..This analysis revealed that the expression of a subset of ventral telencephalic markers, including Dlx2 and Gsh2, although greatly diminished, persist in Shh(-/-) mutants, and that these same markers were expanded in Gli3(-/-) ..
  43. Xu Q, Wonders C, Anderson S. Sonic hedgehog maintains the identity of cortical interneuron progenitors in the ventral telencephalon. Development. 2005;132:4987-98 pubmed
    ..These results combine in vitro and ex vivo analyses to link embryonic abnormalities in Shh signaling to postnatal alterations in cortical interneuron composition. ..
  44. Chapman H, Waclaw R, Pei Z, Nakafuku M, Campbell K. The homeobox gene Gsx2 controls the timing of oligodendroglial fate specification in mouse lateral ganglionic eminence progenitors. Development. 2013;140:2289-98 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox gene Gsx2 has previously been shown to be required for the specification of distinct neuronal subtypes derived from lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) progenitors at specific embryonic time points...
  45. Kohli V, Nardini D, Ehrman L, Waclaw R. Characterization of Glcci1 expression in a subpopulation of lateral ganglionic eminence progenitors in the mouse telencephalon. Dev Dyn. 2018;247:222-228 pubmed publisher
    ..The homeobox gene, Gsx2, is an enriched marker of the LGE and is expressed in a high dorsal to low ventral gradient in the ventricular zone ..
  46. Mizuguchi R, Kriks S, Cordes R, Gossler A, Ma Q, Goulding M. Ascl1 and Gsh1/2 control inhibitory and excitatory cell fate in spinal sensory interneurons. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:770-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that this switch in Ascl1 function enables the cogeneration of inhibitory and excitatory sensory interneurons from a common pool of dorsal progenitors. ..
  47. Pachikara A, Dolson D, Martinu L, Riccomagno M, Jeong Y, Epstein D. Activation of Class I transcription factors by low level Sonic hedgehog signaling is mediated by Gli2-dependent and independent mechanisms. Dev Biol. 2007;305:52-62 pubmed
  48. Zhong J, Kim H, Lyu J, Yoshikawa K, Nakafuku M, Lu W. The Wnt receptor Ryk controls specification of GABAergic neurons versus oligodendrocytes during telencephalon development. Development. 2011;138:409-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify Ryk as a multi-functional receptor that is able to transduce extrinsic cues into progenitor cells, promote GABAergic neuron formation, and inhibit oligodendrogenesis during ventral embryonic brain development. ..
  49. Pei Z, Wang B, Chen G, Nagao M, Nakafuku M, Campbell K. Homeobox genes Gsx1 and Gsx2 differentially regulate telencephalic progenitor maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1675-80 pubmed publisher
    Homeobox genes Gsx1 and Gsx2 (formerly Gsh1 and Gsh2) are among the earliest transcription factors expressed in neuronal progenitors of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) in the ventral telencephalon...
  50. Nandi S, Gutin G, Blackwood C, Kamatkar N, Lee K, Fishell G, et al. FGF-Dependent, Context-Driven Role for FRS Adapters in the Early Telencephalon. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5690-5698 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential engagement of FRS and non-FRS intracellular adapters downstream of FGFRs could therefore in principle explain how FGFs play several distinct roles in other developing tissues and developmental stages. ..
  51. Oishi K, Watatani K, Itoh Y, Okano H, Guillemot F, Nakajima K, et al. Selective induction of neocortical GABAergic neurons by the PDK1-Akt pathway through activation of Mash1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have unveiled an unexpected role of the PDK1-Akt pathway: a key mediator of extracellular signals regulating the production of neocortical GABAergic neurons. ..
  52. Ashique A, Choe Y, Karlen M, May S, Phamluong K, Solloway M, et al. The Rfx4 transcription factor modulates Shh signaling by regional control of ciliogenesis. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Rfx4 is a regionally specific transcriptional regulator of ciliogenesis and thus is also a regionally specific modulator of Shh signaling during development of the central nervous system. ..
  53. Parras C, Hunt C, Sugimori M, Nakafuku M, Rowitch D, Guillemot F. The proneural gene Mash1 specifies an early population of telencephalic oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4233-42 pubmed
  54. Huang X, Litingtung Y, Chiang C. Ectopic sonic hedgehog signaling impairs telencephalic dorsal midline development: implication for human holoprosencephaly. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1454-68 pubmed
    ..We propose that elevated ectopic Shh signaling can impair dorsal telencephalic midline morphogenesis, and lead to non-cleavage of midline structures mimicking human HPE with dorsal midline defects. ..
  55. Jacquet B, Muthusamy N, Sommerville L, Xiao G, Liang H, Zhang Y, et al. Specification of a Foxj1-dependent lineage in the forebrain is required for embryonic-to-postnatal transition of neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9368-82 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, our study identifies the time- and region-specific activity of a perinatal progenitor domain that is required for transition and progression of OB neurogenesis from the embryonic-to-postnatal periods. ..
  56. Martynoga B, Morrison H, Price D, Mason J. Foxg1 is required for specification of ventral telencephalon and region-specific regulation of dorsal telencephalic precursor proliferation and apoptosis. Dev Biol. 2005;283:113-27 pubmed
  57. Taglialatela P, Soria J, Caironi V, Moiana A, Bertuzzi S. Compromised generation of GABAergic interneurons in the brains of Vax1-/- mice. Development. 2004;131:4239-49 pubmed
  58. Machold R, Hayashi S, Rutlin M, Muzumdar M, Nery S, Corbin J, et al. Sonic hedgehog is required for progenitor cell maintenance in telencephalic stem cell niches. Neuron. 2003;39:937-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required to maintain progenitor cells in the postnatal telencephalon. ..
  59. Rosanas Urgell A, Marfany G, Garcia Fernandez J. Pdx1-related homeodomain transcription factors are distinctly expressed in mouse adult pancreatic islets. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;237:59-66 pubmed
    ..and immunodetection, we have found that the rest of ParaHox cluster genes, Cdx1, Cdx2/3, and Cdx4, and Gsh1 and Gsh2, are all expressed in specific islet cell types of the endocrine pancreas...
  60. Wildner H, Muller T, Cho S, Bröhl D, Cepko C, Guillemot F, et al. dILA neurons in the dorsal spinal cord are the product of terminal and non-terminal asymmetric progenitor cell divisions, and require Mash1 for their development. Development. 2006;133:2105-13 pubmed
    ..Our data allow us to assign to Mash1 a function in asymmetric cell divisions, and indicate that the factor coordinates cell cycle exit and specification in the one daughter that gives rise to a dILA neuron. ..
  61. Pelling M, Anthwal N, McNay D, Gradwohl G, Leiter A, Guillemot F, et al. Differential requirements for neurogenin 3 in the development of POMC and NPY neurons in the hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2011;349:406-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the opposing roles of POMC and NPY neurons in regulating food intake, these results indicate that Ngn3 plays a central role in the generation of neuronal populations controlling energy homeostasis in mice. ..
  62. Tucker E, Segall S, Gopalakrishna D, Wu Y, Vernon M, Polleux F, et al. Molecular specification and patterning of progenitor cells in the lateral and medial ganglionic eminences. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9504-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, extrinsic and intrinsic forebrain patterning mechanisms cooperate to establish LGE and MGE progenitor identity, and presumably their capacities to generate distinct classes of neuronal progeny. ..
  63. Schock E, Brugmann S. Neural crest cells utilize primary cilia to regulate ventral forebrain morphogenesis via Hedgehog-dependent regulation of oriented cell division. Dev Biol. 2017;431:168-178 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest a novel, cilia-dependent mechanism for NCCs during forebrain development. ..
  64. Muzio L, Mallamaci A. Emx1, emx2 and pax6 in specification, regionalization and arealization of the cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2003;13:641-7 pubmed
  65. López Juárez A, Howard J, Ullom K, Howard L, Grande A, Pardo A, et al. Gsx2 controls region-specific activation of neural stem cells and injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult subventricular zone. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1272-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the homeodomain transcription factor Gsx2 plays a crucial role in the region-specific control of adult NSCs in both persistent and injury-induced ..
  66. Le Dreau G, Garcia Campmany L, Rabadán M, Ferronha T, Tozer S, Briscoe J, et al. Canonical BMP7 activity is required for the generation of discrete neuronal populations in the dorsal spinal cord. Development. 2012;139:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish a novel role for BMP7 in primary neurogenesis, the process by which a neural progenitor exits the cell cycle and enters the terminal differentiation pathway. ..
  67. Vallstedt A, Klos J, Ericson J. Multiple dorsoventral origins of oligodendrocyte generation in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Neuron. 2005;45:55-67 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that oligodendrocytes derive from several distinct positional origins and that the activation of Olig1/2 at different positions is controlled by distinct genetic programs. ..
  68. Manuel M, Martynoga B, Yu T, West J, Mason J, Price D. The transcription factor Foxg1 regulates the competence of telencephalic cells to adopt subpallial fates in mice. Development. 2010;137:487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that, in addition to regulating the production of ventralising signals, Foxg1 acts cell-autonomously in the telencephalon to ensure that cells develop the competence to adopt ventral identities. ..
  69. Chou S, Perez Garcia C, Kroll T, O Leary D. Lhx2 specifies regional fate in Emx1 lineage of telencephalic progenitors generating cerebral cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1381-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a genetic mechanism for determining regional-fate in the Emx1 lineage of telencephalic progenitors that generate cerebral cortex. ..